A Bhutanese passport is a document which authorises and facilitates travel and other activities in Bhutan or by Bhutanese citizens. Foreign travel passports are issued to citizens of Bhutan for international travel by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In the Kingdom of Bumthang, which constitutes a part of modern-day Bhutan, feudal passbooks or'dzeng' were issued to court messengers in order to travel from kingdom to kingdom. Diplomacy and mediating were crucially important measures in pre-modern Bhutan chiefdoms; the passport contains text in Dzongkha. List of passports Visa policy of Bhutan Visa requirements for Bhutanese citizens Bhutanese Citizenship Act 1985 Bhutanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Tsirang District, is one of the 20 dzongkhags of Bhutan. The administrative center of the district is Damphu Tsirang is noted for its gentle slopes and mild climates; the dzongkhag is noted for its rich biodiversity. One of Bhutan's longest rivers, the Punatsang Chhu or Sankosh river flows through the district, it is the main districts. The dominant language in Tsirang is Nepali, spoken by the heterogeneous Lhotshampa. In the north of Tsirang, the national language, is spoken. Tsirang District is divided into twelve village blocks: The northernmost reaches of Tsirang District lie within Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park, one of the protected areas of Bhutan. Districts of Bhutan
Khas people called Khas Arya are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group native to the Indian subcontinent, what is now present-day Nepal as well as Kumaon and Himachal regions of North India. The Khas people speak the Khas language, they were known as Parbatiyas and Paharis. The term Khas has now become obsolete, as the Khas people have adopted other identities such as Chhetri and Bahun, because of the negative stereotypes associated with the term Khas, they have been connected to the Khasas mentioned in the ancient Hindu literature. Historian Bal Krishna Sharma and Dor Bahadur Bista speculates that the Khas people were of Indo-European origin. Historian Baburam Acharya speculates that Khas are a sub-clan of Aiḍa, an Arya clan originated at Idavritt. Khas were living in the Idavaritt in the 3rd millennium B. C. E. and the original meaning of the term Khas was Kshatriya. He further speculates. In the 2nd millennium B. C. E. One group of Khas migrated towards Iran while the other group migrated east of Sutlej river settling only in the hill regions up to Bheri River.
Historian Balkrishna Pokhrel contends that Khas were not the Vedic Aryans but Aryans of latter period like the Gurjara, Shaka and Pisacha. He further asserts that post-Vedic Aryans were akin to Vedic Aryans in terms of language and culture. Khas are believed to have arrived in the western reaches of Nepal at the beginning of first-millennium B. C. or middle of first-millennium A. D. from the north-west. It is that they absorbed people from different ethnic groups during this immigration, they have been connected to the medieval Khasa Malla kingdom. In the initial phase, majority of Khas people became others became Kshatriyas. Traditionally, the Khas were divided into "Khas Brahmins" and "Khas Rajputs". In the Kumaon and Garhwal regions of Uttarakhand in India, the Khas Brahmins and Khas Rajputs had a lower social status than the other Brahmins and Rajputs. However, in present-day western Nepal, they had the same status as the other Brahmins and Rajputs as a result of their political power in the Khasa Malla kingdom.
Until the 19th century, the Gorkhali referred to their country as Khas Desh. As they annexed the various neighbouring countries to the Gorkha kingdom, the terms such as Khas and Newar ceased to be used as the names of countries; the 1854 legal code, promulgated by the Nepali Prime Minister Jung Bahadur Rana, himself a Khas, no longer referred to Khas as a country, rather as a jāt within the Gorkha kingdom. The Shah dynasty of the Gorkha Kingdom, as well as the succeeding Rana dynasty, spoke the Khas language. However, they claimed to be Rajputs of western Indian origin, rather than the native Khas Kshatriyas. Since outside Nepal, the Khas social status was seen as inferior to that of the Rajputs, the rulers started describing themselves as natives of the Hill country, rather than that of the Khas country. Most people, considered the terms Khas and Parbatiya as synonymous. Jung Bahadur re-labeled the Khas jāt as Chhetri in present-day Nepal; the Brahmin immigrants from the plains considered the Khas as low-caste because of the latter's neglect of high-caste taboos.
The upper-class Khas people commissioned the Bahun priests to initiate them into the high-caste Chhetri order and adopted high-caste manners. Other Khas families who could not afford to pay the Bahun priests attempted to assume the Chhetri status but were not recognized as such by others, they are now called Matwali Chhetris. Because of the adoption of the Chhetri identity, the term Khas is becoming obsolete. According to Dor Bahadur Bista, "the Khas have vanished from the ethnographic map of Nepal". Historian Balkrishna Pokhrel writes the communities or caste in Khas group were Brahman, Gharti, Kami, Hudka, Gaine, etc; the tribal designation Khas refers to in some contexts only to the upper-class Khas group, i.e. Bahun and Chhetri, but in other contexts may include the low status occupational Khas groups such as Kāmi, Damāi, Sārki. Khas people are addressed with the term Khayan or Parbatiya or Partyā, Parbaté meaning hill-dweller by Newars; the hill Khas tribe are in large part associated with the Gorkhali invaders.
The Khas people referred to their language as Khas kurā, known as Parbatiya. The Newar people used the term Khayan Bhaya and Gorkhali as a name for this language, as they identified it with the Gorkhali conquerors; the Gorkhalis themselves started using this term to refer to their language at a stage. In an attempt to disassociate himself with his Khas past, the Rana monarch Jung Bahadur decreed that the term Gorkhali be used instead of Khas kurā to describe the language. Meanwhile, the British Indian administrators had started using the term Nepal to refer to the Gorkha kingdom. In the 1930s, the Gorkha government adopted this term to describe their country. Subsequently, the Khas language came to be known as Nepali language, it has become a national language of Nepal and lingua franca among the majority of population of North Bengal and Bhutan. Historian Balkrishna Pokhrel contends that the Khas language belonged to neither to Iranian languages nor to Indian languages but to mid Indo-Iranian
The Rai people are indigenous ethnolinguistic groups of the Indian subcontinent, what is now modern-day Nepal and present-day India in the Indian states of Sikkim and West Bengal. They were Rai meaning king (Rai means King in old Khas Kura; when the king Prithvi Narayan Shah couldn't defeat Khambu king, he somehow took them in confidence that the land is theirs forever and gave them the title Rai in around B. S. 1832. The post-Rai was provided to the topmost leaders of the region, they were given the power to collect land tax. That's why sometimes Rai people are called Jimee-wal; the Rai belong to the Kirati group or the Kirat confederate Limbu, Sunuwar and Dhimal ethnic groups. According to the anthropologist Dor Bahadur Bista of Tribhuvan University and late Professor Suniti Kumar Chatterji, Kirats migrated from the east via north Burma and Assam along the mid-hills with their pigs in ancient times. According to Chatterji and other prominent linguists, the Rai and Dhimal languages are pronominalised indicating earliest migratory wave of these peoples compared to other Tibeto-Burmans whose languages are non-pronominalised.
The traditional homeland of the Rai extends across Solukhumbu, home of the Nachhiring, Wambule, Dumi. Rais are found in significant numbers in the Indian state of Sikkim, Assam and in the northern West Bengal towns of Kalimpong, Kurseong and Darjeeling. According to Nepal's 2001 census, there are 635,751 Rai in Nepal representing 2.79% of the total population. Of this number, 70.89% declared themselves as practicing the traditional Kiranti religion and 25% declared themselves as Hindu. The Rai people are divided into many different sub-groups, including the Hangkhim, Sotang, Sampang, Jerung, Khaling, Shamsuhaang, Mewahang, Thulung, Tilung, Wambule, Yamphu, Puma and Dewas; some groups number only a few hundred members. More than 32 different panoti languages and dialects are recognized within the Tibeto-Burman languages family, their languages are Pronominalised Tibeto-Burman languages. The oral language is rich and ancient, as is Kiranti history, but the written script remains yet to be properly organised as nearly all traces of it were destroyed by the following rulers of Nepal, the Lichhavis and eradicated by the Shah dynasty.
The traditional Kiranti religion, predating Hinduism and Buddhism, is based on ancestor-worship and the placation of ancestor spirits through elaborate rituals governed by rules called Mundhum. Sumnima-Paruhang are worshipped as primordial parents, they are worshipped as Lord Parvati. The Rai people do not belong to the caste system; the Rai people never adopted a caste. The Nepal Federation of Indigenous Nationalities and the Nepal government have recognised this fact. Subsistence agriculture of rice, wheat and cotton is the main occupation of the Rai although many Rai have been recruited into military service with the Nepal army and police, the Indian and British Gurkha regiments and Singapore Police Force. Rai women decorate themselves lavishly with gold coin jewellery. Marriage unions are monogamous and arranged by parents, although "love marriage", bride capture in the past and elopement are alternative methods. Distilled spirits called aaraakha, ngashi, or waasim are served, as well as wachipa, a kind of food made out of rice and other ingredients like chicken or ashes of feathers of hen or cock, mildly bitter in taste, distributed after the religious ceremonies are central to Rai culture.
Sakela or Sakewa dance is the greatest religious festival of Kirant Rai people in Nepal. The Sakela celebration is a prayer to Mother Nature for healthy crops and protection from natural calamities. Therefore, the festival is known as "Bhumi Puja". Starting on Baisakh Purnima, Sakela Ubhauli is celebrated for 15 days in Baisakh marking the beginning of the farming year. Nepal is a ancient country, ruled by many dynasties. Among them, the Kirat rule is taken as a significant one, being the longest period that extended from pre-historic to the historic period. In ancient Hindu scriptures, Nepal is referred as the "Kirat Desh" or "the Land of Kirats"; when the 28th Kirat King Paruka was ruling in the valley, the Sombanshi ruler attacked his regime many times from the west. Although he repelled their attacks, he was forced to move to Shankhamul from Gokarna, he had built a Royal Palace called "Patuka" there for himself. The Patuka Palace is no more to be seen, except its ruins in the form of mound. "Patuka" had changed Shankhamul into a beautiful town.
The last King of the Kirat dynasty was Gasti. He was overthrown by the Sombanshi ruler Nimisha, it brought to the end of the powerful Kirat dynasty. After their defeat, Kirats moved to the eastern hills of Nepal and settled down divided into small principalities, their settlements were divided into three regions. These regions are still populated by Kirats. Khambu are the inhabitants of near and central K
Thimphu is the capital and largest city of the Kingdom of Bhutan. It is situated in the western central part of Bhutan, the surrounding valley is one of Bhutan's dzongkhags, the Thimphu District; the ancient capital city of Punakha was replaced as capital by Thimphu in 1955, in 1961 Thimphu was declared as the capital of the Kingdom of Bhutan by His Majesty the 3rd Druk Gyalpo Jigme Dorji Wangchuck. The city extends in a north-south direction on the west bank of the valley formed by the Raidāk River, known as the Wang Chuu or Thimphu Chuu in Bhutan. Thimphu is the fourth highest capital in the world by altitude and ranges in altitude from 2,248 metres to 2,648 metres. Unusually for a capital city, Thimphu does not have its own airport, but relies on the Paro Airport connected by road some 54 kilometres away. Thimphu, as the political and economic center of Bhutan, has a dominant agricultural and livestock base, which contributes 45% of the country's GNP. Tourism, though a contributor to the economy, is regulated, maintaining a balance between the traditional and modernization.
Thimphu contains most of the important political buildings in Bhutan, including the National Assembly of the newly-formed parliamentary democracy and Dechencholing Palace, the official residence of the King, located to the north of the city. Thimphu is coordinated by the "Thimphu Structure Plan", an Urban Development Plan which evolved in 1998 with the objective of protecting the fragile ecology of the valley; this development is ongoing with financial assistance from the World Bank and Asian Development Bank. The culture of Bhutan is reflected in Thimphu in literature, religion and national dress code, the monastic practices of the monasteries and dance, in the media. Tshechu is an important festival when mask dances, popularly known as Cham dances, are performed in the courtyards of the Tashichho Dzong in Thimphu, it is a four-day festival held every year in September or October, on dates corresponding to the Bhutanese calendar. Before 1960, Thimphu consisted of a group of hamlets scattered across the valley including Motithang, Changlimithang and Taba, some of which constitute districts of the city today.
In 1885, a battle was held at. The decisive victory opened the way for Ugyen Wangchuck, the first King of Bhutan to control the whole country. Since this time the sports ground has been of major importance to the city; the modern Changlimithang Stadium was built on the site in 1974. Under the Wangchu Dynasty, the country enjoyed peace and progress under successive reformist monarchs; the third king, Jigme Dorji Wangchuck, reformed the old pseudo-feudal systems by abolishing serfdom, redistributing land, reforming taxation. He introduced many executive and judiciary reforms. Reforms continued and in 1952 the decision was made to shift the capital from the ancient capital of Punakha to Thimphu; the fourth king, Jigme Singye Wangchuck, opened the country for development and India provided the needed impetus in this process with financial and other forms of assistance. In 1961, Thimphu became the capital of Bhutan. Bhutan joined the Colombo Plan in 1962, the Universal Postal Union in 1969 and became a member of the United Nations in 1971.
