Transport for Greater Manchester
Transport for Greater Manchester is the public body responsible for co-ordinating transport services throughout Greater Manchester in North West England. The organisation traces its origins to the Transport Act 1968, when the SELNEC Passenger Transport Executive was established to co-ordinate public transport in and around Manchester. Between 1974 and 2011, it was known as the Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive, until a reform of local government in Greater Manchester granted it more powers and prompted a corporate rebranding; the strategies and policies of Transport for Greater Manchester are set by the Greater Manchester Combined Authority and its Transport for Greater Manchester Committee. Transport for Greater Manchester is responsible for investments in improving transport services and facilities, it is the executive arm of the Transport for Greater Manchester Committee which funds and makes policies for TfGM. The authority is made up of 33 councillors appointed from the ten Greater Manchester districts.
The Manchester Metrolink light rail system launched in 1992. Subsidised by TfGM without a government grant and operated by KeolisAmey, it carries over 29 million passengers a year. With 93 stations it is the largest local transport network in the United Kingdom after the London Underground. Further expansion to Stockport is envisaged. Altrincham-Bury line Altrincham-Piccadilly line Bury-Ashton line East Didsbury-Rochdale line Eccles- Piccadilly line Manchester Airport-Cornbrook line MediaCity- Etihad Campus line Crumpsall - Trafford Park line Rail services are operated by CrossCountry, East Midlands Trains, TransPennine Express, Transport for Wales & Virgin Trains. TfGM subsidise fares on certain local services and fund station refurbishments on an ad hoc basis. Metroshuttle: launched 2002, free bus service around Manchester city centre. New services were provided in Bolton and Stockport after success of the service in Manchester. Bus services operated by private operators including Arriva North West, Bullocks Coaches, First Greater Manchester, First West Yorkshire, Go Goodwins, Manchester Community Transport, Rosso & Stagecoach Manchester Maintenance of bus shelters and stations including Shudehill Interchange Greater Manchester Urban Traffic Control Unit – responsibility for road management transferred to TfGM in 2009.
Entails installation and management of traffic signals, limited areas of road safety, incident response and event management via a traffic control centre. Cycling - promotion of the Greater Manchester Cycling Strategy and delivery of Cycle Hubs and regional cycle routes Subsidised fares on certain services System One travelcards Get me there Public transport maps and timetables Website Route Explorer application TfGM inherited the responsibilities of the Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive established in 1974. On 1 April 2011, the GMPTE became Transport for Greater Manchester, a new regional transport body for Greater Manchester that forms part of the new Greater Manchester Combined Authority; as a result, GMITA was abolished, replaced by the Transport for Greater Manchester Committee which reports to the Combined Authority. TfGMC and its subcommittees are made up of a nominated pool of 33 councillors from the ten metropolitan boroughs of Greater Manchester who manage TfGM and create transport policy in Greater Manchester.
Although it differs in certain structural forms, on the day of its inauguration TfGM became the second most powerful and influential transport organisation in England after Transport for London because it unites splintered governance over transport policy in the boroughs under one body. It elects its own Chair and Vice-Chair and assumes the functions performed by GMITA as well as the newly devolved transport powers and responsibilities from Government and the 10 Metropolitan Councils which make up the area; the 33 councillors have voting rights on most transport issues despite not being members of the GMCA: major decisions still require approval by the GMCA, but the functions that are referred to the TfGMC include making recommendations in relation to: The budget and transport levy Borrowing limit Major and strategic transport policies The local transport plan Operation of Greater Manchester Transport Fund and approval of new schemes Appointment of Director General/Chief Executive of TfGM TfGM uses a corporate identity designed by Hemisphere.
