The theremin is an electronic musical instrument controlled without physical contact by the thereminist. It is named after the Westernized name of its Soviet inventor, Léon Theremin, who patented the device in 1928; the instrument's controlling section consists of two metal antennas that sense the relative position of the thereminist's hands and control oscillators for frequency with one hand, amplitude with the other. The electric signals from the theremin are sent to a loudspeaker; the sound of the instrument is associated with eerie situations. Thus, the theremin has been used in movie soundtracks such as Miklós Rózsa's Spellbound and The Lost Weekend, Bernard Herrmann's The Day the Earth Stood Still, Justin Hurwitz's First Man, as well as in theme songs for television shows such as the ITV drama Midsomer Murders; the theremin is used in concert music, in popular music genres such as rock. The theremin was the product of Soviet government-sponsored research into proximity sensors; the instrument was invented by a young Russian physicist named Lev Sergeyevich Termen in October 1920 after the outbreak of the Russian Civil War.
After a lengthy tour of Europe, during which time he demonstrated his invention to packed houses, Theremin moved to the United States, where he patented his invention in 1928. Subsequently, Theremin granted commercial production rights to RCA. Although the RCA Thereminvox was not a commercial success, it fascinated audiences in America and abroad. Clara Rockmore, a well-known thereminist, toured to wide acclaim, performing a classical repertoire in concert halls around the United States sharing the bill with Paul Robeson. During the 1930s, Lucie Bigelow Rosen was taken with the theremin and together with her husband Walter Bigelow Rosen provided both financial and artistic support to the development and popularisation of the instrument. In 1938, Theremin left the United States, though the circumstances related to his departure are in dispute. Many accounts claim he was taken from his New York City apartment by NKVD agents, taken back to the Soviet Union and made to work in a sharashka laboratory prison camp at Magadan, Siberia.
He reappeared 30 years later. In his 2000 biography of the inventor, Theremin: Ether Music and Espionage, Albert Glinsky suggested the Russian had fled to escape crushing personal debts, was caught up in Stalin's political purges. In any case, Theremin did not return to the United States until 1991. After a flurry of interest in America following the end of the Second World War, the theremin soon fell into disuse with serious musicians because newer electronic instruments were introduced that were easier to play. However, a niche interest in the theremin persisted among electronics enthusiasts and kit-building hobbyists. One of these electronics enthusiasts, Robert Moog, began building theremins in the 1950s, while he was a high-school student. Moog subsequently published a number of articles about building theremins, sold theremin kits that were intended to be assembled by the customer. Moog credited what he learned from the experience as leading directly to his groundbreaking synthesizer, the Moog.
Since the release of the film Theremin: An Electronic Odyssey in 1993, the instrument has enjoyed a resurgence in interest and has become more used by contemporary musicians. Though many theremin sounds can be approximated on many modern synthesizers, some musicians continue to appreciate the expressiveness and uniqueness of using an actual theremin; the film itself has garnered excellent reviews. Both theremin instruments and kits are available from manufacturers such as Moog Music Inc. Burns Theremins, Harrison Instruments, Inc. Theremaniacs LLC, PAiA Corporation USA, Jaycar Electronics; some inexpensive theremins may only have a pitch control and may be harder to play because of a non-linear relationship between the distance of the hand and resultant pitch, as well as a short span of hand-to-antenna distance for producing the available range of pitch. The theremin is distinguished among musical instruments in that it is played without physical contact; the thereminist stands in front of the instrument and moves his or her hands in the proximity of two metal antennas.
