Lexus is the luxury vehicle division of the Japanese automaker Toyota. The Lexus brand is marketed in more than 70 countries and territories worldwide and has become Japan's largest-selling make of premium cars, it has ranked among the 10 largest Japanese global brands in market value. Lexus is headquartered in Japan. Operational centers are located in Brussels and the U. S. in Plano, Texas. Lexus originated from a corporate project to develop a new premium sedan, code-named F1, which began in 1983 and culminated in the launch of the Lexus LS in 1989. Subsequently, the division added coupé, convertible and SUV models. Lexus did not exist as a brand in its home market until 2005, all vehicles marketed internationally as Lexus from 1989 to 2005 were released in Japan under the Toyota marque and an equivalent model name. In 2005, a hybrid version of the RX crossover debuted and additional hybrid models joined the division's lineup. Lexus launched its own F marque performance division in 2007 with the debut of the IS F sport sedan, followed by the LFA supercar in 2009.
Lexus vehicles are produced in Japan, with manufacturing centered in the Chūbu and Kyūshū regions, in particular at Toyota's Tahara, Aichi, Chūbu and Miyata, Fukuoka, Kyūshū plants. Assembly of the first Lexus built outside the country, the Ontario-produced RX 330, began in 2003. Following a corporate reorganization from 2001 to 2005, Lexus began operation of its own design and manufacturing centers. Since the 2000s, Lexus has increased sales outside the United States; the division inaugurated dealerships in the Japanese domestic market in 2005, becoming the first Japanese premium car marque to launch in its country of origin. The brand was introduced in Southeast Asia, Latin America and other regions; the brand was created around the same time as Japanese rivals Nissan and Honda developed their Infiniti and Acura premium brands. The Japanese government imposed voluntary export restraints for the U. S. market, so it was more profitable for Japanese automakers to export more expensive cars to the U.
S. In 1983, Toyota chairman Eiji Toyoda issued a challenge to build the world's best car; the project, code-named F1 developed the Lexus LS 400 to expand Toyota's product line in the premium segment. The F1 project followed the premium Toyota Mark II models. Both the Supra and Mark II were rear-wheel drive cars with a powerful 7M-GE or 7M-GTE inline-six engine; the largest sedan Toyota built at the time was the limited-production, 1960s-vintage Toyota Century, a domestic, hand-built limousine, V8-powered model, followed by the inline-six-engined Toyota Crown premium sedan. The Century was conservatively styled for the Japanese market and along with the Crown not slated for export after a restyle in 1982; the F1 designers targeted their new sedan at international markets and began development on a new V8 engine. Japanese manufacturers exported more expensive models in the 1980s due to voluntary export restraints negotiated by the Japanese government and U. S. trade representatives. In 1986, Honda launched its Acura marque in the U.
S. influencing Toyota's plans for a luxury division. The initial Acura model was an export version of the Honda Legend, itself launched in Japan in 1985 as a rival to the Toyota Crown, Nissan Cedric/Gloria and Mazda Luce. In 1987, Nissan unveiled its plans for a premium brand and revised its Nissan President sedan in standard wheelbase form for export as the Infiniti Q45, which it launched in 1990. Mazda began selling the Luce as the Mazda 929 in North America in 1988 and began plans to develop an upscale marque to be called Amati, but its plans did not come to fruition. Toyota researchers visited the U. S. in May 1985 to conduct focus groups and market research on luxury consumers. During that time, several F1 designers rented a home in Laguna Beach, California, to observe the lifestyles and tastes of American upper class consumers. Meanwhile, F1 engineering teams conducted prototype testing on locations ranging from the German autobahn to U. S. roads. Toyota's market research concluded that a separate brand and sales channel were needed to present its new sedan, plans were made to develop a new network of dealerships in the U.
S. market. In 1986, Toyota's longtime advertising agency Saatchi & Saatchi formed a specialized unit, Team One, to handle marketing for the new brand. Image consulting firm Lippincott & Margulies was hired to develop a list of 219 prospective names. While Alexis became the front runner, concerns were raised that the name applied to people more than cars; as a result, the first letter was removed and the "i" replaced with a "u" to morph the name to Lexus. Theories of the etymology of the Lexus name have suggested it is the combination of the words "luxury" and "elegance," and that it is an acronym for "luxury exports to the U. S." According to Team One interviews, the brand name has no specific meaning and denotes a luxurious and technological image. Prior to the release of the first vehicles, database service LexisNexis obtained a temporary injunction forbidding the name Lexus from being used because it might cause product confusion; the injunction threatened to delay the division's marketing efforts.