The black and white "M" logo is adapted from the GMPTE logo and is used on bus stops across Greater Manchester. Timeline of public passenger transport operations in Manchester Media related to SELNEC at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Transport for Greater Manchester at Wikimedia Commons www.tfgm.com, the website of Transport for Greater Manchester Greater Manchester Integrated Transport Authority Greater Manchester Transportation Unit SELNEC plans for urban rapid transport Greater Manchester Congestion Charge Proposals The SELNEC Preservation Society
The Leyland Lynx was a stepped-entrance single-decker bus manufactured by Leyland in Workington, England between 1986 and 1992. After the takeover by Volvo, it was succeeded by the Volvo B10B; the Leyland Lynx was designed in 1984 as a replacement for the ageing Leyland National, being unveiled at the 1985 International Bus & Coach Exhibition at the Earls Court Exhibition Centre. Although the B60 was the first bus to carry the Lynx brand, Leyland had used it on truck chassis between 1936 and 1940, again between 1968 and 1979; the Lynx name has since been revived by Ashok Leyland for use on a midibus. Production vehicles began to enter service in 1986, the majority were bodied by Leyland at its Workington factory where the underframe was produced. All have a step entrance, Leyland offered the option of a floor with a step in the middle or one that ramped from aft of the front platform to the rear. A plan for offering this bus with a single-piece flat windscreen was considered, but was not carried out.
A common feature, therefore, is that the Lynx has two separate windscreens and has the driver's windscreen raked back, resembling 1950s single-decker buses and the Wright Handybus. Engines offered were the Leyland TL11, Gardner 6HLXCT and Cummins L10, while the Lynx II was available with the Volvo THD102KF. In 1990, the updated Lynx Mark II version was introduced, it could be recognised by its protruding front dash/grille panel, whilst the original design was flat. Additionally, a select few of the 140 vehicles produced featured Volvo engines, which drastically reduced performance in pursuit of more environmentally friendly engines; the Mark II was available as a bus underframe for other coachbuilders to body. Although the large majority of Lynxes carried the Leyland body, seven chassis were bodied by Alexander with N-type bodywork for Citybus, including the first prototype. Northern Counties catalogued bodies for the Lynx but none were built; the type saw service all over the United Kingdom, with the largest fleet owned by West Midlands Travel.
A total of 256 were purchased, including six demonstrators, delivered early in 1986 equipped with Gardner engines and semi-automatic Leyland Hydracyclic gearboxes. They were withdrawn from 2000 onwards, with the last three withdrawn from passenger service in March 2009, although 10 remained in the driver training fleet until March 2010; the last two Lynxes to roll off the production line entered service with Halton Transport in August 1992. The Lynx was the core of Halton Transport's fleet for over 10 years. In life at Halton, they were used on a number of school contracts and the occasional regular service. In October 2010, all of Halton's remaining Lynxes were sold, the last Lynx produced going into preservation, with the penultimate Lynx used to donate spares. Following the takeover of Leyland by Volvo in March 1988, the Lynx was superseded by the Volvo B10B in 1992. Total production of Lynxes was 1,060 vehicles, including six prototypes and several development vehicles. About 140 of the total were Lynx Mark IIs.
A small number of Lynxes were exported as demonstrators, but no sales resulted. In 1984, a framed chassis was sent to Australia. After being completed by JW Bolton in Perth, it operated for Transperth, ACTION and Hornibrook Bus Lines before being sold to Lever Coachlines in 1987. In 1989, two were bodied by Pressed Metal Corporation as demonstrators for the State Transit Authority, but the trial never occurred and they were sold to John J Hill, Wollongong. In 1988, Singapore Bus Service took, it was scrapped. Conversely one Leyland Tiger received a Lynx-style Leyland body for export to New Zealand being operated by Newmans Coach Lines and Go Bus Transport. In 1990, three of the order being built for West Midlands Travel were sent to Australia as demonstrators. Two operated with ACTION, while the third was demonstrated to the State Transport Authority and State Transit Authority, before all three were sold to Southtrans. Several Lynxes have now entered preservation, with some requiring extensive rebuilding to bring them back to original condition, due to body corrosion, as well as reversing modifications made by operators during their history.