The distance from one antenna determines frequency, the distance from the other controls amplitude. Higher notes are played by moving the hand closer to the pitch antenna. Louder notes are played by moving the hand away from the volume antenna. Most the right hand controls the pitch and the left controls the volume, although some performers reverse this arrangement; some low-cost theremins use a conventional, knob operated volume control and have only the pitch antenna. While called antennas, they are not used for receiving or broadcasting radio waves, but act as plates of capacitors; the theremin uses the heterodyne principle to generate an audio signal. The instrument's pitch circuitry includes two radio frequency oscillators set below 500 kHz to minimize radio interference. One oscillator operates at a fixed frequency; the frequency of the other oscillator is identical, is controlled by the performer's distance from the pitch control antenna. The
John Paul Jones (musician)
John Richard Baldwin, better known by his stage name John Paul Jones, is an English musician and record producer, the bassist and keyboardist in the rock band Led Zeppelin. Prior to forming the band with Jimmy Page in 1968, he was arranger. After the death of drummer John Bonham in 1980, Zeppelin disbanded and Jones developed a solo career, he has collaborated with musicians across a variety of genres, including Josh Homme and Dave Grohl with the supergroup Them Crooked Vultures. John Baldwin was born in Kent, he started playing piano at age six, learning from his father, Joe Baldwin, a pianist and arranger for big bands in the 1940s and 1950s, notably with Ambrose and his Orchestra. His mother was in the music business which allowed the family to perform together touring around England as a vaudeville comedy act, his influences ranged from the blues of Big Bill Broonzy, the jazz of Charles Mingus, to the classical piano of Sergei Rachmaninoff. Because his parents toured, Jones was sent to boarding school at a young age.
He was a student at Christ's College, London where he formally studied music. At the age of 14, Jones became choirmaster and organist at a local church and during that year, he bought his first bass guitar, a Dallas Tuxedo solid body electric followed by multiple basses in which he part exchanged until he bought his 1962 Fender Jazz Bass which he used until 1976; the fluid playing of Chicago musician Phil Upchurch on his You Can't Sit Down LP, which includes a memorable bass solo, is cited by Jones as being his inspiration to take up the instrument. Jones joined his first band, The Deltas, at 15, he played bass for jazz-rock London group, Jett Blacks, a collective that included guitarist John McLaughlin. Jones' big break came in 1962 when he was hired by Jet Harris and Tony Meehan of the successful British group The Shadows for a two-year stint. Shortly before hiring Jones and Meehan had just had a Number 1 hit with "Diamonds" Jones' collaboration with the Shadows nearly prevented the future formation of Led Zeppelin, when the parties engaged in talks about the possibility of Jones replacing their bassist Brian Locking, who left the band in October 1963, but John Rostill was chosen to fill the position.
In 1964, on the recommendation of Meehan, Jones began studio session work with Decca Records. From until 1968, he played on hundreds of recording sessions, he soon expanded his studio work by playing keyboards and undertaking general studio direction, resulting in his services coming under much demand. He worked with numerous artists including the Rolling Stones on Their Satanic Majesties Request; as well as recording sessions with Dusty Springfield, Jones played bass for her Talk of the Town series of performances. His arranging and playing on Donovan's "Sunshine Superman" resulted in producer Mickie Most using his services as choice arranger for many of his own projects, with Tom Jones, Wayne Fontana, the Walker Brothers, many others. In 1967, Most, as music supervisor tabbed Jones to arrange the music for Herman's Hermits' theatrical film Mrs. Brown, You've Got a Lovely Daughter, released in January 1968; such was the extent of Jones' studio work – amounting to hundreds of sessions – that he said years that "I can't remember three-quarters of the sessions I was on."It was during his time as a session player that Jones adopted the stage name John Paul Jones.
This name was suggested to him by a friend, Andrew Loog Oldham, who had seen a poster for the 1959 film John Paul Jones in France. He released his first solo recording as John Paul Jones, "Baja" / "A Foggy Day in Vietnam", as a single on Pye Records in April 1964. Jones has stated that, as a session musician, he was completing two and three sessions a day and seven days a week. However, by 1968 he was feeling burnt out due to the heavy workload: "I was arranging 50 or 60 things a month and it was starting to kill me." During his time as a session player, Jones crossed paths with guitarist Jimmy Page, a fellow session veteran. In June 1966, Page joined The Yardbirds, in 1967 Jones contributed to that band's Little Games album; the following winter, during the sessions for Donovan's The Hurdy Gurdy Man, Jones expressed to Page a desire to be part of any projects the guitarist might be planning. That year, The Yardbirds disbanded, leaving Page and bassist Chris Dreja to complete booked Yardbirds dates in Scandinavia.