The presence of diplomatic missions and international funding organizations in Thimphu resulted in rapid expansion of Thimphu as a metropolis. The fourth king, who had established the National Assembly in 1953, devolved all executive powers to a council of ministers elected by the people in 1998, he introduced a system of voting no confidence in the king, which empowered the parliament to remove the monarch. The National Constitution Committee in Thimphu started drafting the Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan in 2001. In 2005, the fourth king of Bhutan announced his decision to hand over the reins of his kingdom to his son Prince Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuk; the coronation of the king was held in Thimphu at the refurbished Changlimithang Stadium and coincided with the centenary of the establishment of the House of Wangchuck. In 2008, this paved way for the transition from absolute monarchic rule to a parliamentary democratic constitutional monarchy, with Thimphu as the headquarters of the new government, with the national defined objective of achieving "Gross National Happiness" concomitant with the growth of Gross National Product.
Thimphu is situated in the constricted, linear valley of the Raidāk River, known as the Thimphu River. While the surrounding hills are in an altitudinal range of 2,000 to 3,800 metres, the city itself has an altitude range varying between 2,248 metres and 2,648 metres, it is these two variations in altitude and climate which determine the habitable zones and vegetation typology for the valley. The valley, however, is spread out to the north and west. At the southern end of the city, the Lungten Zampa bridge connects the east and west banks of the Wang Chuu which flows through the heart of city; the Raidāk River raises in the snow fields at an altitude of about 7,000 metres. It has many tributaries that flow from the Himalayan peaks that dictate the topography of the Thimphu valley; the Thimphu valley, so formed, is delimited by a steep eastern ridge that rises from the riverbed and
The Wylie transliteration system is a method for transliterating Tibetan script using only the letters available on a typical English language typewriter. It bears the name of Turrell V. Wylie, who described the scheme in an article, A Standard System of Tibetan Transcription, published in 1959, it has subsequently become a standard transliteration scheme in Tibetan studies in the United States. Any Tibetan language romanization scheme is faced with a dilemma: should it seek to reproduce the sounds of spoken Tibetan, or the spelling of written Tibetan? These differ as Tibetan orthography became fixed in the 11th century, while pronunciation continued to evolve, comparable to the English orthography and French orthography, which reflect Late Medieval pronunciation. Previous transcription schemes sought to split the difference with the result that they achieved neither goal perfectly. Wylie transliteration was designed to transcribe Tibetan script as written, which led to its acceptance in academic and historical studies.
It is not intended to represent the pronunciation of Tibetan words. The Wylie scheme transliterates the Tibetan characters as follows: In Tibetan script, consonant clusters within a syllable may be represented through the use of prefixed or suffixed letters or by letters superscripted or subscripted to the root letter; the Wylie system does not distinguish these as in practice no ambiguity is possible under the rules of Tibetan spelling. The exception is the sequence gy -, which may be written either with a subfix y. In the Wylie system, these are distinguished by inserting a period between a prefix g and initial y. E.g. གྱང "wall" is gyang, while གཡང་ "chasm" is g.yang. The four vowel marks are transliterated: When a syllable has no explicit vowel marking, the letter a is used to represent the default vowel "a". Many previous systems of Tibetan transliteration included internal capitalisation schemes—essentially, capitalising the root letter rather than the first letter of a word, when the first letter is a prefix consonant.
Tibetan dictionaries are organized by root letter, prefixes are silent, so knowing the root letter gives a better idea of pronunciation. However, these schemes were applied inconsistently, only when the word would be capitalised according to the norms of Latin text. On the grounds that internal capitalisation was overly cumbersome, of limited usefulness in determining pronunciation, superfluous to a reader able to use a Tibetan dictionary, Wylie specified that if a word was to be capitalised, the first letter should be capital, in conformity with Western capitalisation practices, thus a particular Tibetan Buddhist sect is capitalised not bKa' brgyud. Wylie's original scheme is not capable of transliterating all Tibetan-script texts. In particular, it has no correspondences for most Tibetan punctuation symbols, lacks the ability to represent non-Tibetan words written in Tibetan script. Accordingly, various scholars have adopted incomplete conventions as needed; the Tibetan and Himalayan Library at the University of Virginia developed a standard, Extended Wylie Tibetan System or EWTS, that addresses these deficiencies systematically.
