The Volvo B10M is a mid-engined city bus and coach chassis manufactured by the Swedish automaker Volvo between 1978 and 2003. It succeeded the B58 and was equipped with the same 9.6-litre horizontally mounted Volvo diesel engine mounted under the floor behind the front axle. An articulated version under the model name Volvo B10MA was offered, as was a semi-integral version known as the C10M, with the engine in the middle of the chassis. Designed as a successor to the Volvo B58, a large portion of B10M chassis were built in Sweden, but some were built in other countries, like England and Brazil; the B10M was one of the best-selling chassis in the United Kingdom throughout the 1990s. Having been produced only as a coach chassis, the B10M was made available as a city bus, in which form it was very popular, it was available as B10M-46, B10M-50, B10M-55, B10M-60, B10M-62, B10M-65 and B10M-70, where the number represents the wheelbase in decimetres. Many bodybuilders did however extend the chassis to fit their needs.
No than 1981 a tri-axle chassis was introduced, available as B10M-50B, B10M-55B, B10M-60B, B10M-65B and B10M-70B, with some bodybuilders extending them up to 7.25 metres wheelbase. A double-decker version of the B10M was developed for Strathclyde PTE in 1981, it was launched in early 1982, with a downrated engine from the coach, was named Citybus. Most early examples were bodied by Alexander Coachbuilders, who provided a modified version - common to all Volvo double-deck chassis bodied by the company after 1980 - of their popular and attractive R type bodywork. Eastern Scottish and Fife Scottish bought many of these early versions in 1985-1987. Two were exported in 1984, one of them to Singapore Bus Service and the other to Kowloon Motor Bus, but was destroyed by fire in 1988; the Citybus lasted until the end of B10M production but fell out of favour after Volvo re-engineered the Leyland Olympian as the Volvo Olympian in 1993. The B9M was launched in 1982 as a light-weight, stripped-down, budget version of the standard B10M.
It was available as B9M-46, B9M-50, B9M-55 and B9M-60. Although technically not a successor to the B57, it found more or less the same place in the markets where it was available; the B9M at lower outputs. It sold well with the exception of Denmark, where only a few were sold; the model was available at least past 1996. In the United Kingdom, the B9M-46 was sold as a shorter 9.5 to 9.7 metre version of the B10M from 1985. From 1984, a RHD version of the B10M-55B was available as the B10MT also B10T. In 1984, Swiss bodybuilder Ramseier & Jenzer collaborated with Volvo to unveil a semi-integral coach known as the C10M, with the engine in the middle of the chassis. Production of the C10M was ended in 1987, but the position of the engine was still available as an option and became known as B10M-C. Coach operators National Express, Park's of Hamilton and Wallace Arnold all purchased large quantities of B10Ms. In the 1990s, Stagecoach standardised on the bus version of the B10M as their full-size single decker.
Most received Alexander PS bodies but some received Northern Counties Paladin bodywork. Stagecoach took numerous examples of the coach version with Plaxton's Interurban bodywork and Jonckheere's Modulo bodywork. South Yorkshire Transport and Kelvin Central Buses purchased large numbers of the type with Alexander PS bodies; the B10MA articulated variant was of limited popularity among bus operators in the UK. British Caledonian Airways took four in 1988, the next examples sold in Britain were supplied eight years with the delivery of four to Ulsterbus. Stagecoach was the biggest customer for the model in the UK, purchasing 18 in the mid- to late-1990s, with the last delivered in 1999. Singapore Bus Service would evaluate a mid-engine Volvo B10MD double-decker bus bodied by East Lancashire Coachbuilders registered as SBS4961B in 1984. No further double-deck B10MD units were acquired however. Singapore Bus Service purchased 977 units between 1988 and 2000, making up a large part of its single-decker bus fleet.