Before a new band could be assembled, Dreja left to take up photography. Jones, at the suggestion of his wife, asked Page about the vacant position, the guitarist eagerly invited Jones to collaborate. Page explained: I was working at the sessions for Donovan's Hurdy Gurdy Man, John Paul Jones was looking after the musical arrangements. During a break, he asked me, he had a proper music training, he had quite brilliant ideas. I jumped at the chance of getting him. Vocalist Robert Plant and drummer John Bonham joined the two to form a quartet. Dubbed the "New Yardbirds" for the Scandinavian dates, the band soon became known as Led Zeppelin. Jones was responsible for the classic bass lines of the group, notably those in "Ramble On" and "The Lemon Song", shifting time signatures, such as those in "Black Dog"; as half of Led Ze
The tambourine is a musical instrument in the percussion family consisting of a frame of wood or plastic, with pairs of small metal jingles, called "zills". Classically the term tambourine denotes an instrument with a drumhead, though some variants may not have a head at all. Tambourines are used with regular percussion sets, they can be mounted, for example on a stand as part of a drum kit, or they can be held in the hands and played by tapping or hitting the instrument. Tambourines come in many shapes with the most common being circular, it is found in many forms of music: Turkish folk music, Greek folk music, Italian folk music, classical music, Persian music, gospel music, pop music, country music, rock music. Tambourines originated in Egypt, where they were known as the tof to the Hebrews, in which the instrument was used in religious contexts; the word tambourine finds its origins in French tambourin, which referred to a long narrow drum used in Provence, the word being a diminutive of tambour "drum," altered by influence of Arabic tunbur "drum".
From the Middle Persian word tambūr "lute, drum". The tambourine can be held in the hand or mounted on a stand, can be played in numerous ways, from stroking or shaking the jingles to striking it with the hand or a stick or using the tambourine to strike the leg or hip. There are several ways to achieve a tambourine roll; the easiest method is to rotate the hand holding the tambourine back and forth, pivoting at the wrist. An advanced playing technique is known as the thumb roll; the finger or thumb is moved over the skin or rim of the tambourine, producing a fast roll from the jingles on the instrument. This takes more experience to master; the thumb or middle finger of the hand not holding the tambourine is run around the head of the instrument one centimeter from the rim with some pressure applied. If performed the thumb should bounce along the head producing the roll; the end of the roll is articulated using the heel of the hand or another finger. In the 2000s, the thumb roll may be performed with the use of wax or resin applied to the outside of the drum head.
This resin allows the thumb or finger to bounce more and forcefully across the head producing an sound. A continuous roll can be achieved by moving the thumb in a "figure of 8" pattern around the head. In rock music, a tambourine is most played: By lead singers who shake it while they play – Lead singers such as Mick Jagger, Freddie Mercury, George Michael, Mike Love, Jon Anderson, Jim Morrison, Robert Plant, Peter Gabriel, Liam Gallagher, Gene Clark, Ray Thomas, Trent Reznor, Ian Astbury, Stevie Nicks, Roger Daltrey, Jon Davison, Tyler Joseph, Gerard Way, Florence Welch, Tim Booth, Taylor Momsen, Davy Jones and Ryan Tedder have all been known to use a tambourine while singing. By drummers/percussionists – Drummers such as Larry Mullen, Jr. of U2 mount a tambourine above the cymbals of their hi-hat stand. Other drummers and percussionists who have played the tambourine include Ringo Starr, Roger Taylor, Hal Blaine, Phil Collins, Charlie Watts, Maureen Tucker, Bev Bevan, Ralph MacDonald, Danny Seraphine, Laudir de Oliveira, Mick Fleetwood, Milt Holland, Paulinho da Costa, Sheila E. Steve Gadd, Airto Moreira, Bobbye Hall, Russ Kunkel, Liberty DeVitto, Nigel Olsson, Luis Conte, Dave Weckl, Steve Jordan, Jeff Porcaro, Neil Peart, Graeme Edge, Dallas Taylor, Don Henley, Emil Richards, Ray Cooper, Crystal Taliefero, Angus MacLise, Alex Acuna, Joe Lala, Nick Mason, John Bonham, Billy Cobham, Ian Paice, Frank Ricotti, Carl Palmer, Bobby Colomby, Tré CoolTambourines in rock music are most headless, a ring with jangles but no drum skin.