One such example is the removal of all of the patterned body skirts, combined with the replacement of the square wheel arches with non-patterned round ones. Both of these modifications were made to make it easier to replace such parts in the event of an accident. In Australia, the JW Bolton bodied demonstrator has been preserved by the Sydney Bus Museum. Media related to Leyland Lynx at Wikimedia Commons
For the Triumph 2000 Roadster of 1948-49, see Triumph Roadster. For the Triumph 2000 Saloon of 1949, see Triumph Renown; the Triumph 2000 is a mid-sized, rear wheel drive automobile, produced in Coventry by the Triumph Motor Company between 1963 and 1977. It was introduced on 15 October 1963. Larger-engined models, known as the Triumph 2.5 PI and Triumph 2500 were produced from 1968. The 2000 used the six-cylinder engine first seen in the Standard Vanguard at the end of 1960. However, the last of the six cylinder Vanguards had applied a compression ratio of 8.0:1 which the increasing availability of higher octane fuels enabled the manufacturers to increase to 8.5:1 for the Triumph. This and the fitting of twin Stromberg 150 CD carburettors made for a claimed power output increased to 90 bhp from the Vanguard's 80 bhp. Standard transmission on the original car was a 4-speed manual gearbox; the monocoque body had independent suspension all-round with semi-trailing arms at the rear, all using coil springs.
The servo-assisted brakes were disc at drums at the rear. Triumph's 2000 competed with the contemporary Rover P6 2000, offered only with a four-cylinder engine; the Rover was released in October 1963, just one week before the Triumph. Together the cars defined a new market sector in the UK, promising levels of comfort and luxury hitherto associated with larger Rover and Jaguar models, but with usefully lower running costs and purchase prices, all in a modern package. Although the Mk 1 was presented to the public at the London Motor Show in October 1963, volume sales began only in January 1964. Continuing in production until 1969, this version came in saloon and, from 1965, estate forms; the estate, its body shell built by Carbodies, was in the Mk 1 version the same length as the saloon. Various minor improvements were made during the period of which the most noteworthy was a significant upgrade in October 1966 to the "previously rather ineffective" ventilation, with eyeball vents added in the centre of the facia and the heater controls repositioned beneath them.
In October 1968 the 2.5 PI Mk 1 was launched, fitted with a Lucas Automotive mechanical fuel injection system. Performance was good, but the PI models gained a reputation for unreliability and poor fuel economy. In Australia, these models suffered badly because of the summer heat; the electric fuel pump overheated causing fuel to vaporise and render the engine inoperable until the pump cooled down. The overheating of the pump was caused by a combination of high pressure fuel loads and a pump, adapted from what was a windscreen wiper motor; as such, it did not cope well with sustained pressures in moderate to high ambient temperatures. Because of the launch late in the Mk I's life, there are few PIs in the original shape. In October 1969, the Mk 2 range was launched, again styled by Michelotti, updating the car for the 1970s; the front of the car now followed the lines of the then-upcoming Triumph Stag grand tourer. There were entry-level 2000 models, which were the most plentiful, but the remainder of the range consisted of 2500, 2500 TC and 2500 PI models.
Apart from the PI models, all Triumph 2000 and 2500s had twin Stromberg or SU carburettors, the "TC" suffix on some models can seem misleading in this respect as it stood for a higher equipment level. In June 1975 the 2500S model, with 14 inch wheels and anti-roll bar, was added: it replaced the 2.5PI which had disappeared from the show rooms two months earlier. This marked the end of fuel injected engines for the car, but improved acceleration was claimed for the twin carburettor 2500S and its less expensive 2500TC sibling; these new versions featured an extensive list of other minor, improvements, of which the most significant were those affecting the ride and handling: these resulted from suspension changes including an anti-roll bar. The Estate in the Mk 2 version was 5 inches shorter than the Mk 2 Saloon, because the rear bodywork of the car was carried over unchanged from the Mk 1 version; the Mk 2, the last big Triumph car, ceased production in 1977, supplanted by British Leyland's corporate executive car, the Rover SD1.
