Kauaʻi, anglicized as Kauai, is geologically the oldest of the main Hawaiian Islands. With an area of 562.3 square miles, it is the fourth-largest of these islands and the 21st largest island in the United States. Known as the "Garden Isle", Kauaʻi lies 105 miles across the Kauaʻi Channel, northwest of Oʻahu; this island is the site of Waimea Canyon State Park. The United States Census Bureau defines Kauaʻi as census tracts 401 through 409 of Kauai County, Hawaiʻi, which comprises all of the county except for the islands of Kaʻula, Lehua and Niʻihau; the 2010 United States Census population of the island was 67,091. The most populous town was Kapaʻa. In 1778, Captain James Cook arrived at Waimea Bay, the first European known to have reached the Hawaiʻian islands, he named the archipelago after his patron the 6th Earl of George Montagu. During the reign of King Kamehameha, the islands of Kauaʻi and Niʻihau were the last Hawaiʻian Islands to join his Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, their ruler, Kaumualiʻi, resisted Kamehameha for years.
King Kamehameha twice prepared a huge armada of ships and canoes to take the islands by force, twice failed. In the face of the threat of a further invasion, Kaumualiʻi decided to join the kingdom without bloodshed, became Kamehameha's vassal in 1810, he ceded the island to the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi upon his death in 1824. In 1815, a ship from the Russian-American Company was wrecked on the island. In 1816, an agreement was signed by Kaumualiʻi to allow the Russians to build Fort Elizabeth, it was an attempt by Kaumuali’i to gain support from the Russians against Kamehameha I. Construction was begun in 1817, but in July of that year under mounting resistance of Native Hawaiians and American traders the Russians were expelled; the settlement on Kauai has been considered an abrupt instance of a Pacific outpost of the Russian Empire per se. Valdemar Emil Knudsen was a Norwegian plantation pioneer who arrived on Kauai in 1857. Knudsen, or "Kanuka" arrived in Koloa where he managed Grove Farm, but sought a warmer land and purchased the leases to Mana and Kekaha, where he became a successful sugarcane plantation owner.
Knudsen settled in Waiawa, between Mana and Kekaha across the channel from Niʻihau Island. His son, Eric Alfred Knudsen, was born in Waiawa. Knudsen was appointed land administrator by King Kamehameha for an area covering 400 km2, was given the title konohiki as well as a position as a nobility under the king. Knudsen, who spoke fluent Hawaiian became an elected representative and an influential politician on the island. Knudsen lends his name to the Knudsen Gap, a narrow pass between the Kahili Ridge, its primary function was as a sugar farm planted by the Knudsen family. In 1835, Old Koloa Town opened a sugar mill. From 1906 to 1934 the office of County Clerk was held by John Mahiʻai Kāneakua, active in attempts to restore Queen Liliuokalani to the throne after the United States takeover of Hawaiʻi in 1893. Hawaiian narrative locates the name's origin in the legend of Hawaiʻiloa, the Polynesian navigator credited with discovery of the Hawaiʻian Islands; the story relates. Another possible translation is "food season".
Kauaʻi was known for its distinct dialect of the Hawaiian language. While the standard language today adopts the dialect of Hawaiʻi island, which has the sound, the Kauaʻi dialect was known for pronouncing this as. In effect, Kauaʻi dialect retained the old pan-Polynesian /t/, while "standard" Hawaiʻi dialect has changed it to the. Therefore, the native name for Kauaʻi was said as Tauaʻi, the major settlement of Kapaʻa would have been pronounced as Tapaʻa. Kauaʻi's origins are volcanic, the island having been formed by the passage of the Pacific Plate over the Hawaii hotspot. At five million years old, it is the oldest of the main islands; the highest peak on this mountainous island is Kawaikini at 5,243 feet. The second highest peak is Mount Waiʻaleʻale near the center of the island, 5,148 ft above sea level. One of the wettest spots on earth, with an annual average rainfall of 460 inches, is located on the east side of Mount Waiʻaleʻale; the high annual rainfall has eroded deep valleys in the central mountains, carving out canyons with many scenic waterfalls.