The Rhythm Tech crescent-shaped tambourine and its derivatives are popular. The original Rhythm Tech tambourine is displayed in the Museum of Modern Art. Jack Ashford's distinctive tambourine playing was a dominant part of the rhythm section on Motown records; the tambourine was featured in "Green Tambourine", a busking-oriented song with which The Lemon Pipers, a 1960s musical group, notched a chart selection. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was among the earliest western composers to include the tambourine in his compositions. Since the late eighteenth century it has become a more permanent element of the western orchestral percussion section, as exemplified in some of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's dance pieces from The Nutcracker Suite. Gustav Holst's seven-movement orchestral suite The Planets features the tambourine in several places throughout the suite in the "Jupiter" movement. Buben is a musical instrument of the percussion family similar to a tambourine. A buben consists of a wooden or metal hoop with a tight membrane stretched over one of its sides.
Certain kinds of bubens are equipped with clanking metal rings, cymbals, or little bells. It is held in the hand and can be played in numerous ways, from stroking or shaking the jingles to striking it with hand, it is used for rhythmical accompaniment during soloist or choral singing. Buben is used by some folk and professional bands, as well as orchestras; the name is related to Greek language βόμβος and βομβύλη and related to Indo-Aryan bambharas and English bee. Buben is known to have existed in many countries since time immemorial in the East. There are many kinds of bubens, including def, daf, or qaval, daf or khaval, doira, daire or def, pandero. In Kievan Rus and milita
John Henry Bonham was an English musician and songwriter, best known as the drummer for the British rock band Led Zeppelin. Esteemed for his speed, fast bass drumming, distinctive sound, "feel" for the groove, he is regarded by many as the greatest and most influential rock drummer in history. Rolling Stone magazine ranked him number one in their list of the "100 Greatest Drummers of All Time". John Henry Bonham was born on 31 May 1948, in Redditch, England, to Joan and Jack Bonham, he began learning to play drums at five, making a kit of containers and coffee tins, imitating his idols Max Roach, Gene Krupa and Buddy Rich. His mother gave him a snare drum when he was 10, he received his first drum kit from his father at age 15, a Premier Percussion set. Bonham never took formal drum lessons. Between 1962 and 1963, still at school, Bonham joined the Blue Star Trio, Gerry Levene & the Avengers. Bonham attended Lodge Farm Secondary Modern School, where his headmaster wrote in his report that "He will either end up a dustman or a millionaire."
After leaving school in 1964, he worked for his father as an apprentice carpenter between drumming for local bands. In 1964, Bonham joined his first semi-professional band, Terry Webb and the Spiders, met his future wife Pat Phillips around the same time, he played in other Birmingham bands such as The Nicky James Movement and The Senators, who made a single, "She's a Mod", in 1964. Bonham took up drumming full-time. Two years he joined A Way of Life, but the band folded. Needing a regular income, he joined a blues group called Crawling King Snakes, whose lead singer was Robert Plant. In 1967, A Way of Life asked Bonham to return to the group, he agreed, while keeping in touch with Plant. Plant chose Bonham as the drummer; the band recorded demos but no album. In 1968, American singer Tim Rose asked Band of Joy to open his concerts; when Rose returned months Bonham was invited by the singer to drum for Rose's band, which gave him a regular income. After the breakup of the The Yardbirds in July of 1968, guitarist Jimmy Page formed another band and recruited Plant, who in turn suggested Bonham.
Page's choices for drummer included Procol Harum's B. J. Wilson and Paul Francis. However, on seeing Bonham drum for Tim Rose at a club in Hampstead, north London, in July 1968, Page and manager Peter Grant were convinced he was perfect for the project, first known as the New Yardbirds and as Led Zeppelin. Bonham was reluctant. Plant sent eight telegrams to Bonham's pub, the "Three Men in a Boat", in Bloxwich, which were followed by 40 telegrams from Grant. Bonham was receiving offers from Joe Cocker and Chris Farlowe but he accepted Grant's offer, he recalled, "I decided I liked their music better than Cocker's or Farlowe's." During Led Zeppelin's first tour of the United States in December 1968, Bonham became friends with Vanilla Fudge's drummer, Carmine Appice. Appice introduced him to Ludwig drums, which he used for the rest of his career. Bonham used the longest and heaviest sticks, which he called "trees", his hard hitting was evident on many Led Zeppelin songs, including "Immigrant Song", "When the Levee Breaks", "Kashmir", "The Ocean", "Achilles Last Stand".