The U. S. appeals court lifted the injunction, deciding that there was little likelihood of confusion between the two products. The original Lexus slogan, developed after Team One representatives visited Lexus designers in Japan and noted an obsessive attention to detail, became "The
Douglas L. Hoffman is an American businessman and former congressional candidate, he was the Conservative Party candidate for the U. S. House of Representatives in the 2009 special election for New York's 23rd congressional district. On November 3, 2009, he was narrowly defeated by Democratic candidate Bill Owens. Hoffman ran for the same seat in Congress in 2010, but lost the Republican primary and withdrew his candidacy. Hoffman's 2009 campaign received extensive support from the Tea Party movement and gained national attention because of his success in drawing grassroots support away from Republican candidate Dede Scozzafava, who dropped out of the race before Election Day. Born in Connecticut, Hoffman is the second of four children of Eugene J. Hoffman. Hoffman's parents divorced during his early life, he graduated from Saranac Lake High School. In 1973, he received a bachelor's degree in accounting from SUNY Plattsburgh. Hoffman moved to Hartford, Connecticut. During the Vietnam War, Hoffman served in the New York National Guard and was a staff sergeant in the United States Army Reserve.
Following his college graduation, Hoffman earned a Master of Business Administration degree from the University of Connecticut in 1976 and was accredited as a certified public accountant. In 1977, Hoffman and his family moved back to the North Country. Hoffman served as controller for the Lake Placid Olympic Organizing Committee for the 1980 Winter Olympics. Hoffman stated that the 1980 Olympics created jobs and infrastructure that were still driving the area's economy 30 years later. At the time of his 2009 congressional campaign, Hoffman served as managing partner at Dragon Benware Crowley & Co. In addition, he helped to lead Hoffman Family Enterprises, "a group of 13 companies ranging from investment and real estate firms to hospitality and tourism ventures". Hoffman and his wife resided in Lake Placid. After Republican Rep. John McHugh resigned from Congress to serve as Secretary of the Army, the Republican Party chose New York State Assemblywoman Dede Scozzafava as its candidate in the ensuing special election to fill the vacated seat.
Hoffman had sought the Republican nod, after Scozzafava was chosen, he congratulated her and offered his help. On August 7, 2009, the Conservative Party of New York opted to nominate Hoffman for Congress after three other potential candidates said they would support him, despite the fact that Hoffman did not live in the district; the Conservative Party declined to support Scozzafava, described by Party Chairman Michael R. Long as a "nice lady, too liberal"; the Democratic Party chose Bill Owens as its candidate. The race attracted attention across the country because of Hoffman's Tea Party affiliation and because of the large amount of support Hoffman received from the national conservative base despite Hoffman's status as a third-party candidate. Hoffman described himself as a "Reagan conservative," expressing opposition to same-sex marriage, budget deficits, abortion and support for the war on terror. During the campaign, Hoffman was interviewed by Sean Hannity. Many notable Republicans, including former Vice Presidential nominee Sarah Palin, endorsed Hoffman because they deemed Scozzafava insufficiently conservative and ideologically indistinguishable from the Democrat.
To illustrate this point, the Hoffman campaign ran television advertisements depicting Scozzafava and Owens as "two peas in a liberal pod." In October, The Atlantic described Hoffman as "the next conservative superstar". Hoffman received support from the Club for Growth, RedState, former House Majority Leader Dick Armey, former U. S. Sen. Fred Thompson, columnist Michelle Malkin. After an October 31 poll showed Scozzafava trailing both Hoffman and Owens by 15% and 16% with her poll numbers collapsing, Scozzafava suspended her campaign on October 31 and endorsed Owens. On Election Day, Owens prevailed over Hoffman. While Hoffman conceded the race, an initial re-canvass resulted in a Hoffman gain of 2,000 votes. Hoffman withdrew his concession on November 17, 2009 and accused the Democratic Party and others of ballot tampering. Jerry O. Eaton, Jefferson County Republican elections commissioner, called Hoffman's assertion "absolutely false". With the tallying of absentee-ballots near completion, on November 20, 2009, Owens' lead over Hoffman surpassed the total number of absentee ballots left, making it mathematically impossible for Hoffman to win.
