Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Foxtel is an Australian pay television company, operating in cable television, direct broadcast satellite television, IPTV streaming services. It was formed in 1995 through a joint venture established between News Telstra. With Fox being the 65% and Telstra the 35% shareholders, it shares many features with the Sky service in the United Kingdom, including iQ, the electronic program guide, a similar remote control, Red Button Active. In 1995, a venture between News Corporation and Telstra took place whereby Telstra would transmit a TV signal through its coaxial network and News Corporation would be the basis for offering channel negotiations and connections. Foxtel was formed... On 23 October 1995, Foxtel commenced a 20 channel service, delivered over the Telstra Hybrid Fibre Coaxial network. In May 1998, Australis Media, the owner of a satellite television service known as Galaxy, was declared insolvent. In June 1998, Foxtel was able to boost its customer base by acquiring Galaxy subscribers from the liquidator of Australis Media and commenced supplying programming to Galaxy's subscribers on an interim basis.
In February 1999, Foxtel began offering its own satellite service to new customers. Publishing and Broadcasting Limited bought half of News Corporation's shares in October 1998, giving each quarter ownership. In 2002, a Content Sharing Agreement between Foxtel and Optus Television was approved by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. On 11 July 2011, Austar announced that "it had entered into definitive transaction agreements with Liberty Global, Inc. and Foxtel Management Pty Limited under which Foxtel will acquire Austar by a series of transactions including a scheme of arrangement." This takeover involved a minority shareholder approval on 30 March 2012, the approval of the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission on 10 April 2012, has had approval from a Second Court Hearing. Austar shares were suspended from the ASX on 16 April 2012 and delisted on 27 April 2012; the takeover was completed on 24 May 2012. News Corporation acquired Consolidated Media Holdings in November 2012, bringing its stake in Foxtel to 50%, up from 25%.
On 15 June 2015, Foxtel agreed to buyout 15% shares in Ten Network Holdings, subject to approval from the ACCC. Prior to the acquisition, Discovery backed out from bidding partnership with Foxtel. In June 2017, Foxtel announced that it would be undergoing a major rebrand – the first in its 22-year history – as part of a move to convey an image that "Foxtel is for everyone"; the former logo, described by the company as "quite aggressive, quite arrogant, quite elitist", would be replaced with an all lowercase logo, its Foxtel Play service would rebranded to Foxtel Now. On 6 March 2018, News Corp Australia announced a merger of Fox Sports with Foxtel. News Corp owns a 65 percent stake in the combined entity, with Telstra owning 35 percent; the combining of the two businesses places emphasis on live-streaming sports and entertainment. Foxtel grew in 2007, with most of Foxtel's highest-ever rating events being broadcast that year, including the 2007 AFC Asian Cup quarter-final between Australia and Japan, which drew an average of 419,000 viewers, an Australian pay television record at that time.
This ratings record has since been eclipsed by the 2011 Rugby World Cup on Fox Sports 1 averaging around 500,000 viewers, smashed by the 2012 London Olympics Coverage, broadcast on 8 dedicated channels in both HD and SD formats, which saw an average of 946,432 viewers tuning in on the opening weekend, with around 600,000 to 700,000 viewers nightly thereafter. As of 2012, Fox Sports channels Fox Footy, average between 90,000 and 300,000 + viewers for NRL/AFL matches throughout the week; the highest-rated light entertainment shows are The Simpsons most weeknights on FOX8 with around 110,000 viewers, as well as Family Guy with around 70,000 viewers. A&E has recorded healthy audience numbers for its TruTV & A&E US syndicated shows from the US – Pawn Stars, Hardcore Pawn, Storage Wars. BBC UKTV consistently rates well with British soaps EastEnders and Coronation Street; the LifeStyle channel has experienced audiences in excess of 100,000 people for its Premiere shows Location, Location Australia, Grand Designs Australia, Selling Houses Australia, Disney Channel and The Real Housewives of Melbourne brings strong ratings.