The Volvo B10M Mark IIs were the first to be used, with 200 delivered between March 1988 and April 1989. They were retired by May 2008 after fulfilling their 19-year lifespan, except one, sold to New Zealand; the Mark IIs were replaced by the Mark IIIs and IVs. 300 B10M Mark IIIs were delivered between November 1992 and June 1993. They were bodied by Duple Metsec, had received mid-life refurbishment. Most units received a two-year lifespan extension due to insufficient replacement buses, were all retired by June 2012. 475 B10M Mark IVs were delivered between June 1995 and December 2000. They were bodied by either Duple Walter Alexander Strider. Mid-life refurbishments extended their lifespan by two years, 30 DM3500-bodied buses received another one-year extension in 2017 due to insufficient replacement buses. All these buses have been retired as of 23 December 2018. A 14.5m B10M Superlong tri-axle bus, bodied by Duple Metsec, was purchased in 1995 and retired in October 2012. A 19m B10MA articulated bus bodied by Duple Metsec, was purchased in 1996.
It was known as "Asia's Longest Bus". In 2006, it was sold to Bayes Coachlines in New Zealand. For Expo'85 in Tsukuba, Fuji Heavy Industries bodied 100 B10MLs. Seventy-nine were exported to Australia in 1986 with Brisbane Transport, Grenda's Bus Service, Hornibrook Bus Lines, Invicta Bus Service, Kangaroo Bus Lines, Metro-link Bus Lines, Metropolitan Transit Authority, Premier Roadliners, Sunbury Bus Service and Surfside Buslines purchasing examples. From 1983 to 1986, a number of B10Ms was used in the United States; the A
National Bus Company (UK)
The National Bus Company was a nationalised bus company that operated in England and Wales between 1969 and 1988. NBC did not run buses itself, but was the owner of a number of regional subsidiary bus operating companies. Following the Labour Party victory at the 1966 general election, Barbara Castle was appointed Minister for Transport. Castle ordered a review of public transport, with a view to formulating a new transport policy. Among the issues to be tackled were the ownership and operation of bus services, which were losing patronage and profitability due to increased prevalence of private motor cars; the state owned a considerable proportion of scheduled bus operators outside the major cities, having obtained the Tilling Group companies in 1948 as a byproduct of nationalising the railways. The Tilling Group was subsequently placed under the ownership of the nationalised Transport Holding Company. London Transport was nationalised in 1948 and others voluntarily aquiesced, such as Red & White in 1950.
When the Labour Party lost power to the Conservatives in 1951, the Nationisation Policy remained unfinished. Castle proposed forming regional transport authorities, which would take over the THC subsidiaries and municipal transport undertakings in their area, would have the power to acquire private bus operators. However, in November 1967 British Electric Traction unexpectedly offered to sell its bus operations to the government. BET, the only major private bus operating group, received £35 million for its 25 provincial bus companies and 11,300 vehicles; the deal meant that the state or municipal bus operators now operated some 90% of scheduled bus services in England and Wales. Instead of forming the regional authorities, the government published a white paper proposing the merger of the THC and BET organisations into a single National Bus Company; the recommendations of the white paper formed part of the Transport Act 1968. The 1968 Act reorganised the nationalised bus operation in Scotland, where subsidiaries formed the Scottish Bus Group.
The National Bus Company was formed on 1 January 1969. In 1970, the company was enlarged when it acquired the country area buses of London Transport, the bus operations of the county boroughs of Exeter and Luton, the Gosport & Fareham Omnibus Company, trading under the name of Provincial. Buses were operated with their own fleetnames and liveries. In the early years of the company, there was some rationalisation leading to the amalgamation of operators into larger units and the transfer of areas between them. One was the merging of Aldershot & District with Thames Valley on 1 January 1972. Another example was the transfer of the'land-locked' Trowbridge operations from Western National to Bristol Omnibus in 1970. Following the appointment of Fred Wood as chairman in 1972, NBC introduced corporate images. Henceforward its coaches were branded as National Travel and painted in unrelieved white, with the NBC logo and the'NATIONAL' name in alternate red & blue letters; the services were rebranded as National Express soon afterwards.
The addition of blue and white stripes appeared in 1978. National Travel was the country's first attempt at a uniformly marketable express network, which superseded Associated Motorways and the plethora of other services provided by individual NBC subsidiaries; the coaches were managed by a few areas and included travel agent booking offices based at major bus stations. A hub and spoke system operated with the main hub at Cheltenham. Around the same time the company launched a wide number of UK holiday services under the banner "National Holidays"; this brand and its travel agent booking offices existed until the mid-1990s when the coach holiday division closed. The National Express overseas travel business was relaunched under the name Eurolines. In the 1970s all local service buses adopted a uniform design in either leaf green or poppy red with white relief, bearing the company fleetname in white with the new NBC "double-N" arrow logo. There were, exceptions: buses operating in the area of the Tyne & Wear Passenger Transport Executive became yellow in a similar fashion to the PTE's own fleet but to the NBC design.