On November 24, Hoffman ended his campaign. The final election results showed that Owens prevailed by a margin of 48.3% to 46%. The election was alternately described as "a referendum on President Barack Obama" and "a fight over the identity of the Republican Party." The race was noteworthy due to the Tea Party movement influence on its outcome, for its impact on same-sex marriage legislation in New York. One commentator stated that Hoffman's third-party candidacy was "striking for how much it has galvanized the Republican Party's base." According to Marilyn Musgrave of Susan B. Anthony List, "Republican party leaders in Washington should take the message of the campaign and the election that the Party base should not be taken for granted." Hoffman again ran for the House of Representatives in 2010, but was defeated in the Republican primary for New York's 23rd congressional district by Matt Doheny, a businessman and lawyer. On September 23, 2010, Hoffman announced that he would continue his campaign for the congressional seat as the Conservative Party candidate.
However, on October 5
The 1931–32 Toronto Maple Leafs season was Toronto's 15th season in the NHL. The Maple Leafs were coming off their best regular season in team history in 1930–31, the club set team records in wins and points, with 23 and 53 finishing in second place in the Canadian Division. Toronto won three playoff rounds to win the Stanley Cup, first as the Maple Leafs, third in the history of the franchise. Prior to the season, the NHL announced that the schedule would increase from 44 games to 48; the Maple Leafs announced they were moving from the Arena Gardens, their home since entering the NHL in 1917, to the newly constructed Maple Leaf Gardens. Toronto started the season off going win-less in their first five games, which cost head coach Art Duncan his job, he was replaced by former Chicago Black Hawks head coach Dick Irvin. Having to travel from his home in Winnipeg, Irvin joined the club for the December 1 game after Smythe coached the team to their first win of the season against the Boston Bruins.
The hiring of Irvin would pay off as the Leafs got hot and had an 8–3–2 record in his first month behind the bench. The Leafs continued to play good hockey for the remainder of the season, finishing with a team record 23 victories, tying the club record with 53 points. Toronto finished in second place in the Canadian Division, behind the Montreal Canadiens, qualified for the playoffs for the second straight season; the Leafs offense was led by Busher Jackson, who led the NHL with 53 points, scoring 28 goals and added 25 assists in 48 games. Linemate Joe Primeau led the league with 37 assists to finish second to Jackson in league scoring with 50 points. Charlie Conacher posted an NHL high 34 goals, finished fourth in league scoring with 48 points. Defenceman King Clancy anchored the blueline, scoring 10 goals and 19 points, while Red Horner provided the team toughness, getting a club high 97 penalty minutes. In goal, Lorne Chabot had another solid season, winning a team high 22 games while posting a 2.36 GAA and earning four shutouts along the way.
Overseen by Leafs managing director Conn Smythe, the new Maple Leaf Gardens was built in a six-month period during 1931 at a total cost of $1.5 million. The site was purchased from The T. Eaton Co. Ltd. for a price said to be $150,000 below market value. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Macdonald. Construction was funded through a public offering of 7% preferred shares in a new corporation "Maple Leaf Gardens Limited" at $10 each, with a free common share for each five preferred shares purchased. Smythe and the Toronto Maple Leaf Hockey Club Ltd. transferred ownership of the hockey team to the new corporation in return for shares. The contract to construct the building was awarded to Thomson Brothers Construction of Port Credit in Toronto Township. Thomson Bros bid just under $990,000 for the project, the lowest of ten tenders received due to the fact that amongst the Thomson Brothers' various enterprises they had much of the sub contract work covered, others could not compete in this manner.
That price did not include steel work, estimated at an additional $100,000. Construction began at midnight on June 1, 1931. In what is to this day considered to be an outstanding accomplishment, the Gardens was built in under five months and two weeks. W. A. Hewitt, sports editor of the Toronto Star, was hired as general manager to oversee all events other than professional hockey, his son, Foster Hewitt, was hired to run the radio broadcasts. The Gardens opened on November 1931, with the Maple Leafs losing 2 -- 1 to the Chicago Black Hawks. Reported attendance on opening night was 13,542; the Leafs would go on to win their first Stanley Cup that season. Note: W = Wins, L = Losses, T = Ties, GF = Goals For, GA = Goals Against, Pts = Points Teams that qualified for the playoffs are highlighted in bold; the Maple Leafs would open the playoffs against the Chicago Black Hawks in a two-game, total goal series. The Black Hawks had a record of 18–19–11, earning 47 points, finished in second place in the American Division.
The Leafs dropped the opening game by a close 1–0 score at Chicago Stadium, they returned home for the second game, Toronto defeated the Black Hawks 6–1, won the total goal series by a score of 6–2, advancing to the second round of the playoffs. Toronto's next opponent was the Montreal Maroons in total goal series; the Maroons finished behind Toronto in the Canadian Division, as they finished with a 19–22–7 record, registering 43 points. The Maroons defeated the Detroit Falcons in the opening round of the playoffs; the series opened at the Montreal Forum, the game ended in a 1–1 tie. The second game was played at Maple Leaf Gardens, Toronto used home ice to their advantage, defeating the Maroons 3–2 in overtime to win the series 4–3, move to the Stanley Cup finals; the Leafs would play the New York Rangers in a best of 5 series to determine the winner of the 1932 Stanley Cup Finals. The Rangers finished in first place in the American Division with a 23–17–8 record, earning 54 points, they had defeated the Montreal Canadiens in four games to advance to the finals.
The series opened at Madison Square Garden in New York, however, it was the Leafs who struck first, defeating the Rangers 6–4. The second game of the series was moved from New York to the Boston Garden due to the circus having been booked for the Rangers home arena. Toronto took full advantage of this, defeated the Rangers 6–2 to come within a victory of the Stanley Cup; the series moved to Toronto for the third game, Toronto completed the sweep, defeating New York 6–4, winning their third Stanley Cup in team history, and
Vasili Vladimirovich Pukirev (Russian: Василий Владимирович Пукирев. He was born to a peasant family and was apprenticed to an icon painter in Mogilev. By sheer luck, he was able to enroll at the Moscow School of Painting and Architecture, where he studied from 1847 to 1858 under the direction of Sergey Zaryanko and Apollon Mokritsky. After 1850, he was certified to serve as an art teacher in the public schools. In 1855 he was awarded the title of "Artist" and, in 1858, became a "Free Artist". In 1860, he became an "Academician" for portrait painting, he settled in an apartment near the MSPSA and taught there through 1873. In 1862 and 1864, he was able to travel abroad to "view art galleries" under the sponsorship of the Moscow Society of Art Lovers. In 1869, he collaborated with Alexei Savrasov to prepare a drawing course for use in the public schools. In addition to his paintings, he created icons and illustrations for the works of Gogol and Turgenev. Four years he was forced to give up teaching due to poor health.
In 1879, his fellow artists got together to provide him with a modest pension, but he died in poverty and nearly forgotten in 1890. His best known painting is "The Unequal Marriage". Pukirev appears at the far right of the canvas, giving rise to the story that it represented an episode of lost love in his own life. In 1863, on the basis of this work, he was named an honorary Professor at the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, it spawned a heated debate in the press, with his supporters praising it for presenting a serious theme from modern life, unlike the usual genre scenes, which tended to be nostalgic or sentimental. It is on display at the Tretyakov Gallery. Biography and extensive list of paintings from the Russian Biographical Dictionary @ Russian WikiSource. "The Unequal Marriage" an appreciation of the painting at "Zhivopis". "The Unequal Marriage" a video presentation by the Tretyakov Gallery @ YouTube
The United Episcopal Church of North America is an Anglican church, part of the Continuing Anglican movement. It is not part of the Anglican Communion; the UECNA describes itself as "embracing the broad base of ceremonial practice inherent in the Historic Anglican Communion" although the UECNA has tended to be low or broad church in its ceremonial practice. The UECNA uses the 1928 Book of Common Prayer in the US and, in Canada, the 1962 edition of the Canadian Prayer Book. Use of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer is permitted; the changes in The Episcopal Church and the Anglican Church of Canada that the UECNA and other continuing churches objected to include the theology of the newer versions of the Book of Common Prayer such as The Episcopal Church's 1979 edition, the ordination of women, attitudes toward divorce and abortion, differing interpretations of how the authority of scripture is perceived. They object to more recent innovations such as the ordination of homosexual clergy, but these were not at issue when they broke with the Episcopal Church.