On the west side of the island, Waimea town is located at the mouth of the Waimea River, whose flow formed Waimea Canyon, one of the world's most scenic canyons, part of Waimea Canyon State Park. At three thousand feet deep, Waimea Canyon is referred to as "The Grand Canyon of the Pacific". Kokeo Point lies on the south side of the island; the Na Pali Coast is a center for recreation in a wild setting, including kayaking past the beaches, or hiking on the trail along the coastal cliffs. The headland, Kuahonu Point, is on the south-east of the island. Kauaʻi’s climate is tropical, with humid and stable conditions year round, although weather phenomena and infrequent storms have caused instances of extreme weather. At the lower elevations the annual precipitation varies from an average of about 50 inches on the windward shore, to less than 20 inches on the leeward side of the island. Average temperature in Lihu'e, the county seat, ranges from 78 °F in February to 85 °F in August and September. Kauaʻi’s mountainous regions offer cooler temperatures and provide a pleasant contrast to the warm coastal areas.
At the Kōkeʻe state park, 3,200–4,200 ft (980–1
Clematis is a genus of about 300 species within the buttercup family, Ranunculaceae. Their garden hybrids have been popular among gardeners, beginning with Clematis × jackmanii, a garden standby since 1862, they are of Chinese and Japanese origin. Most species are known as clematis in English, while some are known as traveller's joy, a name invented for the sole British native, C. vitalba, by the herbalist John Gerard. The genus name is from Ancient Greek clématis. Over 250 species and cultivars are known named for their originators or particular characteristics; the genus is composed of vigorous, climbing vines / lianas. The woody stems are quite fragile until several years old. Leaves are opposite and divided into leaflets and leafstalks that twist and curl around supporting structures to anchor the plant as it climbs; some species are shrubby. The cool temperate species are deciduous, they grow best in cool, well-drained soil in full sun. Clematis species are found throughout the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in the tropics.
Clematis leaves are food for the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera species, including the willow beauty. The timing and location of flowers varies; the genus Clematis was first published by Carl Linnaeus in Species Plantarum in 1753, the first species listed being Clematis viticella. The genus name long pre-dates Linnaeus, it was used in Classical Greek for various climbing plants, is based on κλήμα, meaning vine or tendril. Some morphologically distinctive taxa lacking the combination of characters defining Clematis were segregated as the genera Archiclematis and Naravelia. DNA sequence studies have found that these two genera are nested in Clematis, the morphological characters they were erected on being either reversals or misinterpretations, that the genera should be reduced to the synonymy of Clematis. Naravelia is a monophyletic group within Clematis. Species to be transferred include. Archiclematis alternata Clematis antonii, syn. Naravelia antonii Clematis dasyoneura, syn. Naravelia dasyoneura Clematis horripilata, syn.
Naravelia laurifolia Clematis zeylanica, syn. Naravelia zeylanica A partial list of species: Clematis addisonii Britt. – Addison's leather flower Clematis albicoma Wherry – whitehair leather flower Clematis alpina Mill. – alpine clematis Clematis aristata R. Br. Ex Ker Gawl. – Australian clematis Clematis armandii – Armand clematis Clematis baldwinii Torr. & A. Gray – pine hyacinth Clematis bigelovii Torr. – Bigelow clematis Clematis brachiata Thunb. – traveller's joy Clematis campaniflora Brot. – Portuguese clematis Clematis catesbyana – satin curls Clematis chinensis Osbeck – wei ling xian in Chinese Clematis chrysocoma Franch. – gold wool clematis Clematis cirrhosa L. – includes the'Freckles','Wisley Cream', and'Jingle Bells' cultivars Clematis cirrhosa v. balearica Clematis coactilis Keener – Virginia whitehair leather flower Clematis columbiana Torr. & A. Gray – British Columbia virgin's bower Clematis crispa L. – swamp leather flower Clematis cunninghamii Clematis dioica L. – cabellos de angel Clematis drummondii Torr.
& A. Gray – Drummond clematis Clematis durandii Clematis fawcettii F. Muell. Clematis flammula L. – fragrant virgin's bower Clematis florida Thunb. – Asian clematis Clematis fremontii S. Watson – Fremont's leather flower Clematis glaucophylla Small – whiteleaf leather flower Clematis glycinoides DC. – headache vine Clematis gouriana – Indian traveller's joy Clematis henryi Oliv. Clematis hirsutissima Pursh – hairy clematis Clematis hedysarifolia DC. Clematis integrifolia L. Clematis ispahanica Bioss Clematis × jackmanii T. Moore – Jackman's clematis Clematis koreana Kom. – Korean clematis Clematis lanuginosa Lindl. & Paxton Clematis lasiantha Nutt. – pipestem clematis Clematis leptophylla H. Eichler Clematis ligusticifolia Nutt. – western white clematis, hierba de chivo Clematis macropetala Ledeb. – downy clematis Clematis mandshurica Clematis marmoraria Sneddon – New Zealand dwarf clematis Clematis microphylla DC. – small-leaved clematis Clematis montana Buch.-Ham. Ex DC. – anemone clematis Clematis morefieldii Kral – Huntsville vasevine Clematis napaulensis DC.
Clematis occidentalis DC. – western blue virginsbower Clematis ochroleuca Ait. – curlyheads Clematis orientalis L. – Chinese clematis Clematis palmeri Rose – Palmer clematis Clematis paniculata J. F. Gmel. – puawhananga Clematis patens C. Morren & Decne. Clematis pauciflora Nutt. – ropevine clematis Clematis pickeringii A. Gray Clematis pitcheri Torr. & A. Gray – bluebill Clematis pubescens Hügel ex Endl. – common clematis Clematis recta L. – ground clematis Clematis reticulata Walter – netleaf leather flower Clematis rhodocarpa Rose Clematis smilacifolia Wall. Clematis socialis Kral – Alabama leather flower Clematis stans Siebold & Zucc. – kusabotan Clematis tangutica Korsh. – golden clematis Clematis terniflora DC. – sweet autumn clematis Clematis texensis Buckley – scarlet leather flower Clematis versicolor – manycolored leather flower Clematis verticillaris – purple
Bignoniaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Lamiales known as the bignonias. It is not known to which of the other families in the order it is most related. Nearly all of the Bignoniaceae are woody plants, but a few are subwoody, either as vines or subshrubs. A few more are herbaceous plants of high-elevation montane habitats, in three herbaceous genera: Tourrettia and Incarvillea; the family includes many lianas, climbing by tendrils, by twining, or by aerial roots. The largest tribe in the family, called Bignonieae, consists of lianas and is noted for its unique wood anatomy; the family has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution, but is tropical, with a few species native to the temperate zones. Its greatest diversity is in northern South America; the family has been covered in some major floristic projects, such as Flora of China, Flora Malesiana, Flora Neotropica. It has not yet been covered in some others, such as Flora of Australia, Flora of North America. Bignoniaceae are most noted for ornamentals, such as Jacaranda and Spathodea, grown for their conspicuous, tubular flowers.
A great many species are known in cultivation. Various other uses have been made of members of this family. Several species were of great importance to the indigenous peoples of the American tropics. Fridericia elegans, Tanaecium bilabiata, Tanaecium excitosum are poisonous to livestock and have caused severe losses. According to different accounts, the number of species in the family is about 810 or about 860; the last monograph of the entire family was published in 2004. In that work, 104 genera were recognized. Since that time, molecular phylogenetic studies have clarified relationships within the family, the number of accepted genera is now between 80 and 85. In the last taxonomic revision of Bignoniaceae, 104 genera were described in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Twenty-five of these genera, all in the tribe Bignonieae, were synonymized under other genera, based on a cladistic analysis of DNA sequences, published in 2006. Roseodendron and Handroanthus were resurrected from Tabebuia in 2007.
Mayodendron and Pachyptera have been resurrected. In 2009, a phylogenetic study divided Bignoniaceae into 10 monophyletic groups, as shown in the genus list below. Six of these groups have been recognized as tribes at one time or another, are represented by their tribal names. Two of the groups are monogeneric and are designated by their constituent genera and Delostoma; the other two groups are given informal names, pending a formal revision of the infrafamilial classification. Astianthus has never been sampled for DNA and its systematic position within the family remains obscure; the placement of Romeroa in the Tabebuia alliance and the placement of Sphingiphila in Bignonieae are in doubt. Tecomaria is not included in the list below, its recognition is controversial, it is monotypic, had been long accepted, but was returned to Tecoma in 1980. A molecular phylogenetic study resolved it as sister to another South African genus, but with only weak bootstrap support. Tecomaria has not yet been transferred to another genus.
The tribe Bignonieae has been the subject of considerable revision since 2006. Fischer et al. placed 46 genera in this tribe. Afterward, Perianthomega was transferred to it from Tecomeae sensu lato and Pachyptera was resurrected from Mansoa. Twenty-five of the genera of Fischer have been subsumed into other genera as follows: Gardnerodoxa into Neojobertia. Thus, 23 genera are now recognized in Bignonieae. Members of this family are trees or lianas, sometimes shrubs, subshrubs or herbs. Lianas of the tribe Bignonieae have a unique vascular structure, in which phloem arms extend downward into the xylem because certain segments of the cambium cease the production of xylem at an early stage of development; the number of these arms is four or a multiple thereof, up to 32. When four, the phloem arms appear as a cross, the common name "cross vine"; the phloem in the arms has less parenchyma than the ordinary phloem. The leaves are petiolate. Leaf arrangement is opposite, or alternate or verticillate. Leaves are compound, trifoliate, pinnate, or palmate, or simple.
Stipules are persistent. Domatia occur in some genera. Flowers are solitary or in inflorescences in a helicoid or dichasial cyme. Inflorescences bear persistent or deciduous bractlets; the flowers are hypogynous, zygomorphic and conspicuous. The calyx and corolla are distinct; the calyx is synsepalous, with five sepals. The corolla is sympetalous, with five petals bilabiate. Corolla lobes are imbricate in bud, or valvate, much shorter than the corolla tube. Stamens are inserted on the corolla tube; the four stamens are didynamous, members of each pair connivent, the adaxial stamen is staminodial or absent. The stigma is bilobed, sensitive; the ovary is superior surrounded by a nectary disk, composed of two carpels and with a septum, except unilocular in Tourretti
Daemonorops is a genus of rattan palms in the family Arecaceae found in the tropics and subtropics of southeastern Asia with a few species extending into southern China and the Himalayas. The stems of the Daemonorops are harvested for their cores, which are used for everything from canes to furniture; the fruits of certain species, in particular Daemonorops draco, produce a red resin known as "Dragon's blood". The seeds of species such as Daemonorops margaritae are harvested for the production of Buddhist prayer beads. Polysaccharides found in some Daemonorops species are known for their medicinal anticoagulant properties. Daemonorops acamptostachys Becc. - Sarawak Daemonorops acehensis Rustiami - Sumatra Daemonorops affinis Becc. - Mindanao Daemonorops angustifolia Mart. - Thailand, Malaysia Daemonorops aruensis Becc. - Aru Islands Daemonorops asteracantha Becc. - Borneo Daemonorops atra J. Dransf. - Borneo Daemonorops aurea Vijayak. - Andaman Islands Daemonorops banggiensis J. Dransf. - Sabah Daemonorops beguinii Burret - Maluku Daemonorops binnendijkii Becc.
- Sumatra Daemonorops brachystachys Furtado - Sumatra, Malaysia Daemonorops brevicaulis A. J. Hend. & N. Q. Dung - Vietnam Daemonorops calapparia Blume - Maluku Daemonorops calicarpa Mart. - Sumatra, Malaysia Daemonorops clemensiana Becc. - Mindanao Daemonorops collarifera Becc. - Sarawak Daemonorops confusa Furtado - Sumatra Daemonorops crinita Blume - Sumatra, Kalimantan Daemonorops cristata Becc. - Sarawak Daemonorops curranii Becc. - Palawan Daemonorops depressiuscula Becc. - Sumatra Daemonorops didymophylla Becc. - Thailand, Borneo, Sumatra Daemonorops draco Blume, dragon's blood palm - Thailand, Borneo, Sumatra. Please refer to Dracaena draco Daemonorops dracuncula Ridl. - Mentawai Daemonorops dransfieldii Rustiami - Sumatra Daemonorops elongata Blume - Borneo Daemonorops fissa Blume - Borneo Daemonorops fissilis A. J. Hend. - Vietnam Daemonorops forbesii Becc. - Sumatra Daemonorops formicaria Becc. - Borneo Daemonorops geniculata Mart. - Thailand, Sumatra Daemonorops gracilipes Becc. - Sumatra Daemonorops gracilis Becc.
- Palawan Daemonorops grandis Mart. - Thailand, Malaysia Daemonorops hirsuta Blume - Malaysia, Sumatra Daemonorops horrida Burret - Sumatra Daemonorops ingens J. Dransf. - Borneo Daemonorops jenkinsiana Mart. - Guangdong, Hainan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Laos, Nepal, Vietnam Daemonorops korthalsii Blume - Borneo Daemonorops kunstleri Becc. - Thailand, Malaysia Daemonorops kurziana Hook.f. Ex Becc. - Thailand, Andaman Islands Daemonorops lamprolepis Becc. - Sulawesi Daemonorops leptopus Mart. - Thailand, Malaysia Daemonorops lewisiana Mart. - Thailand, Sumatra Daemonorops loheriana Becc. - Philippines Daemonorops longipes Mart. - Thailand, Sumatra, Borneo Daemonorops longispatha Becc. - Borneo Daemonorops longispinosa Burret - Sumatra Daemonorops longistipes Burret - Sabah, Sarawak Daemonorops macrophylla Becc. - Thailand, Malaysia Daemonorops macroptera Becc. - Sulawesi Daemonorops maculata J. Dransf. - Sarawak Daemonorops manii Becc. - Andaman Islands Daemonorops megalocarpa Burret - Sumatra Daemonorops melanochaetes Blume - Thailand, Sumatra, Java Daemonorops micracantha Becc.
- Malaysia, Borneo Daemonorops microcarpa Burret - Sumatra Daemonorops microstachys Becc. - Borneo Daemonorops mirabilis Mart. - Kalimantan Daemonorops mogeana Rustiami - Sulawesi Daemonorops mollis Merr. - Philippines Daemonorops mollispina J. Dransf. - Vietnam Daemonorops monticola Mart. - Thailand, Malaysia Daemonorops nigra Blume - Maluku Daemonorops nuichuaensis A. J. Hend. - Vietnam Daemonorops oblata J. Dransf. - Borneo Daemonorops oblonga Blume - Java Daemonorops ochrolepis Becc. - Philippines Daemonorops ocreata A. J. Hend. & N. Q. Dung - Vietnam Daemonorops oligolepis Becc. - Mindanao Daemonorops oligophylla Becc. - Perak Daemonorops oxycarpa Becc. - Borneo Daemonorops pachyrostris Becc. - Kalimantan Daemonorops palembanica Blume - Sumatra Daemonorops pannosa Becc. - Mindanao Daemonorops pedicellaris Becc. - Leyte, Mindanao Daemonorops periacantha Miq. - Malaysia, Borneo Daemonorops plagiocycla Burret - Sumatra Daemonorops poilanei J. Dransf. - Vietnam Daemonorops polita Fernando - Mindanao Daemonorops pumila Van Valk.
- Kalimantan Daemonorops rarispinosa Vijayak. - Andaman Islands Daemonorops riedeliana Becc. - Sulawesi Daemonorops robusta Warb. Ex Becc. - Sulawesi, Maluku Daemonorops rubra Blume - Java Daemonorops ruptilis Becc. - Borneo Daemonorops sabut Becc. - Malaysia, Borneo, Thailand Daemonorops sarasinorum Warb. Ex Becc. - Sulawesi Daemonorops scapigera Becc. - Johor, Natuna Islands, Sumatra Daemonorops schlechteri Burret - Sulawesi Daemonorops sekundurensis Rustiami & Zumaidar - Sumatra Daemonorops sepal Becc. - Malaysia, Thailand Daemonorops serpentina J. Dransf. - Sabah Daemonorops siberutensis Rustiami - Siberut Daemonorops singalana Becc. - Sumatra Daemonorops sparsiflora Becc. - Borneo Daemonorops spectabilis Becc. - Borneo Daemonorops stenophylla Becc. - Sumatra Daemonorops takanensis Rustiami - Sulawesi Daemonorops treubiana Becc. - described 1911 from material collected in unknown location. - Sumatra Daemonorops unijuga J. Dransf. - Sarawak Daemonorops urdanetana Becc. - Mindanao Daemonorops uschdraweitiana Burret - Sumatra Daemonorops verticillaris Mart.
- Malaysia, Sumatra Daemonorops wrightmyoensis Renuka & Vijayak. - Andaman Islands
Entada gigas known as the monkey-ladder, sea bean, cœur de la mer or sea heart, is a species of flowering liana in the pea family, native to Central America, the Caribbean, northern South America, Africa. It is notable for having the family's largest seedpods, which measure 12 cm across and can reach 2 m in length. Inside the pods are ten to fifteen seeds, each of which have a diameter of 6 cm and a thickness of 2 cm; the seeds contain a hollow cavity. After being washed by rain into rivers and the ocean, the seeds of E. gigas drift long distances on ocean currents. Seed buoyancy and vitality lasts at least two years. Journey of a Sea Heart
Aristolochia is a large plant genus with over 500 species, the type genus of the family Aristolochiaceae. Its members are known as birthwort, pipevine or Dutchman's pipe and are widespread and occur in the most diverse climates; some species, like A. utriformis and A. westlandii, are threatened with extinction. Isotrema is included here, but might be a valid genus. If so, it contains those species with a three-lobed calyx. Aristolochia is a genus of deciduous lianas and herbaceous perennials; the smooth stem is somewhat twining. The simple leaves are alternate and cordate, growing on leaf stalks. There are no stipules; the flowers grow in the leaf axils. They are inflated and globose at the base, continuing as a long perianth tube, ending in a tongue-shaped, brightly colored lobe. There is no corolla; the calyx is one to three whorled, three to six toothed. The sepals are united. There are six to 40 stamens in one whorl, they are united with the style. The ovary is four to six locular; these flowers have a specialized pollination mechanism.
The plants are aromatic and their strong scent attracts insects. The inner part of the perianth tube is covered with hairs; these hairs wither to release the fly, covered with pollen. The fruit is dehiscent capsule with many endospermic seeds; the common names Dutchman's pipe and pipevine are an allusion to old-fashioned meerschaum pipes at one time common in the Netherlands and northern Germany. Birthwort refers to these species' flower shape. Aristolochia was first described by the 4th c. BCE Greek philosopher and botanist Theophrastos in his book, the scientific name Aristolochia was developed from Ancient Greek aristos "best" + locheia, childbirth or childbed, relating to its known ancient use in childbirth; the Roman orator Cicero records a different tradition, that the plant was named for the otherwise unknown individual with the common Greek name Aristolochos, who had learned from a dream that it was an antidote for snake bites. The species Aristolochia clematitis was regarded as a medicinal plant since the ancient Egyptians and Romans, on to until the Early Modern era.
Due to its resemblance to the uterus, the doctrine of signatures held that birthwort was useful in childbirth. A preparation was given to women upon delivery to expel the placenta, as noted by the herbalist Dioscurides in the first century CE. Despite its presence in ancient medicine, Aristolochia is known to contain the lethal toxin aristolochic acid; the Bencao Gangmu, compiled by Li Shi-Zhen in the latter part of the sixteenth century, was based on the author’s experience and on data obtained from earlier herbals. For 400 years, the Bencao Gangmu remained the principal source of information in traditional Chinese medicine and the work was translated into numerous languages, reflecting its influence in countries other than China. In the mid-twentieth century, the Bencao Gangmu was replaced by modern Materia Medica, the most comprehensive source being Zhong Hua Ben Cao, published in 1999; the Encyclopedia lists 23 species of Aristolochia, though with little mention of toxicity. The Chinese government lists the following Aristolochia herbs: A. manshuriensis, A. fangchi, A. debilis, A. contorta, two of which appear in the 2005 Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China.
In traditional Chinese medicine Aristolochia species are used for certain forms of acute arthritis and edema. Despite the toxic properties of aristolochic acid, naturopaths claim that a decoction of birthwort stimulates the production and increases the activity of white blood cells, or that pipevines contain a disinfectant which assists in wound healing. Aristolochia bracteolata is colloquially known as "worm killer" due to supposed antihelminthic activity. Aristolochia taxa have been used as reptile repellents. A. serpentaria is thus named because the root was used to treat snakebite, as "so offensive to these reptiles, that they not only avoid the places where it grows, but flee from the traveler who carries a piece of it in his hand". A. pfeiferi, A. rugosa, A. trilobata are used in folk medicine to treat snakebites. In 1993, a series of end-stage renal disease cases was reported from Belgium associated with a weight loss treatment, where Stephania tetrandra in a herbal preparation was suspected of being substituted with Aristolochia fangchi.
More than 105 patients were identified with nephropathy following the ingestion of this preparation from the same clinic from 1990 to 1992. Many required renal dialysis. Aristolochia has been shown to be both kidney toxin. Herbal compounds containing Aristolochia are classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Epidemiological and laboratory studies have identified Aristolochia to be a dangerous kidney toxin. Furthermore, it appears as if contamination of grain with European birthwort is a cause of Balkan nephropathy, a severe renal disease occurring in parts of southeast Europe. Aristolochic acid was linked to aristolochic acid-associated urothelial cancer in a Taiwanese study in 2012. In 2013, two studies reported that aristo