Foxtel transmits its cable service via Telstra hybrid fibre-coaxial cable into the Brisbane, Melbourne and Perth metropolitan areas, along with the Gold Coast. Foxtel now transmits its satellite service into these cities as well as all over Australia including regional areas since the takeover of Austar, previous Austar customers are now 100% Foxtel customers with the conversion from Austar to Foxtel in regional Australia is now complete, satellite service is not supplied to user sites where Telstra HFC cable is available in metropolitan areas. Foxtel on Mobile launched on Telstra's Next G Network in late 2006 and is now available within Telstra Next G coverage areas, which covers 99% of the population. Telstra's network and Foxtel were created to combat the threat posed to Telstra's local call business by the combination of Optus Vision content bundling with Optus' local telephony services.
The Last Song (film)
The Last Song is a 2010 American coming-of-age teen romantic drama film developed alongside Nicholas Sparks' 2009 novel of the same name. The film was directed by Julie Anne Robinson in her feature film directorial debut and co-written by Sparks and Jeff Van Wie; the Last Song stars Miley Cyrus, Liam Hemsworth, Greg Kinnear, follows a troubled teenager as she reconnects with her estranged father and falls in love during a summer in a quiet Southern United States beach town. Sparks was approached to write the novel. Sparks completed the screenplay in January 2009, prior to the completion of the novel, making The Last Song his first script to be optioned for film; the setting in North Carolina like the novel, relocated to Georgia after the states had campaigned for months to host production. Upon beginning production in Tybee Island and nearby Savannah, The Last Song became the first movie to be both filmed and set in Tybee Island. Filming lasted from June 15 to August 18, 2009, with much of it occurring on the island's beach and pier.
The Last Song was released by Touchstone Pictures on March 31st, 2010. At 17, Veronica "Ronnie" Miller remains as rebellious as she was the day her parents divorced and her father moved to Georgia three years prior. Once a classical piano child prodigy under the tutelage of her father, Steve Miller, Ronnie now ignores the instrument and has not spoken with her father since he left. While Juilliard School has been interested in her since she was young, Ronnie refuses to attend. Steve now has the chance to reconnect with his estranged daughter when her mother, Kim Miller sends the rebellious teen and her younger brother, Jonah, to spend the summer with him. Steve, a former Juilliard School professor and concert pianist, lives a quiet life in Wrightsville Beach, the small beach town in Georgia where he grew up, working on a stained-glass window for the local church to replace the one the church lost in a fire. According to the locals, Steve had set fire to the church one night. After arrival, Ronnie becomes miserable and defensive toward all those around her, including handsome, popular Will Blakelee, whose introduction involved crashing into her during a volleyball match, accidentally spilling Ronnie's strawberry shake on her.
She meets Blaze, an outcast who lives with her boyfriend Marcus. While at a beach campfire, Marcus hits on Ronnie and Blaze mistakes this for Ronnie flirting with him. Angered by this, Blaze frames Ronnie for shoplifting, causing her arrest. On, Ronnie discovers a loggerhead sea turtle nest at the beach by her house, while protecting it from raccoons, she meets Will again on his volunteer work for the aquarium. After a night of staying up to defend the turtle eggs from predators with Will, she discovers he is deeper than she expected, begins to develop feelings for him; the next day, Will takes Ronnie to show her the aquarium. After they leave to the beach, Ashley shows up and tells Ronnie about Will's past relationships and how taking them to see the aquarium was a routine of his, making Ronnie doubtful of her feelings toward him. Will finds her at the turtle's nest and they have an argument about his past relationships; when Ronnie suggests she does not want to be another girl on the list and that they should end their relationship for good, Will embraces her and they kiss passionately, proving his feelings for her as akin to his quoting she is "not like the other girls."