The origins of the United Episcopal Church of North America lie with the Congress of St. Louis in September 1977, with Charles D. D. Doren, the first bishop consecrated for the Anglican Church of North America – called the Anglican Catholic Church. Doren had been elected bishop of the Diocese of the Midwest following the St. Louis meeting, was consecrated on 28 January 1978 by Albert A. Chambers, acting bishop of the ACNA, Francisco Pagtakhan. Letters of consent were received from bishops Mark Pae of Taejon and Charles Boynton Assistant Bishop of New York, he was translated to the Diocese of the Mid-Atlantic states in 1979, but he soon backed away from active participation in the Anglican Catholic Church. He was alienated by the numerous constitution and canonical revisions undertaken in 1978-1981 and by the "stained glass ceiling" which kept Low Church clergy out of the episcopate, he resigned his diocese at the end of 1980. Parallel to Doren's departure from active episcopal ministry in the ACC, three parishes sympathetic to Doren's concerns left the Anglican Catholic Church, set about the task of forming a new body.
This led to the creation of the United Episcopal Church of North America at a meeting held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in October 1981. The standing committee of the new jurisdiction invited Doren to be its first bishop and, the first archbishop. In more recent years, the church has described itself as representing the Broad/Central and Low Church traditions, but it has one or two parishes from the Anglo-Catholic tradition; the church's constitution and canons are modeled on the PECUSA's 1958 code with some amendments, including provisions for the establishment of dioceses in Canada, more specific direction is given as to the circumstances in which the jurisdiction will consecrate bishops for overseas. The last major revision of the UECNA canons was made in 1992/1996 with minor amendments being made in 2011 and 2014, a more significant revision in 2017. Under the leadership of archbishops Doren and Knight, the UECNA grew to forty congregations. In 1988–1990 these were divided between the Diocese of the Ohio Valley and at least three missionary districts - West and East.
So far this has represented the high-water mark of the church's prosperity. The UECNA underwent a protracted decline during the early 1990s due to the illness and increasing incapacity of the presiding bishop, John Cyrus Gramley, whose health started to decline shortly after his election; when the summons to General Convention was issued in 1996 only seven parishes responded. The Fifth General Convention proceeded to place the missionary districts into suspension and the church was administered as a single diocese from until April 2010. Stephen C. Reber Sr. was elected as bishop-coadjutor and consecrated in September 1996 by bishops Robert C. Harvey, assisted by bishops Miller, Hamers and Caudill. Gramley died shortly thereafter. During the late 1990s, Reber traveled many thousands of miles reactivating old UECNA parishes and receiving new congregations into the jurisdiction, he continued the policy, started by Knight, of relaxing the aggressively low church stance of the jurisdiction allowing the range of churchmanship within the United Episcopal Church to broaden.
However, unlike the ACC and APCK, the UECNA still requires that, in addition to the Scriptures and the Book of Common Prayer, candidates for the ministry to assent to the Thirty-nine Articles. In 1999 the UECNA entered into a short-lived intercommunion agreement with the Anglican Province of America, causing the ACC to suspend its intercommunion agreement with the UECNA. However, that action was not mirrored by the Anglican Province of Christ the King; the UECNA subsequently suspended its intercommunion agreement with the Anglican Province in America in 2002 when the latter entered into a relationship with the Reformed Episcopal Church. In 2007, intercommunion with the ACC was restored after a lapse of eight years, so that the UECNA now has cordial relations with both the ACC and the APCK. From 2007 to 2011, the ACC and the UECNA explored opportunities for greater cooperation and the possibility of achieving organic unity. Bishop Presley Hutchens of the ACC addressed delegates to the UECNA convention of 2008 and discussed the possibility of uniting the ACC and UECNA.