Page let Bonham use a double bass drum in an early demo of "Communication Breakdown" but scratched the track because of Bonham's "over-use" of it. The studio recording of "Misty Mountain Hop" captures his dynamics exhibited on "No Quarter". On cuts from albums, Bonham handled funk and Latin-influenced drumming. Songs like "Royal Orleans" and "Fool in the Rain" are examples displaying a New Orleans shuffle and a half-time shuffle, his drum solo, first entitled "Pat's Delight" "Moby Dick" lasted 20 minutes. He used bare hands for different sounds. Bonham's sequence for the film The Song Remains the Same featured him in a drag race at Santa Pod Raceway to the sound of his solo, "Moby Dick". In Led Zeppelin tours after 1969, Bonham included orchestral timpani and a symphonic gong. In 1969, Bonham appeared with Page and Jones. Bonham played for Screaming Lord Sutch on Lord Sutch and Heavy Friends in 1970, he played on Lulu's 1971 single "Everybody Clap", written by Billy Lawrie. In 1972, he played on a Maurice Gibb-produced album by Jimmy Stevens called Don't Freak Me Out in the UK and Paid My Dues in the US, credited as "Gemini".
He drummed for his Birmingham friend, Roy Wood, on "Keep Your Hands on the Wheel", a single subsequently released on his 1979 album, On the Road Again, on Wings' album Back to the Egg on the tracks "Rockestra Theme" and "So Glad to See You Here". He was featured on Paul McCartney & Wings "Beware My Love" demo version first recorded in 1976, it remained unreleased until 2014 with the release of the album Wings at the Speed of Sound boxset. Bonham was the best man of Black Sabbath's Tony Iommi at his wedding ceremony. In 1974, Bonham appeared in the film Son of playing drums in Count Downe's band. Bonham appeared in a drum line-up including Ringo Starr on the soundtrack album. On 24 September 1980, Bonham was picked up by Led Zeppelin assistant Rex King to attend rehearsals at Bray Studios for a tour of North America, to begin 17 October in Montreal, Canada – the band's first since 1977. During the journey, Bonham asked to stop for breakfast, where he drank four quadruple vodka screwdrivers, he continued to drink after arri
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Download Festival is a British rock festival, held annually at Donington Park in Leicestershire, since 2003, in Paris, France since 2016 and Parramatta Park, Sydney since 2019 & Flemington Racecourse Melbourne Australia since 2018. It is the most popular British summer rock and heavy metal festival and has hosted some of the genre's biggest names, including Saxon, Black Sabbath, Metallica, Iron Maiden, Motörhead, Aerosmith, AC/DC, Def Leppard, Judas Priest, Status Quo, Mötley Crüe, Journey, ZZ Top, Thin Lizzy, Faith No More and Guns N' Roses; the 2015 festival featured massive technological surveillance by police in conjunction with festival organizers Live Nation UK. RFID wristbands and facial recognition technology were used to compare visual scans of attendees against a European criminal database; the Download Festival was conceived as a follow up to the Monsters of Rock festivals, held at the Donington Park circuit between 1980 and 1996. The first Download Festival was created by Stuart Galbraith, Tom Pyke and Andy Copping in 2003 in the same location.
Rather than run as a single day event Download was a two-day event, expanding to three days in 2005. The name Download was chosen for the festival for two reasons. Downloading was a dirty word in the music industry at the time, due to file sharing, rock is seen as a rebellious genre of music. Download was to be a Monsters of Rock for the 21st century and the internet would provide connectivity with its audience; the 2003 festival tickets had a code on them, which would allow festival goers to download tracks from bands which had played. Although this idea has been dropped in subsequent years, the festival organizers have nurtured an online community through the Download Festival Forums. A sounding board for the fans of the festival, the boards have become an integral part of the festival organization with regular contributions from Festival Director John Probyn and Promoter Andy Copping; the forums provide face to face feedback through the Fan Forum meetings and organise the Boardie BBQ and the Boardie Takeover night, football tournaments and a pub quiz for the R.