Six-cylinder 2300 and 2600 versions of the new Rover would nonetheless be powered by engines designed by Triumph intended to replace the older 2000 / 2500 units. The last production car, a 2500S estate is kept at the Heritage Motor Centre. Various models were assembled in South Africa, with the 2500TC and 2500S being badged Triumph Chicane in that market between 1973 and 1978. In New Zealand, CKD production of the Triumph 2000 continued at New Zealand Motor Corporation's Nelson plant, with 2500S models until March 1979. Sir Rob Muldoon, New Zealand's Prime Minister owned a white 2500S and had been known to drive to work in it; this car is now owned by a member of the Auckland Triumph Car Club. The 2000 was assembled in Australia by Australian Motor Industries. A special version was known as the 2000MD, which had special features such as knock-off wire wheels, triple Stromberg carburettors, the battery moved to the boot. Total production of the 2000MD was 100. Many of these cars are still on the road, supported by specialist parts.
Http://triumph2000register.co.uk The 2000 and derivatives are popular with modifiers owing to common parts and engines shared with other Triumph models such as the TR6, GT6, Vitesse. Factory-entered 2.5 PIs finished 2nd and 4th in the 1
Jamaica Omnibus Service
The Jamaica Omnibus Service, operated a municipal bus service for the Kingston Metropolitan Area, from 1953 until it was wound up in 1983. In June 1898, the existing mule car service in Kingston was phased out and a transition to electric trams operated by the West India Electric Company and by the Jamaica Public Service Company, was undertaken; this transition to the electric tram was completed on March 31, 1899. This tram service continued to operate, but the inflexibility of a tram service could not keep pace with a growing city, the tram service ceased on August 7, 1948. Kingston's first bus service operated by a company called Jamaica Utilities commenced on August 8, 1948. Communities served included, Hagley Park, Mountain View and Three Miles; the service operated by Jamaica Utilities was unsatisfactory due to the poor condition in which the fleet was maintained. Efforts to get overseas professional advisers was rejected by the House of Representatives as were efforts to get financial support from government.
The government revoked the franchise of Jamaica Utilities, paving the way for the takeover of bus service in Kingston by the Jamaica Omnibus Service on December 15, 1953. At its inception in 1953 the JOS was owned and operated by the British Electric Traction Company Limited, until it was nationalized by the government of Jamaica in 1974; the JOS replaced the first operator of public bus transit services in Jamaica Utilities. The JOS was replaced by a hodgepodge system of private operator owned buses, franchisees, which provided unreliable and unstructured services and was unpopular with the public. In 1998, the Jamaica Urban Transit Company continues operations to this day; the JOS inherited a dilapidated depot and bus infrastructure from Jamaica Utilities, the JOS built new facilities, including a depot at Lyndhurst Road and upgraded the existing depot on Industrial Terrace. The JOS refurbished the existing US built fleet with British built Leyland Engines. By the late 1970s the entire fleet consisted of various models of British built Leyland buses.
At its peak, the JOS had a fleet of over 600 buses, serviced an area ranging from Spanish Town and Portmore in St. Catherine in the western extremities of the Greater Kingston area, Border, Mt. Charles, Irish Town and Mavis Bank in north rural St. Andrew, Port Royal to the south, Bull Bay in east rural St. Andrew. A partial listing of JOS routes
Hants & Dorset
Hants & Dorset Motor Services was a stage carriage bus service operator in southern England, between 1920 and 1983. In 1916, the British Automobile Traction Company and others formed the Bournemouth & District Motor Services Limited. Following the purchase of Trade Cars of Southampton in 1920, the Hants & Dorset name was adopted. In that same year, the Tilling Group bought an interest in the company and from that year till 1929 Hants & Dorset grow rapidly. In 1929, the Southern Railway took up its option to buy shares, under the terms of the Road & Rail Transport Act 1928, when the four railway companies were able to invest in bus operators. By the late 1920s and early 1930s, the network of Hants & Dorset bus services was complete. Hants & Dorset operated buses in Bournemouth, Southampton, Lymington and Winchester. Hants & Dorset replaced the trams operated by Poole Corporation in 1934; the Southern Railway's half-share in Hants & Dorset passed to the government-owned Transport Holding Company when the railway company was nationalised in 1948.