Although well received at the time, there was a feeling among many of the delegates that the proposal was being rushed, that no proper consideration was being given to the theological and canonical issues thrown up by the move. Moves towards unity w
Mount Pisgah Lutheran Church known in its early years as the First Lutheran Church and First English Lutheran Church and more as The Sanctuary on Penn, is located at 701 North Pennsylvania Street in downtown Indianapolis, Indiana. The historic church was built by the city's first Lutheran congregation, which organized in 1837, was its third house of worship; the former church, whose present-day name is The Sanctuary on Penn, is operated as a for-profit event venue. The red-brick structure is notable because it combined two styles of architecture, Late Gothic Revival and Romanesque Revival, which were popular styles for religious buildings in the late nineteenth century; the L-shaped church was built in two sections. The original chapel, which dates from 1874–75, is Late Gothic Revival-style building; the Romanesque Revival-style main sanctuary was completed in 1887 on a limestone foundation laid in 1875. The sanctuary features round-arched windows, a rose window, brick buttresses with limestone caps.
The church was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. Pastor Abraham Reck organized the city's first Lutheran congregation in 1837 and served as its pastor until 1841; the congregation became known as the Mount Pisgah Evangelical Lutheran, First English Lutheran, First Lutheran Church. The congregation built three churches in downtown Indianapolis at different times and in three different locations; the cornerstone for the congregation's first church at Meridian and Ohio Streets was laid in April 1838. The congregation's second church, which cost $3,000, stood at New York Streets. Both of these churches have been demolished. For its third church, the Lutheran congregation acquired a lot at the corner of Pennsylvania and Walnut Streets in 1874 for $2,500; the building was constructed in two sections. The chapel dates from 1874–75. Peter Cookingham was the architect of the chapel; the main sanctuary's architect is not known for certain. Cookingham may have drawn the plans for the sanctuary, but he had left Indianapolis by the time it was completed in 1887.
In March 1970 the congregation voted to sell its North Pennsylvania Street property and relocate east of the downtown area. The building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978, its present-day owners operate the facility, called The Sanctuary on Penn, as a for-profit venue for weddings and other special events. The building, constructed in two sections, is notable for its combination of two popular styles of architecture for religious buildings in the late nineteenth century; the first section of the L-shaped, red-brick building was a small, Late Gothic Revival-style chapel dating from 1874–75. Construction on the second section, a Romanesque Revival-style main sanctuary, began in 1885 and was completed in 1886 on a limestone foundation, laid in 1874–75; the two structures are attached at the southeast corner of the sanctuary. The main sanctuary on North Pennsylvania Street faces west. Few alterations to the building have been made since its completion in 1886. A pipe organ was installed in 1898 on a raised platform behind the altar.
In 1915 the church's plain windows were replaced with stained glass. The renovation included excavation under the sanctuary and a concrete floor to provide space for classrooms and restrooms on the lower level. In addition, an entrance to the basement was added to the building's south elevation; the Gothic Revival-style chapel was constructed of red brick with a limestone foundation. Brick buttresses were constructed on its corners; the chapel features tall, narrow windows with two-story arches. The south façade facing Walnut Street has stained-glass windows flanking a larger one; the chapel's entrance features double doors inset with stained-glass windows. The Romanesque Revival-style main sanctuary was constructed of red brick with a limestone foundation, it features round-arched windows, a stained-glass rose window, brick buttresses with limestone caps. The main building's slate roof was framed with wood timbers; the front façade's arched and segmented stained-glass window is installed beneath a stained-glass rose window that dominates the center section.
The front façade's two double-door entrances with stained-glass transoms flank the center section. The southwest entrance has a gable-roof porch supported by wooden brackets; the church had a single cross the peak of the gable roof. The sanctuary's north and south elevations include four stained-glass windows with rounded arches set in recessed panels; the brick buttresses. In addition, the upper-most level on the north and south elevations, near the front façade, each include three, round-arched openings with wooden louvers; these may have been intended to house church bells. The sanctuary's simple interior includes a large stained-glass window on the west wall that depicts Jesus Christ as the Good Shepherd. A Moeller Company pipe organ covered the apse. During renovations made in 1915, the church's plain glass was replaced with stained glass and its electrical fixtures were replaced with gas fixtures. In addit