It uses Latin punctuation to represent the missing characters. Several software systems, including TISE, now use this standard to allow one to type unrestricted Tibetan script on a Latin keyboard. Since the Wylie system is not intuitive for use by linguists unfamiliar with Tibetan, a new transliteration system based on the International Phonetic Alphabet has been proposed to replace Wylie in articles on Tibetan historical phonology. Tibetan pinyin THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription Tise - extended Wylie input method for Tibetan script Tibetan script Standard Tibetan Uchen script Wylie, Turrell. A Standard System of Tibetan Transcription. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, p. 261-267 The Wylie Translation Table, at Nitartha International Staatsbibliothek Berlin – A standard system of Tibetan transcription THDL Extended Wylie Transliteration Scheme Tibetan transliteration: convert between Wylie or EWTS and Unicode Test Tibetan display Utility for converting Extended Wylie plain text to Unicode Tibetan
Phuntsholing spelled as Phuentsholing is a border town in southern Bhutan and is the administrative seat of Chukha District. The town occupies parts of both Phuentsholing Sampheling Gewog. Phuentsholing adjoins the Indian town of Jaigaon, cross-border trade has resulted in a thriving local economy; the town has the headquarters of the Bank of Bhutan but shifted to Thimphu. In 2017, Phuentsholing had a population of 27,658. On 5 April 1964, reformist Prime Minister Jigme Dorji was assassinated in Phuntsholing by monarchist cadres as the king lay ill in Switzerland; the Dorji family was subsequently put under close watch. It was 1958; the late Prime Minister, Jigme Dorji informed Phuentsholing residents that concrete houses could be constructed. Tashi group of companies constructed the first concrete house, followed by Indians; some of the structures that exist to this day are the buildings housing Bhutan Enterprise, Jatan Prasad Lal Chand Prasad shop and a beauty parlour near Zantdopelri lhakhang.
After the announcement, 18 shops were built around Zangdopelri area. The Zangdopelri area was a bus terminal, on Saturday a market would be assembled. Apart from the cottages, there were several huts and Phuentsholing was beginning to grow; the India-Bhutan border at Phuntsholing separates two different peoples and cultures. Jaigaon across the border is larger and loud, similar to many other West Bengal centres of commerce, albeit with many Bhutanese shoppers. Phuntsholing is uniquely more urban than other Bhutanese towns as it is the Bhutan financial and trading capital, it has been affected a little by the neighbouring culture, but is distinctly far more quiet and orderly than its neighbour. The majority of goods traded go into Bhutan transt through Phuntsholing, making the town the gateway to Bhutan for trade with India; the border with China is closed. The border is separated by a long wall with a single Bhutanese gate. Locals can sometimes cross without being asked for papers. Tourists from India and Maldives do not need visa to enter Bhutan but have to show proof of identity such as passport or voter ID card and apply for a permit at Phuntsholing to enter Bhutan.
Other foreigners need a visa presented by a hired registered tour guide. The entry gate into the town is manned by the Indian Bhutanese Army guards; the terrain inclines soon after the gate. The town does not have an airport or railway but Indian Railways has railway stations nearby. A 20 km railway track has been planned from the nearest railway station Hashimara in North Bengal to Phuntsholing. Siliguri is the nearest large city in India. New Jalpaiguri and New Alipurduar are the nearest large railway. Buses are available from the towns in North Bengal. Buses are operated by Bhutanese government. Once at Phuntsholing, the Lateral Road gives travelers access to the rest of Bhutan. From anywhere in the city, one can see the road to Thimphu snaking up the hillside, in the evening it is easy to see the headlights of distant vehicles heading towards the capital. Opposite the big ground PSA is the road; the Lateral Road, Bhutan's main highway, begins in Phuntsholing and winds some 557 kilometres to Trashigang in the east.
Tourism in Bhutan Transport in Bhutan Bhutan-India Border Phuentsholing travel guide from Wikivoyage'Himalayas' Sentry', Travelogue in The Indian Express, 21-09-08, by Arjun Razdan