British Automobile Traction sold its shares to the Tilling Group in 1942, who in turn sold out to British Associated Transport in 1949, thus Hants & Dorset became 100% government owned. The THC's successor inspired a reorganisation in 1964 that saw Hants & Dorset and northern neighbour Wilts & Dorset fall under common management, at Hants & Dorset’s head office in Bournemouth. A year earlier, Wilts & Dorset had taken over a large independent, Silver Star of Porton Down'; as part of the THC’s early rationalisation, Wilts & Dorset had in 1950, taken over the Basingstoke operator Venture, which had passed to the Red & White group five years earlier and which, following Red & White’s voluntary nationalisation, had in turn passed to the THC. Upon both Hants & Dorset and Wilts & Dorset passing to the National Bus Company on 1 January 1969, as a result of the Transport Act 1968, the operators merged in 1972 under the Hants & Dorset name and management. Rather than Hants & Dorset's green, the enlarged operation adopted a fleet livery of National poppy red, similar to Wilts & Dorset's.
The new operation covered routes from Pewsey in the north, Poole to Fareham in the south, Basingstoke in the east, Shaftesbury and Warminster in the west. A year the substantial Winchester operator R Chisnell & Sons passed to Hants & Dorset, including an eclectic mix of vehicles, most of which were withdrawn from service as non-standard. Chisnell had operated Winchester city services plus a country service to Basingstoke. Hants & Dorset took over the services operated by Western National in Swanage in 1974. Hants & Dorset had a reputation among NBC subsidiaries as somewhat loss making. While routes in the Poole-Bournemouth, Southampton and Salisbury areas made reasonable returns, those elsewhere were weaker; the impact of the private car throughout the 1960s and 1970s plus successive withdrawals and fares revisions further weakened what had now become marginal rural services. During the 1980s Hants & Dorset's financial position was so precarious that it had to be propped up by an inter-company loan from fellow NBC subsidiary Amalgamated Passenger Transport Ltd in order to remain solvent NBC acquired the Gosport & Fareham Omnibus Co in 1970.
It passed under the head office control of Hants & Dorset but Provincial remained a separate entity, in part under its own control, owing to the terms of a 1929 Act under which it was established. Provincial retained a green livery. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, in order to match supply and demand without undue cross subsidy, Hants & Dorset like other NBC subsidiaries embarked on a number of Market Analysis Projects, it helped identify viable networks to which the local authorities concerned, which by now not only had the power to subsidise bus services but were facing resultant financial constraints, could subsidise additional mileage. MAP, as it was known, emerged from the Midland Red company in 1977 and was applied throughout Hants & Dorset's territory, culminating in redrafted timetables and an attempt at fostering local support through the use of sub-brands identifiable to specific, local markets; these were: South Wessex Winton Line Venture South Hants New Provincial/Provincial Joint Services At its height, Hants & Dorset operated from garages at Andover, Blandford Forum, Eastleigh, Lymington, Poole, Salisbury, Southampton and Winchester.