Marcus breaks up with Blaze because he wants Ronnie, which leads Will and him to fight at his sister Megan's wedding party. Ronnie soon hears the rumor. Distraught, she laments about the situation. Knowing that his friend Scott, while playing around, set fire to the church, Will is overcome by guilt and goes to Steve to apologize; when Ronnie comes in hearing this, she walks out and Will follows, where they have an argument and break up. Will leaves. Fall Jonah returns to New York for the school year. Ronnie stays behind to take care of their father, who revealed to Ronnie and Jonah during the summer that he is terminally ill. Leading a slow life, she tries to make up for the time with her father, she continues work on a composition he had been writing, after losing the steadiness of his hands due to his illness. He dies. At his funeral, she stands to make a speech, but declares that no words could be able to show how wonderful her father was. Instead, she decides to share with them the song. Before she sits down to play, sunlight shines through the stained-glass window.
Ronnie smiles and says "Hi, Daddy," remembering what she overheard her father tell Jonah earlier in the movie, that whenever light shines through the window, it is he. Blaze and other townsfolk offer Ronnie kind words after the funeral outside. On, while talking to the attendants, she runs into Will, he says that he liked the song she played and that he knows her dad did and Ronnie thanks him for coming. Having decided to attend Juilliard, Ronnie is packing up to return to New York when she sees Will standing outside, she goes outside to see him and Will apologizes to her for everything that had happened, Ronnie forgives him. Will surprises Ronnie by revealing that he will be transferring to Columbia to be with her and they passionately kiss; the end credits show Ronnie smiling to herself. Miley Cyrus, as Veronica "Ronnie" L. Miller, is an angry, rebellious 17-year-old forced to spend a summer with her estranged father, she falls in
Home and Away
Home and Away is an Australian television soap opera. It was created by Alan Bateman and commenced broadcast on the Seven Network on 17 January 1988. Bateman came up with the concept of the show during a trip to Kangaroo Point, New South Wales, where he noticed locals were complaining about the construction of a foster home and against the idea of foster children from the city living in the area; the soap opera was going to be called Refuge, but the name was changed to the "friendlier" title of Home and Away once production began. The show premiered with a ninety-minute pilot episode. Since each subsequent episode has aired for a duration of twenty-two minutes and Home and Away has become the second longest-running drama series in Australian television. In Australia, it is broadcast from Mondays to Thursdays at 7:00 pm.'Home and Away' follows the lives and loves of the residents in Summer Bay, a fictional seaside town of New South Wales. The series focused on the Fletcher family – Tom and Pippa, their five foster children, Frank Morgan, Carly Morris, Lynn Davenport, Steven Matheson and Sally Fletcher – who moved from the city into the Summer Bay House, where they assumed the new job of running the caravan park, took in a sixth foster child, Bobby Simpson.
Home and Away was not without controversy. During the first season alone, it featured several adult-themed storylines such as teen pregnancy, rape and alcohol addiction and drug overdose; the series has dealt with similar storylines over the years which have exceeded its restricted time slot. Palm Beach in Sydney's Northern Beaches district has been used as the location for Summer Bay since 1988; the exterior scenes are filmed at Palm Beach, while the interior scenes are filmed at the Australian Technology Park in Redfern. Home and Away has been sold to over eighty countries around the world, making it one of Australia's successful media exports, it is popular in the United Kingdom, is one of the highest-rating shows on RTÉ Television in Ireland and TV2 in New Zealand. In Australia and Away is the most awarded program at the Logie Awards, with a total of forty-six wins, including Best Drama Program; some cast members have won several other awards such as the Gold Logie for Most Popular Personality on Australian Television, Silver Logie for Most Popular Actor, Most Popular Actress.
In 2015, Home and Away was inducted into the Logie Hall of Fame. After the Seven Network cancelled their soap opera Neighbours on 12 July 1985 due to low ratings, rival network Ten picked it up and turned it into a success. A couple of years Seven's head of drama, Alan Bateman, became desperate to get back into the soap market and began to work out how to launch another soap, not a copy of Neighbours. While on a trip to Kangaroo Point, New South Wales with his family, Bateman began talking to locals who were "up in arms" over the construction of a foster home for children from the city. Seeing the degree of conflict the "influx of parentless children on a tight-knit community" was having, Bateman came away with the idea for a new serial, he explained "Nobody in the community wanted them to move in and I began to wonder how streetwise city kids would adapt to the new lifestyle. I thought, there is my slice of life in a community." Bateman set the serial in the fictional town of Summer Bay. While Seven Network executives were unconvinced by the idea, audience research was positive.
The soap opera was called Refuge, but the name was changed to the "friendlier" title of Home and Away once production began. Home and Away has since become the second-longest drama series in Australian television after Neighbours. During the show's first season in 1988, a rape storyline for the character Carly Morris outraged the public and a protest erupted, as viewers deemed it an inappropriate subject to be covering in an early evening time slot. In 2002, several former characters such as Frank Morgan, Carly Morris, Steven Matheson, Blake Dean and Sophie Simpson returned for a special storyline to mark the 150th anniversary of settlement in Summer Bay; the storyline featured a majority of the cast boarded onto a ferry boat for a night cruise. In July 2005, Home and Away celebrated its 4000th episode, which saw many former cast members return for Alf Stewart's surprise 60th birthday party. In March 2007, the commercial television industry's Annual Code Complaint Report revealed that Home and Away was the eighth most complained about show on Australian television, the only drama series in the top ten complaint list.
From 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2006, there were 23 written complaints about the show as viewers thought it was inappropriate for it to be shown in its 7:00 pm timeslot. In March 2009, it was alleged that Seven had agreed to censor a then-upcoming lesbian kiss scene between Charlie Buckton and Joey Collins, after receiving many complaints from conservative groups and mothers who did not want their children exposed to same-sex relationships in a family show. Seven's head of creative drama, Bevan Lee confirmed that the censorship allegations were in fact false and that the scene would still go to air as planned. Home and Away celebrated its 21st year in production in Sydney on 23 July 2009; the mayor of Sydney's Pittwater Council presented
Neighbours is an Australian television soap opera. It was first broadcast on the Seven Network on 18 March 1985, it was created by TV executive Reg Watson, who proposed the idea of making a show that focused on realistic stories and portrayed adults and teenagers who talk and solve their problems together. Seven decided to commission the show following the success of Watson's shorter-lived soap Sons and Daughters, which aired on the network. Although successful in Melbourne, Neighbours underperformed in the Sydney market and struggled for months before Seven cancelled it; the show was bought by rival network Ten. After taking over production of the show, the new network had to build replica sets because Seven destroyed the originals to prevent its rival from obtaining them. Ten began screening Neighbours on 20 January 1986, beginning where the previous series left off and commencing with episode 171. Neighbours has since become the longest running drama series in Australian television and in 2005, it was inducted collectively into the Logie Hall of Fame.
The show's storylines concern the domestic and professional lives of the people who live and work in Erinsborough, a fictional suburb of Melbourne, Victoria. The series centres on the residents of Ramsay Street, a short cul-de-sac, its neighbouring area, the Lassiters complex, which includes a bar, cafe, police station, lawyers' office and park. Neighbours began with three families created by Watson -- the Robinsons and the Clarkes. Watson said; the Robinsons and the Ramsays were involved in an ongoing rivalry. Pin Oak Court, in Vermont South, is the real cul-de-sac that has doubled for Ramsay Street since 1985. All of the houses featured are real and the residents allow the production to shoot external scenes in their yards; the interior scenes are filmed at the Global Television studios in Forest Hill. Through its entire run in Australia, Neighbours has been screened as a twenty-two-minute episode each week night in an early-evening slot. Neighbours moved to Ten's digital channel, Eleven on 11 January 2011, it is broadcast each weeknight at 6:30 pm.
The show is produced by FremantleMedia Australia and has been sold to over sixty countries around the world, making it one of Australia's most successful media exports. Neighbours was first screened in the United Kingdom in October 1986 on BBC1 where it achieved huge popularity among British audiences in the late 1980s and 1990s. In 2008, it moved to the UK's Channel 5. From 2018, the show became the first Australian drama to air all year round after securing a new deal with Channel 5. Neighbours was created in the early-to-mid-1980s by Australian TV executive Reg Watson. Watson decided to create a soap opera after working on Crossroads and seeing how successful it and Coronation Street were in Britain, he had created such successful Australian made soap operas as The Young Doctors and Sons and Daughters. Watson proposed the idea of making a show that would focus on more realistic stories and portray teens and adults who talk to each other and solve their problems together. Watson, who worked for the Grundy production company, decided to make his show appeal to both Australia and Britain.
In 2005, Darren Devlyn and Caroline Frost from the Herald Sun reported that Watson took his idea to the Nine Network in 1982, but it was rejected. Former Network Nine chief executive Ian Johnson commented that it was one of the "biggest missed opportunities" in his twenty-four years at the network, he added "I remember it being discussed, but I'm not sure what went against it. It may have had something to do with the fact we'd picked up Sale of the Century with Tony Barber in 1980 and it was doing huge business, so we didn't have a pressing need for a five-night-a-week show." Watson took his idea to the Seven Network, who commissioned the show, following the success of his other Seven Network soap opera and Daughters. Several titles for the show were discussed, including People Like Us, One Way Street, No Through Road and Living Together until the network programmers voted on Neighbours; the first episode was broadcast on 18 March 1985 and reviews for the show were favourable. However, the Melbourne-produced programme underperformed in the Sydney market and after a meeting of the general managers, Seven decided to drop the show in October 1985.
Seven's Melbourne programme boss, Gary Fenton said Sydney chief Ted Thomas told the other general managers that Seven could not afford three dramas and argued that the Sydney-based A Country Practice and Sons and Daughters be retained. Neighbours was bought by Seven's rival Network Ten; the new network had to build replica sets when it took over production after Seven destroyed the original sets to prevent the rival network obtaining them. Ten began screening the series with episode 171 on 20 January 1986. In 1986, the series was bought by the BBC as part of their new daytime schedule in the United Kingdom. Neighbours made its debut on BBC1 on 27 October 1986 starting with the pilot episode, it soon gained a loyal audience and the show became popular with younger viewers, before long was watched by up to 16 million viewers - more than the entire population of Australia at the time. In 1988 Neighbours became the only television show to have its entire cast flown over to the UK to make an appearance at the Royal Variety Performance in front of the Queen.
Neighbours has since become the longest running drama series in Australian television and the seventh longest running serial drama still on the air in the world. In 2005, Neighbours celebrated its 20th anniversary and over twenty former cast members r
Miley Ray Hemsworth is an American singer and actress. After playing minor roles in the television series Doc and the film Big Fish in her childhood, she became a teen idol starring as the character Miley Stewart on the Disney Channel television series Hannah Montana in 2006, her father, Billy Ray Cyrus starred on the series, which aired for four seasons until 2011. Cyrus has earned three number-one albums on the US Billboard 200 with Meet Miley Cyrus and Bangerz, her releases The Time of Our Lives, Can't Be Tamed, Younger Now debuted in the top-five in the United States, while her album Miley Cyrus & Her Dead Petz was released for free online streaming on SoundCloud. Further, Cyrus has attained an additional two number-one and three top-ten soundtracks credited as Hannah Montana, she has earned nine top-ten entries on the US Billboard Hot 100: "See You Again", "7 Things", "The Climb", "He Could Be the One", "Party in the U. S. A.", "Can't Be Tamed", "We Can't Stop", "Malibu" and the chart-topping "Wrecking Ball".
Cyrus launched her film career as a voice actress in the animated film Bolt, starred in the feature films Hannah Montana: The Movie and the coming-of-age film The Last Song. On television, she was the host of the 2015 MTV Video Music Awards and has hosted Saturday Night Live three times since her first appearance in 2011. Cyrus has been featured as a coach on the singing competition television series The Voice. Cyrus has earned numerous awards and nominations, was recognized as "Artist of the Year" by MTV in 2013, was included on the annual Time 100 list of the most influential people in 2008 and 2014, respectively, her image has been the subject of significant media commentary and public controversy, including the transition from her wholesome image to a highly-sexual persona in the early 2010s. Cyrus is an outspoken animal rights advocate, adopted a vegan lifestyle in 2014; that year, she founded the non-profit Happy Hippie Foundation that focuses on youth homelessness and the LGBT community.
Destiny Hope Cyrus was born November 23, 1992, in Franklin, Tennessee, to Tish Cyrus and singer Billy Ray Cyrus. Cyrus was born with supraventricular tachycardia, a condition causing an abnormal resting heart rate, her birth name, Destiny Hope, expressed her parents' belief. Her parents nicknamed her "Smiley", which they shortened to "Miley", because she smiled as an infant. In 2008, she changed her name to Miley Ray Cyrus. Against the advice of her father's record company, Cyrus's parents secretly married on December 28, 1993, a year after her birth, they had two more children together, son Braison and daughter Noah. From previous relationships, her mother has two other children and Brandi, her father has a son named Christopher Cody, who grew up with his mother, Kristin Luckey, in South Carolina. Today, all of her maternal siblings are established entertainers. Trace is a guitarist for the electronic pop band Metro Station. Noah is an actress, along with Braison, both are models and songwriters.
Brandi was a musician and songwriter for the indie rock band Frank + Derol and is a professional DJ. Cyrus's godmother is entertainer Dolly Parton. Cyrus attended Heritage Elementary School. While working on Hannah Montana, she enrolled at Options for Youth Charter Schools and studied with a private tutor on set. Raised a Christian, she was baptized in a Southern Baptist church before moving to Hollywood in 2005, she attended church while growing up and wore a purity ring. In 2001, when Cyrus was eight and her family moved to Toronto, Canada while her father filmed the television series Doc. After Billy Ray took her to see a 2001 Mirvish production of Mamma Mia! at the Royal Alexandra Theatre, Cyrus grabbed his arm and told him, "This is what I want to do, daddy. I want to be an actress." She began acting lessons at the Armstrong Acting Studio in Toronto. Cyrus's debut acting role was portraying a girl named Kylie in her father's television series Doc. In 2003, Cyrus received credit under her birth name for her role as "Young Ruthie" in Tim Burton's Big Fish.
During this period she auditioned with Taylor Lautner for the feature film The Adventures of Sharkboy and Lavagirl in 3-D, although she was one of two actresses remaining, she chose Hannah Montana instead. Tish Cyrus became Miley's manager, worked to acquire a team to flourish her career. Cyrus signed with Mitchell Gossett, director of the youth division at Cunningham Escott Slevin Doherty. Gossett is credited with "discovering" Cyrus, played a key role in her auditioning for Hannah Montana, she signed with Jason Morey of Morey Management Group to handle her music career, having been directed to him by Dolly Parton. Billy Ray's finance manager was hired as well. Cyrus auditioned for the Disney Channel television series Hannah Montana when she was eleven years old, she auditioned for the role of the title character's best friend, but was called to audition for the lead role instead. Despite being denied the part at first because she was too "young and small" for the role, she was selected as the lead because of her singing and acting abilities.
The series premiered in March 2006 to the largest audience for a Disney Channel program, ranked among the highest-rated series on basic cable. The success of the series led to Cyrus being labeled a "teen idol", she toured with The Cheetah Girls as Hannah M
The Hunger Games (film)
The Hunger Games is a 2012 American science fiction-adventure film directed by Gary Ross and based on Suzanne Collins’s 2008 novel of the same name. It is the first installment in The Hunger Games film series and was produced by Nina Jacobson and Jon Kilik, with a screenplay by Ross and Billy Ray; the film stars Jennifer Lawrence, Josh Hutcherson, Liam Hemsworth, Woody Harrelson, Elizabeth Banks, Lenny Kravitz, Stanley Tucci, Donald Sutherland. The story takes place in a dystopian post-apocalyptic future in the nation of Panem, where a boy and a girl from each of the nation's 12 Districts are chosen annually as "tributes" and forced to compete in The Hunger Games, an elaborate televised fight to the death. Katniss Everdeen volunteers to take her younger sister's place, with her district's male tribute, Peeta Mellark, travels to the Capitol to train and compete in the games. Development of The Hunger Games began in March 2009 when Lions Gate Entertainment entered into a co-production agreement with Color Force, which had acquired the rights a few weeks earlier.
Collins collaborated with Ross to write the screenplay. The screenplay expanded the character of Seneca Crane to allow several developments to be shown directly to the audience and Ross added several scenes between Crane and Coriolanus Snow; the main characters were cast between March and May 2011. Principal photography began in May 2011 and ended in September 2011, with filming taking place in North Carolina; the film was released on March 21, 2012, in some European countries and in the US and UK on March 23, 2012, in both conventional theaters and digital IMAX theaters. Japan received it last, on September 28; when the film released, it set records for opening day and opening weekend for a non-sequel. At the time of its release, the film's opening weekend gross was the third-largest of any movie in North America, it is the first film since Avatar to remain in first place at the North American box office for four consecutive weekends. The film was a massive box-office success by grossing over $694 million worldwide against its budget of $78 million, making it the third-highest-grossing film in the United States and ninth highest-grossing film of 2012.
It was released on DVD and Blu-ray Disc on August 18, 2012. With 7,434,058 units sold, the DVD was the best-selling DVD of 2012; the second installment, The Hunger Games: Catching Fire, was released on November 22, 2013, in the United States. The Hunger Games received positive reviews from critics, with praise for its themes and messages, as well as Jennifer Lawrence's portrayal of Katniss, though there was criticism of the film's use of shaky cam in the action sequences. Like the novel, the film has been noted for its similarities to other works, including the Japanese novel Battle Royale and its film adaptation, Robert Sheckley's short story "Seventh Victim" and its Italian film adaptation The 10th Victim, the Shirley Jackson short story "The Lottery", with some criticizing The Hunger Games for being derivative of such works. Collins stated in an interview that her novel and screenplay drew on sources of inspiration such as the myth of Theseus, Roman gladiatorial games, reality television, the desensitization of viewers to media coverage of real-life tragedy and war, not to think as just an audience member, "Because those are real people on the screen, they’re not going away when the commercials start to roll."
The song "Safe & Sound" sung by American singer Taylor Swift featuring The Civil Wars, won a Grammy Award and was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song. For her performance, Lawrence won the Saturn Award for Best Actress, the Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Actress in an Action Movie, the Empire Award for Best Actress and was nominated for the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress; as punishment for a past rebellion, the 12 districts of the nation of Panem are forced by the Capitol to select two tributes, one boy and one girl between 12 and 18, to fight to the death in the annual Hunger Games until there is only one survivor. In District 12, after her younger sister Primrose is chosen, Katniss Everdeen volunteers to take her place, she and fellow tribute Peeta Mellark are escorted to the Capitol by chaperone Effie Trinket and mentor Haymitch Abernathy, a past victor. Haymitch stresses the importance of gaining sponsors. While training, Katniss observes the "Careers", volunteers from the wealthy Districts 1 and 2 who have trained for the Games from an early age.
During a televised interview with Caesar Flickerman, Peeta expresses his love for Katniss, which she sees as an attempt to attract sponsors. At the start of the Games, Katniss ignores Haymitch's advice and grabs some of the supplies placed around the Cornucopia, a structure at the starting point, narrowly escapes death. Half of the 24 tributes die in the initial melee, only eleven, including the Careers, survive the first day. Katniss tries to stay away from the others, but the Head Gamemaker, Seneca Crane, triggers a forest fire to drive her towards them, she runs into the Careers, with whom Peeta has allied, flees up a tree. Peeta advises the Careers to wait her out; the next morning, Katniss notices Rue, District 11's young female tribute, hiding in an adjacent tree. Rue draws her attention to a nest of genetically modified venomous wasps. Using a knife, Katniss saws the branch holding the nest off of the tree, causing it to fall on the Careers. Katniss is disoriented from being stung a few