I. P. Campers who arrive on a Wednesday night; when Download began, it took. However in 2008 developments for Formula One meant that the infield was no longer suitable as a festival site. 2008 saw a move to the "Sunday Markets" site to the west of the circuit. Although adequate, numbers were limited and the location of the campsite meant that getting from tents to the arena was quite a hike. 2009 saw the arena move to a much more suitable location to the south of the circuit and has remained there every year since. Security for the festival has been undertaken by professional crowd management specialists Showsec, although the campsite area has had various contractors throughout. Since 2009 there has been on-site radio broadcasting from Rock Radio on 87.7FM. This RSL broadcast has aired music from festival bands and news to the festival site and the surrounding area, with the signal reaching as far as Nottingham; the Download Dog is the official mascot of the Download Festival, appears on a wide range of material related to the festival, such as tickets, stage banners and merchandise.
The first Download was held on 31 May – 1 June 2003. The original headliners were Iron Maiden and Limp Bizkit, although the latter pulled out and were replaced by Audioslave. Metallica attempted to step in as headliners, but were unable to do so, owing to headlining that year's Reading and Leeds Festivals. Instead, having performed an exclusive club show in London the night before, they played an unannounced "secret slot" in the afternoon on the second stage, with no soundcheck. "Sunday belonged to Metallica," wrote Mick Middles in Classic Rock. "At 3.15 the band were fired into the heart of the festival. Before me, a nonplussed, earplugged infant was held aloft. Somehow it seemed historical. Debuting selections from St. Anger, Metallica swept into a 90-minute frenzy so irresistible that the Hells Angels were seen clapping in wholehearted appreciation at the end; the coup was complete."Chevelle were scheduled to play the Scuzz stage on Sunday but pulled out at the last minute. Instruction, playing their second set of the festival, stepped in as the replacements.
The 2004 edition of the festival was held on 5–6 June. Another stage was added to the festival. Seventy-two bands played over the two days; the 2004 event was notable for several last minute hitches. First, SOiL missed their main stage appearance on Saturday. Static-X missed their slot due to a bus breakdown. On Sunday, Slayer arrived on time, but their equipment did not, leading to a slot change from the middle of the afternoon on the main stage to a slot on the second stage. Slayer were replaced on the main stage by Damageplan, their setlist ended with a rendition of Damageplan founders Vinnie Paul and Dimebag Darrell's most recognisable song from Pantera, "Walk." The biggest news came from the headliners Metallica. Taking to the stage an hour and a half late, James Hetfield explained the situation with Ulrich and the show began with Slayer drummer Dave Lombardo playing on "Battery" and "The Four Horsemen." Slipknot's Joey Jordison played the rest of the set apart from Fade to Black, played by Metallica's drum technician, Flemming Larsen.
The full line-up included: Scotland In June 2004 a two-day Download Fes
Edwin H. "Eddie" Kramer is engineer. Kramer has collaborated with several artists now in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, including the Beatles, David Bowie, Eric Clapton, Jimi Hendrix, The Kinks, Led Zeppelin, the Rolling Stones and Carlos Santana. Kramer produced records for other well-known artists in various genres, they include Anthrax, Joe Cocker, Peter Frampton, John Mayall, Ten Years After, Mott the Hoople, John Sebastian, Carly Simon, Dionne Warwick, Small Faces, Sir Lord Baltimore and Whitesnake. Kramer's film soundtrack credits include Blue Wild Angel: Live at the Isle of Wight, Festival Express, Jimi Plays Monterey, Jimi Plays Berkeley, Live at the Fillmore East, Mad Dogs and Englishmen, The Pursuit of Happiness, Rainbow Bridge, The Song Remains the Same, Woodstock: Music from the Original Soundtrack and More. Kramer was interviewed extensively in Jimi Hendrix: Hear My Train a Comin', a two-hour American Masters documentary which debuted in November 2013, he is a photographer who has exhibited a number of his intimate images of performers Hendrix, with whom he worked on Are You Experienced, Axis: Bold as Love, Electric Ladyland, Band of Gypsys, The Cry of Love, as well as the posthumous Valleys of Neptune, People and Angels, Miami Pop Festival, other releases produced through Experience Hendrix, the organization formed by Hendrix's heirs.