Although NBC operated throughout England and Wales, it was not a monopoly. Services were provided by London Transport in Greater London, the fleets of the municipal bus companies and passenger transport executives, by independent operators in some rural areas and a few small towns; the NBC inherited from the Transport Holding Company 75% shareholdings in chassis manufacturer Bristol Commercial Vehicles and body builder Eastern Coach Works. In 1969 NBC formed a joint venture with British Leyland, by means of which British Leyland became a 50% owner of the NBC's manufacturing companies; the joint venture built a new single-deck bus, the Leyland National. The first was delivered in 1972, it remained in production until 1986; the National was available to other bus operators. In 1982 NBC sold its 50% interest in the joint venture to British Leyland. In the late 1970s and early 1980s services were reviewed under a process known within instigator Midland Red as the Viable Network Project and subse
Ventura Bus Lines
Ventura Bus Lines is the largest provider of public bus transport services in Melbourne, Victoria. Its fleet of 883 buses operate 141 routes out of 12 depots and move on average 36 million people a year; the company provides V/line, event transportation, school bus and aged care services. Ventura was founded in December 1924 by Harry Cornwall; the name and company colours derived from Ventura County, California where Cornwall had spent time after serving in World War I. A former employee of Track & Kintrack, St Kilda, Harry decided to form his own bus company when his employer refused to run a bus service along dirt roads through what was Melbourne's outer east. Cornwall began operating a bus route between Box Hill and Melbourne City Centre, in 1930 began running buses between Box Hill and Mentone; the first depot was behind the petrol station on the corner of Station Street and Canterbury Road, in Box Hill South. The business was named after Ventura County, California where Cornwall had spent time after serving in World War I.
In 1943 the Aspendale to Mordialloc service was acquired. In the late 1940s this was extended from Mordialloc to Mentone and in 1951 from Aspendale to Chelsea. Following the opening of Chadstone Shopping Centre in 1960 services from Burwood and South Oakleigh were added. In the 1950s and 1960s a number of operations were purchased: Knibbs Bus Service with routes 225A Box Hill to Ferntree Gully and 226A Box Hill to Burwood in June 1954 Box Hill Bus Lines with the Box Hill to Forest Hill service in February 1957 Clarinda Transport with the Oakleigh to Glen Waverley service in May 1958 High Street Road Bus Service from Reg Carter with the Glen Waverley to Glen Iris service in April 1968In 1957 a new depot was opened on the corner of Centre and Warrigal Roads, Oakleigh; this was followed in the mid 1960s by a depot on Mahoneys Road, Burwood East to replace the original Box Hill depot. In 1969 the Mitcham routes of C Young were purchased followed in September 1970 by Boronia Bus Lines from Don Nugent with 12 routes.
In April 1987 Ventura acquired Bentleigh Bus Lines with three routes, in December 1987 Hawthorn Bus Services, Rennies Bus Services, Willis Bus Services all from Vic Haoust. As a result of these purchases, it built a new depot at Knoxfield to replace Burwood East. In 2000 Ventura introduced the first Australian buses to run on ethanol fuel. In February 2000 Ventura purchased Mount Dandenong Passenger Service from the Frazer family. In 2004 it purchased National Bus Company from National Express becoming the largest private bus operator in Melbourne. On 5 August 2002, the State Government introduced the first SmartBus service run by Ventura that replaced the old timetable of the 703 Middle Brighton station to Blackburn station with a new, high frequency service on route 703. Due to the success of the initial SmartBus trial, the State Government introduced another service that Ventura operated, the former route 700 from Box Hill station to Mordialloc station via Warrigal Road; this was upgraded in April 2009 to the Red Orbital 903 service from Altona station to Mordialloc station via Sunshine, Preston, Doncaster and Warrigal Road.
In December 2009 Ventura purchased US Bus Lines from the Pulitano Group, operating route services in the outer east region. In July 2010, Ventura acquired operating in the north and north east region. In January 2012 Ventura purchased Grenda Transit from Grenda Corporation; as part of the financing of the deal a 15% stake in Ventura was sold to the Intermediate Capital Group. In August 2013, as the result of the re-tendering of a number of Melbourne bus routes, the operation of SmartBus Route 903, the Doncaster and North Fitzroy depots, were transferred to Transdev Melbourne, along with 346 buses. In 2017 to 2018 the Victorian Government contracted Ventura to run rail replacement services while the level crossing and metro tunnel projects were underway. From the 1940s, Ventura standardised on Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation bodied Bedford OBs. After purchasing a variety of AECs, Albions and Leylands in the 1960s, Ventura settled on heavy duty Leyland Worldmaster and Tiger chassis for its purchases in the 1970s and 1980s.
In 1973 Ventura took delivery of the first of many Denning coaches. It would build up a sizeable fleet before scaling back its charter operations in the early 1990s; the purchases of Bentleigh Bus Lines/Hawthorn Bus Service saw the fleet expand further. Many non-Leyland buses joined the fleet including Bedfords, Mercedes-Benzs and Volvo B10Ms; when Ventura sought new buses in 1992 Leyland had ceased production, so two Scania L113s and a Volvo B10M with Volgren bodies were purchased for evaluation. Ventura settled on Scanias after the evaluation period and have since been the main chassis used in the Ventura fleet with 293 in the fleet as at May 2013, it has purchased 107 DesignLine bodied MANs. Since 2013 the fleet has switched to Volgren bodied Volvo Scania K310UBs; as at October 2018 the fleet stood at 883. In 2017 the company began to integrate technology to track buses in real time across its route services. Fleet livery had long been dark blue with yellow signwriting; this was replaced in 2012 by a white with dark yellow flashes livery.
New deliveries are receiving the Public Transport Victoria white and orange livery with existing buses being progressively repainted. Buses which will be replaced in the short term will retain the previous Grenda livery, the former Two-tone blue livery, the former blue and white livery of US Bus Lines or the Ivanhoe Bus Company green and yellow livery. Eight buses are painted in SmartBus livery for use on the Route 900 service, two are in V/Line livery
Bass Hill, New South Wales
Bass Hill, a suburb of local government area Canterbury-Bankstown Council, is located 23 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district, in the state of New South Wales, is a part of the South-western Sydney region. Bass Hill is named after George Bass, a surgeon and explorer, granted land here in 1798, he had arrived in the colony in 1795 on HMS Reliance and became friendly with midshipman Matthew Flinders and on arrival they decided to explore parts of the colony. In 1796 on a small boat called the Tom Thumb accompanied by a boy servant William Martin, they sailed into Botany Bay and explored the Georges River, twenty miles beyond previous expeditions, they sailed as far as present day Georges Hall. For their exploration efforts Bass and Flinders were rewarded with 100-acre land grants in this area by Governor Hunter; the area developed after the completion of Liverpool Road in 1814. Known as Irish Town because of the Irish settlements, it became known as Upper Bankstown, it became known as Bass Hill in October 1924.
During World War II, Bass Hill was the location for a small transmitting station, owned and operated by the RAAF. It was located on the corner of Manuka Johnston Road; this facility worked in conjunction with the Bankstown Bunker on Black Charlies Hill in Condell Park, which worked in conjunction with a remote receiving station, located in Picnic Point. Bass Hill Plaza is district size shopping centre at 753 Hume Highway; the shopping centre includes a Woolworths Supermarket, Aldi, Medical Centre, Post Office and 60 specialty stores. Adjacent to the centre a new residential housing estate, Viewpoint, is being developed on the former Bass Hill drive-in cinema. Bass Hill has three schools, Bass Hill Public School for years K-6, George Bass School for students with special needs and Bass High School for years 7-12. Bass Hill is home to many sporting fields and facilities which cater for sports such as athletics, cycling, rugby league and soccer; the Crest sporting complex contains the Dunc Gray Velodrome, home of the track cycling events for the 2000 Summer Olympics and the Cycling World Cup, a state of the art athletics complex, soccer fields, hockey fields and cricket fields.
The Crest was home to the Sydney Bulls Jim Beam Cup Rugby League Club, South West Strikers Soccer Club, Bankstown District Sports Club Hockey Club, Banksports Athletics, Bankstown Sports Cycling Club and Bankstown Sports Gymnastics. In the 2016 census the population of Bass Hill was 9,069, 49.3 % male. The median age of the Bass Hill population was 34 years, 4 years below the national median of 38. 58.5% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were Lebanon 8.2%, Vietnam 7.2%, Italy 1.4%, Iraq 1.3% and China 1.2%. 37.6% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Arabic 27.6%, Vietnamese 9.6%, Greek 2.6%, Italian 2.1% and Cantonese 1.8%. The most common responses for religion in Bass Hill were Islam 27.7%, Catholic 26.0% and No Religion 9.2%. Media related to Bass Hill, New South Wales at Wikimedia Commons
The Plaxton Paramount was a design of coach bodywork built by Plaxton. It first appeared at the 1982 British Motor Show and was built until 1992. In its more common single deck form it replaced the Supreme V and Viewmaster IV, was replaced by the Premiere and Excalibur; the Paramount had squarer lines than its predecessor the Supreme, with cleaner lines, a flatter roof line and square-cornered side windows including a small "feature window" just behind the front wheelarch. Forward of this, the window line sloped downwards to meet the deeper windscreen; the rear was similar to Supreme VI but all else was new. Structurally the new Paramount was similar to the Supreme, utilising 25mm square tubing to form the frame; the whole structure was treated out to resist rusting. Although the previous Supreme was of all steel construction, that applied to the actual structure of the coach as the panelling was individual aluminium which can be shaped and formed, easy to replace and featured the Plaxton special flush finish, but aluminium suffers in hot weather from a rippling effect.
The Paramount however utilised a continuous steel panel below the windows, Zintec-coated for corrosion protection, requiring fewer side mountings having been stretched into place and gave a sleeker finish. The front and rear panels used GRP. According to Plaxton brochures the roof was one piece GRP and as such unlikely to leak unlike some of the Paramount's competitors; the Paramount was available in single-deck form only, in two heights, the Paramount 3200 and the high-floor Paramount 3500. The figures 3200 and 3500 refer to the height in millimetres. In 1984 the design was adapted to create the Paramount 4000 double-decker coach built on Neoplan underframes. Neoplan's Skyliner coach had popularised the use of the double-decker coach layout with a galley and other amenities on the lower deck. By comparison the Plaxton design was somewhat more utilitarian more focused on higher capacity than on luxury, it was offered on Scania and DAF chassis. The Paramount II, the first update to the original single-deck design, was launched for the 1985 season.
It incorporated only minor visual changes, gone was the black full width grille moulding above the headlights and the "hole" like appearance of the centre of the grille between the lights. The rectangular headlights were retained within a bright silver like surround. Other modifications included deeper parcel racks. A tweed like material was used to cover a large part of the racks; some important options were introduced, most notably bonded glazing, alongside the gasket glazing. A low driving position option was made available, which had appeared on some Paramount I bodies on Quest 80 chassis; the driver sat low in the body. On the 3200 version the two-piece 3500 windscreen was used, the headlights being closer to the road than usual. New in 1985 was the Paramount 4000RS, on mid-engined Volvo B10MT chassis; this was a 1½-deck version of the 4000, with a small lower deck saloon at the rear. The Paramount III was launched in 1986, it introduced still stronger body structures than before and to quote a Plaxtons advert of the time "Progress is Paramount".
It had bonded glazing as standard, it introduced some more obvious changes to the design, notably the replacement of the small and sloping "feature windows" with a pentagonal one behind the cab or door, with Plaxton's "castle" logo being engraved on it. Changes to the front end consisted of a new grille and bumper, changes to the shape and angle of the windscreen; the rear window contained a blind like decal at the base with a castle badge in the centre. The dashboard consisted of a moulded cabinet. In the centre of the black finished cabinet was a large "castle" logo. Airline style locker doors were now available on the parcel racks to further give a sleek appearance like a 747. A variant of the Plaxton Paramount III 3500 built to National Express specification on Volvo B10M chassis was named Expressliner, it was fitted with a windowless, moulded plastic rear end featuring an embossed National Express double-N logo. The rear end could be replaced by a standard Paramount rear end when the coach was no longer used for National Express services.