In the early- to mid-1980s, the National Bus Company, with an eye to the future, began disintegrating its larger operating subsidiaries, of which Hants & Dorset was one. The idea was the formation of units that could better serve their local markets, although splits were to ensure a successful privatisation. So on 1 April 1983, Hants & Dorset Motor Services was divided into three operating companies: Wilts & Dorset and Hampshire Bus. There re-emerged the name Wilts & Dorset, albeit with a different operating area than the old company. Wilts & Dorset was sold to its management in 1987 and bought by the Go-Ahead Group in August 2003. Recognising the increasing level of joint working, Hants & Dorset's Fareham activities merged with the Gosport and Fareham undertaking, under the Provincial name, trading from Hoeford, Gosport Road, all but closing the former Hants & Dorset Fareham garage other than for storage. Provincial was acquired by FirstGroup as First Provincial merged into First Hampshire & Dorset in 2003.
The former Hants
First Midland Red
First Midland Red is a bus company operating services in Herefordshire and Worcestershire in the English Midlands. It is a subsidiary of FirstGroup. In September 1981 Midland Red West was formed with 183 buses operating from six depots in Gloucestershire, Hereford and Powys as part of the breakup of the Midland Red bus company. In September 1983 the 20 vehicle Bromsgrove depot was closed; the local brand names Reddibus, Wandaward and Wendaway created by Midland Red continued to be used. Based in Worcester, Midland Red West's main areas of operation were Worcestershire, parts of Shropshire and parts of the West Midlands conurbation, including Birmingham. Birmingham was served by the other companies formed from the break-up of Midland Red. In November 1985 Midland Red West introduced a fleet of 60 minibuses to operate its urban network in Worcester as part of a new high-frequency service within the City, operating under the Citibus trading name; the distinctive yellow and blue liveried Mercedes-Benz L608Ds displaced larger buses such as Leyland Nationals onto interurban routes.
At its launch the service was the UK's largest urban bus service operated by minibuses. In March 1986 a similar, but much smaller, minibus service was launched for the Kidderminster and Stourport area under the Wyre Forest Shuttle brand. Operated by Mercedes L608Ds, the buses sported an identical livery to the Citibus fleet, with the blue colouring changed to green. A month minibus operations were rolled out in Redditch under the Reddilink brand, though larger buses still continued to operate throughout the town on some routes; the L608Ds used here carried a yellow livery similar to that of Citibus. In December 1986 Midland Red West along with the 40 vehicle Midland Red Coaches was sold to Midland West Holdings in a management buyout; the livery of many of its vehicles changed from the National Bus Company's poppy red to a deeper red and cream livery. The company sported a new logo of a Wyvern. Apart from being the name of an imaginary creature, the name Wyvern was a portmanteau of the 2 major rivers which run through Herefordshire and Worcestershire.
In 1987 Midland Red West Holdings purchased the Bristol Omnibus Company from the National Bus Company. It operated urban services around the Bristol area under the City Line trading name, kept. In 1988 minibus operations were launched in Hereford under the Hereford Hopper brand. Operated by newer Mercedes L609Ds, the buses sported an identical livery to the Citibus fleet, with the blue colouring changed to green. In April 1988 Midland Red West Holdings was purchased by fellow Bristol operator Badgerline; the trading names of Midland Red West and Badgerline remained unchanged as did vehicle livery, though many of Midland Red West's Leyland Lynxs sported a badger motif on the rear sides of the vehicle. The merger reunited the two constituent parts of the Bristol Omnibus Company, City Line and the Bristol country services, separated from in 1986. In 1995 Badgerline merged with GRT Group to form FirstBus. In 1999 Midland Red West was rebranded as First Midland Red. In 1990 Midland Red West began to expand and modernise its fleet of full-size single deck buses purchasing 50 Leyland Lynxs, which were put into service at Digbeth depot, displacing all that depot's Leyland Nationals.