Kramer was born to art and music-loving parents Sonny and Minna Kramer, active opponents of apartheid who moved from South Africa to London in the early 1960s for political reasons. At age four he began studying the piano; that instrument remained his first love, but he dabbled with the violin and the cello. He studied classical piano at the South African College of Music. During these studies he became fascinated with rock, much to his father's chagrin. Kramer moved to London at age 19, some six months after his parents' relocating there. There he recorded jazz groups in a home studio with primitive recording equipment, installed hi-fi equipment in antique furniture, installed album playback systems for the Soho Record Centre, the preeminent London record store chain of the day. Kramer got his first industry job in 1962 at Advision Studios. A year he was hired by Pye Studios, where he assisted on mobile recordings of classical works, he assisted on Pye Studios recordings by the Kinks, the Searchers, the Undertakers, Petula Clark, Sammy Davis Jr.
In 1964 he founded KPS Studios, a mono- and two-track facility, acquired in 1965 by Regent Sound, where the Rolling Stones had recorded their first album. Regent tasked Kramer to help build and run their new four-track studio; the Beatles had recorded "Fixing a Hole" there to be featured on their 1967 album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. Kramer engineered two Beatles hit singles which appeared on Magical Mystery Tour—"All You Need Is Love" and "Baby You're a Rich Man"; the two songs were recorded at Olympic Studios, where, in 1967, Kramer engineered albums for the Rolling Stones, Small Faces and Jimi Hendrix. Kramer became a permanent part of Hendrix's creative process, collaborating on the four albums which Hendrix released before his death in 1970. In 1968 Kramer relocated to New York to continue working with Hendrix. Headquartered first at The Record Plant and working as an independent producer and engineer, Kramer produced the first Johnny Winter album and engineered a sequence of five Led Zeppelin albums, beginning with Led Zeppelin II.
Kramer and his crew attended the 1969 Woodstock Festival. It required vitamin B shots for stamina, was interspersed with brilliant performances from several of rock's then-reigning acts, as documented in both the film and the three-disc album Woodstock: Music from the Original Soundtrack and More. Kramer began the second decade of his career working alongside architect John Storyk to oversee creation of Jimi Hendrix's state-of-the-art studio, Electric Lady Studios and equipped for a then-astonishing $1 million, he served as Director of Engineering there from 1970 to 1974, producing Carly Simon's debut solo album, Carly Simon, as well as albums for Sha Na Na and Peter Frampton, engineering albums for Lena Horne, Dionne Warwick, David Bowie, David Live and Young Americans. In 1971 he mixed Humble Pie's double album Performance Rockin' the Fillmore, featuring Steve Marriott and Peter Frampton, still Larry Corryell's Barefoot Boy, his first and only album for Flying Dutchman label, Curtis Mayfield's double album Curtis/Live!, his first release after leaving The Impressions.
In 1973 Kramer mixed Led Zeppelin's Houses of the Holy. In the same year he began a lengthy association with Kiss. Earlier he had produced a four-song demo, he produced Alive!, Alive II, Double Platinum and Roll Over, Love Gun, Alive III as well as member Ace Frehley's first solo album, Ace Frehley, which yielded a hit single, "New York Groove". In 1973 he engineered the live Derek and the Dominos album In Concert. Kramer left Electric Lady Studios in 1975. Working independently, he engineered the Rolling Stones' Love You Live, Led Zeppelin's Physical Graffiti and The Song Remains the Same, Peter Frampton's Frampton Comes Alive!, the biggest-selling album of 1976, a 2-disc release that sold over 14 million units. In the same year he mixed Run with the Pack. Kramer produced Buddy Guy, classical guitarist John Williams, award-winning country group the Kentucky Headhunters, ha