Around 30% of Mark I Paramounts were the 3500 high-floor option, a figure which rose to 34% of Paramount IIs and 55% of Paramount IIIs. The proportion of 12m vehicles climbed from 66% of Paramount Is, 74% of Paramount IIs, to 91% of Paramount IIIs being of the maximum permitted length. For single-deck Paramounts, early ones were available on Bedford, Leyland and Scania chassis but as the years went by the "lightweight" chassis were ceased by the respective manufacturers; the Bedford YNV known as the Venturer was available for the Paramount series. The Tiger and Royal Tiger chassis were popular; some were built on ACE Puma chassis, with Exclesior of Bournemouth took a number with Paramount II low driver position bodywork. The MkIII was available on Mercedes-Benz rear-engined chassis; the Paramount was built on numerous different chassis. Here they are listed in approximate decreasing order of number bodied. Volvo B10M Leyland Tiger Bedford Y-Series DAF MB DAF SB Dennis Javelin Scania K92, K112, K93, K113 Ford R-Series Leyland Royal Tiger Leyland Leopard Dennis Dorchester Mercedes-Benz O303 Quest 80
A coach is a bus used for longer-distance service, in contrast to transit buses that are used within a single metropolitan region. Used for intercity—or international—bus service, other coaches are used for private charter for various purposes. Deriving the name from horse-drawn carriages and stagecoaches that carried passengers and mail, modern motor coaches are always high-floor buses, with a separate luggage hold mounted below the passenger compartment. In contrast to transit buses, motor coaches feature forward-facing seating, with no provision for standing. Other accommodations may include on-board restrooms and overhead luggage space. Horse-drawn chariots and carriages were used by the wealthy and powerful where the roads were of a high enough standard from 3000 BC. In Hungary, during the reign of King Matthias Corvinus in the 15th century, the wheelwrights of Kocs began to build a horse-drawn vehicle with steel-spring suspension; this "cart of Kocs" as the Hungarians called. The imperial post service employed the first horse-drawn mail coaches in Europe since Roman times in 1650, as they started in the town of Kocs, the use of these mail coaches gave rise to the term "coach".
Stagecoaches were used for transport between cities from about 1500 in Great Britain until displaced by the arrival of the railways. One of the earliest motorised vehicles was the charabanc, used for short journeys and excursions until the early years of the 20th century; the first "motor coaches" were purchased by operators of those horse-drawn vehicles in the early 20th century by operators such as Royal Blue Coach Services, who purchased their first charabanc in 1913 and were running 72 coaches by 1926. Coaches, as they hold passengers for significant periods of time on long journeys, are designed for comfort, they vary in quality from country to country and within countries. Higher specification vehicles include air conditioning. Coaches have only a single, narrow door, but sometimes they have two doors, as an increased loading time is acceptable due to infrequent stops; some characteristics include: Comfortable seats that may include a folding table and recliner. Comfort is considered to be an important feature in coaches.
Luggage racks above the seats where passengers can access their carry-on baggage during the journey Baggage holds, accessed from outside the vehicle under the main floor or at the rear, where passengers' luggage can be stowed away from the seating area Passenger service units, mounted overhead, on which personal reading lights and air conditioning ducts can be controlled and used by individual passengers with little disturbance to other passengers On-board rest rooms fitted with chemical toilets, hand basins and hand sanitizer. On some coaches, on-board entertainment including movies may be shown to passengers On-board refreshment service or vending machines Wheelchair accommodation including a wheelchair lift for access Curtains, useful on overnight services Onboard Wi-Fi access Onboard AC power Coaches, like buses, may be built by integrated manufacturers, or a separate chassis consisting of only an engine and basic frame may be delivered to a coachwork factory for a body to be added.
A minority of coaches are built with monocoque bodies without a chassis frame. Integrated manufacturers include Autosan, Scania and Alexander Dennis. Major coachwork providers include Van Hool, Marcopolo, Irizar, MCI, Prevost and Designline. A representative selection of vehicles in use in different parts of the world. A selection of vehicles in use in different parts of the world in the past. Anderson, R. C. A. and Frankis, G.. History of Royal Blue Express Services. David & Charles. BBC Time Shift: The Modern Age of Coach Travel