Eight of these Lynxs shortly found their way to Redditch depot and two years five of these eight Redditch Lynxes ended up at Kidderminster depot, while Redditch acquired four more from Digbeth. In 1994 37 new Plaxton Verde bodied Dennis Lances, which were now the Badgerline Group's standard full-size single deck bus, arrived at Digbeth, displacing the existing Leyland Lynxs to Kidderminster and Redditch depots. In 2001 First Midland Red Buses won the contract to operate the bus services for Worcester's first permanent park and ride site on behalf of Worcestershire County Council. A fleet of new Caetano Nimbus bodied Dennis Darts were leased for the service, which were branded Worcester North, operated the service from the park & ride site, located in the Perdiswell area of the city, to the city centre and vice versa. In 2005, two new circular bus routes were introduced by the county ouncil which included the Park and Ride site as a stop; these services were introduced as part of the county council's new Worcester Express services and were operated by First Midland Red Buses under the Worcester Express brand.
The existing Worcester North service between the city centre and Park and Ride site was rebranded as Worcester Express, operated as the W1 service. In February 2008 First Midland Red Buses lost the W1 Park and Ride contract, now operated directly by the county council with their own fleet of brand-new buses under the Woosh brand, which today has now been abandoned by the council due to low demand and budget cuts; the Park and Ride service has since ceased. The company has one depot in Worcester. In January 2013, the Kidderminster and Redditch depots were sold to Rotala with 36 buses who integrated it with its Diamond Bus subsidiary. In September 2015, First Midland Red ceased. At the time it operated 19 buses; the Hereford routes were taken over by Yeomans. Media related to Midland Red West at Wikimedia Commons Media related to First Midland Red at Wikimedia Commons Company website
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, with a population of 545,500 as of 2017. It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous built-up area, with a population of 3.2 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation; the local authority is Manchester City Council. The recorded history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium or Mancunium, established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell, it was a part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated in the 20th century. The first to be included, was added to the city in 1931. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township, but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century. Manchester's unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, resulted in it becoming the world's first industrialised city.
Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and directly linking the city to the Irish Sea, 36 miles to the west, its fortune declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation, but the IRA bombing in 1996 led to extensive investment and regeneration. In 2014, the Globalisation and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city, the highest-ranked British city apart from London. Manchester is the third-most visited city after London and Edinburgh, it is notable for its architecture, musical exports, media links and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the world's first inter-city passenger railway station. Manchester hosted the 2002 Commonwealth Games; the name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians. These are thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, either from mamm- or from mamma.
Both meanings are preserved in Insular Celtic languages, such as mam meaning "breast" in Irish and "mother" in Welsh. The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English ceaster and from that castra in latin for camp or settlement; the Brigantes were the major Celtic tribe in. Their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Stretford. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, General Agricola ordered the construction of a fort named Mamucium in the year 79 to ensure that Roman interests in Deva Victrix and Eboracum were protected from the Brigantes. Central Manchester has been permanently settled since this time. A stabilised fragment of foundations of the final version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield; the Roman habitation of Manchester ended around the 3rd century. After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell and Irk sometime before the arrival of the Normans after 1066. Much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North.
Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor and constructed a collegiate church for the parish in 1421. The church is now Manchester Cathedral; the library, which opened in 1653 and is still open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom. Manchester is mentioned as having a market in 1282. Around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the region's textile industry. Manchester became an important centre for the manufacture and trade of woollens and linen, by about 1540, had expanded to become, in John Leland's words, "The fairest, best builded and most populous town of all Lancashire." The cathedral and Chetham's buildings are the only significant survivors of Leland's Manchester. During the English Civil War Manchester favoured the Parliamentary interest. Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. Charles Worsley, who sat for the city for only a year, was appointed Major General for Lancashire and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals.
He was a diligent puritan, banning the celebration of Christmas. Significant quantities of cotton began to be used after about 1600, firstly in linen/cotton fustians, but by around 1750 pure cotton fabrics were being produced and cotton had overtaken wool in importance; the Irwell and Mersey were made navigable by 1736, opening a route from Manchester to the sea docks on the Mersey. The Bridgewater Canal, Britain's first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in 1761, bringing coal from mines at Worsley to central Manchester; the canal was extended to the Mersey at Runcorn by 1776. The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved th