click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Liancourt Rocks

The Liancourt Rocks are a group of small islets in the Sea of Japan. While South Korea controls the islets, its sovereignty over them is contested by Japan. South Korea classifies the islets as Dokdo-ri, Ulleung-eup, Ulleung County, North Gyeongsang Province, calls them Dokdo. Japan classifies the islands as part of Okinoshima, Oki District, Shimane Prefecture, calls them Takeshima; the Franco-English name "Liancourt Rocks" derives from Le Liancourt, the name of a French whaling ship that came close to being wrecked on the rocks in 1849. The Liancourt Rocks consist of 35 smaller rocks; the Liancourt Rocks lie in rich fishing grounds. The Liancourt Rocks consist of two main islets and numerous surrounding rocks; the two main islets, called Seodo and Dongdo in Korean, Ojima and Mejima in Japanese, are 151 metres apart. The Western Island is the larger of the two, with a wider base and higher peak, while the Eastern Island offers more usable surface area. Altogether, there are about 90 islets and reefs, volcanic rocks formed in the Cenozoic era, more 4.6 to 2.5 million years ago.

A total of 37 of these islets are recognized as permanent land. The total area of the islets is about 187,554 square metres, with their highest point at 168.5 metres on the West Islet. The western islet is about 88,740 square metres; the western islet features many caves along the coastline. The cliffs of the eastern islet are about 10 to 20 metres high. There are two large caves giving access to the sea, as well as a crater. In 2006, a geologist reported that the islets formed 4.5 million years ago and are eroding. The Liancourt Rocks are located at about 37°14′N 131°52′E; the western islet is located at 37°14′31″N 131°51′55″E and the Eastern Islet is located at 37°14′27″N 131°52′10″E. The Liancourt Rocks are situated at a distance of 211 kilometres from the main island of Japan and 216.8 kilometres from mainland South Korea. The nearest Japanese island, Oki Islands, is at a distance of 157 kilometres. and the nearest Korean island, Ulleungdo, is 87.4 kilometres. Owing to their location and small size, the Liancourt Rocks can have harsh weather.

If the swell is greater than 3 to 5 metres landing is not possible so on average ferries can only dock about once in every forty days. Overall, the climate is warm and humid, influenced by warm sea currents. Precipitation is high throughout the year, with occasional snowfall. Fog is common. In summer, southerly winds dominate; the water around the islets is about 10 °C in early spring, when the water is coldest, warming to about 24 °C in late summer. The islets are volcanic rocks, with only a thin layer of soil and moss. About 49 plant species, 107 bird species, 93 insect species have been found to inhabit the islets, in addition to local marine life with 160 algal and 368 invertebrate species identified. Although between 1,100 and 1,200 litres of fresh water flow daily, desalinization plants have been installed on the islets for human consumption because existing spring water suffers from guano contamination. Since the early 1970s trees and some types of flowers were planted. According to historical records, there used to be trees indigenous to Liancourt Rocks, which have been wiped out by overharvesting and fires caused by bombing drills over the islets.

A recent investigation, identified ten spindle trees aged 100–120 years. Cetaceans such as Minke whales and dolphins are known to migrate through these areas. Records of the human impact on the Liancourt Rocks before the late 20th century are scarce, although both Japanese and Koreans claim to have felled trees and killed Japanese sea lions there for many decades. There is a serious concern for pollution in the seas surrounding the Liancourt Rocks; the sewage water treatment system established on the islets has malfunctioned and sewage water produced by inhabitants of the Liancourt Rocks such as South Korean Coast Guard and lighthouse staff is being dumped directly into the ocean. Significant water pollution has been observed; the pollution is causing loss of biodiversity in the surrounding seas. In November 2004, eight tons of malodorous sludge was being dumped into the ocean every day. Efforts have since been made by both public and private organizations to help curb the level of pollution surrounding the Rocks.

As of February 2017, there were two civilian residents, two government officials, six lighthouse managers, 40 members of the coast guard living on the islets. Since the South Korean coast guard was sent to the islets, civilian travel has been subject to South Korean government approval. In March 1965, Choi Jong-duk moved from the nearby Ulleungdo to the islets to make a living from fishing, he helped install facilities from May 1968. In 1981, Choi Jong-duk changed his administrative address to the Liancourt Rocks, making himself the first person to live ther

Petrus Peregrinus de Maricourt

Petrus Peregrinus de Maricourt, Pierre Pelerin de Maricourt, or Peter Peregrinus of Maricourt, was a 13th-century French scholar who conducted experiments on magnetism and wrote the first extant treatise describing the properties of magnets. His work is noted for containing the earliest detailed discussion of pivoting compass needles, a fundamental component of the dry compass soon to appear in medieval navigation, he wrote a treatise on the construction and use of a universal astrolabe. Peregrinus’ text on the magnet is entitled in many of the manuscripts of it Epistola Petri Peregrini de Maricourt ad Sygerum de Foucaucourt, militem, de magnete but it is more known by its short title, Epistola de magnete; the letter is addressed to an otherwise unknown Picard countryman named Sygerus of Foucaucourt a friend and neighbor of the author. In only one of the 39 surviving manuscript copies the letter bears the closing legend Actum in castris in obsidione Luceriæ anno domini 1269º 8º die augusti, which might indicate that Peregrinus was in the army of Charles, duke of Anjou and king of Sicily, who in 1269 laid siege to the city of Lucera.

However, given that only one manuscript attests this, the evidence is weak. There is no indication of why Peter received the sobriquet Peregrinus, but it suggests that he may have been either a pilgrim at one point or a crusader. So Petrus Peregrinus may have served in that army. "You must realize, dearest friend," Peregrinus writes, "that while the investigator in this subject must understand nature and not be ignorant of the celestial motions, he must be diligent in the use of his own hands, so that through the operation of this stone he may show wonderful effects." In his letter of 1269, Peregrinus explains. He describes the laws of magnetic attraction and repulsion; the letters contain a description of an experiment with a repaired magnet, as well as a number of compasses, one of which "you will be able to direct your steps to cities and islands and to any place whatever in the world." Indeed, the increasing perfection of magnetic compasses during the thirteenth century allowed navigators such as Vandino and Ugolino Vivaldi to strike out on voyages to unknown lands.

The Epistola de magnete is divided into two parts. Part One: This is a section that serves as a model of inductive reasoning based on definite experiences, setting forth the fundamental laws of magnetism, he presented them in logical order. Part One discusses the physical properties of the lodestone and provides the first extant written account of the polarity of magnets, he was thus the first to use the word “pole” in this context. He provides methods for determining the north and south poles of a magnet, he describes the effects magnets have upon one another, showing that like poles repel each other and unlike poles attract each other, he treats the attraction of iron by lodestones, the magnetization of iron by lodestones, the ability to reverse the polarity in such an induced magnet. Peregrinus attributed the Earth's magnetism to the action of celestial poles, rather than to the terrestrial poles of the planet itself. Part Two: This section describes three devices that utilize the properties of magnets.

He treats the practical applications of magnets, describing the “wet” floating compass as an instrument in common use, proposing a new “dry” pivoted compass in some detail. He attempts to prove that with the help of magnets it is possible to realize perpetual motion, his device is a toothed wheel which passes near a lodestone so that the teeth are alternately attracted by one pole and repelled by the other. The Nova Compositio Astrolabii Particularis describes the construction and use a universal astrolabe which could be used at a variety of latitudes without changing the plates. Unlike al-Zarqālī’s more famous universal astrolabe in which vertical halves the heavens were projected onto a plane through the poles, this one had both the northern and southern hemispheres projected onto a plane through the equator. There are no known surviving astrolabes based on this treatise; the use of such an astrolabe is complicated, since it is probable that most sophisticated users were not frequent travelers, they were more happier with the traditional stereographic planispheric astrolabe.

The literature mentions that Peregrinus was praised by Roger Bacon, who called him a “perfect mathematician” and one who valued experience over argument. But the association of the praise with Peregrinus appears only in a marginal gloss to Bacon’s Opus tertium and only in one of the five manuscripts used in the critical edition, which leads us to conclude that it was a comment added by someone else; that Bacon's praise was. The influence of Peregrinus' astrolabe was nil, his reputation derives from his work on magnetism. The De magnete became a popular work from the Middle Ages onwards, as witnessed by the large number of manuscript copies; the first printed edition of it was issued in 1558, by Achilles Gasser. In 1572, Jean Taisner pu

Atrium Carceri

Atrium Carceri is a Swedish musical project by Simon Heath released by industrial record label Cold Meat Industry. Twelve full-length albums have been released so far, as well as ten collaboration albums together with other artists of the genre. In 2011 Atrium Carceri started the Dark Ambient label Cryo Chamber. Simon Heath released ten albums under the name of his side project Sabled Sun; the project name means "prison hall" in Latin. The proper declension would have been "Atrium Carceris" Atrium Carceri is described as dark ambient, black ambient and ambient industrial music. Similar to projects like Lull and Lustmord, Atrium Carceri uses synthesizers, sound effects, samples from films and anime and other instrumentation to create slow rhythms, bitter melodies and complex textures based on themes of desolation and environmental decay. Atrium Carceri has been praised by music critics and embraced by a cult audience for its depth of atmosphere. According to Heath himself, each of Atrium Carceri's solo releases are centered around specific'story arcs' within a'grand story,' and following the releases of Reliquiae and Void in 2012, has made a flowchart detailing the story progression up to that point.

The exact nature of the concept behind this'grand story' has been intentionally left ambiguous by Heath, stating it's'up to the listener and his/her interpretation' to piece together this story. Studio albums Cellblock Seishinbyouin Kapnobatai Ptahil Souyuan Phrenitis Reliquiae Void The Untold The Old City - Leviathan Metropolis Archives 1-2 Codex Collaborations with other artistsSacrosanct Cthulhu Onyx Azathoth Nyarlathotep Echo Black Corner Den Yog-Sothoth Miles to Midnight Ur Djupan Dal Shub-Niggurath Black Stage of Night Hastur As Sabled Sun2145 2146 Signals I Signals II Signals III Signals IV 2147 Signals V Signals VI 2148 Official Site Official Site at Cold Meat Industries Official Site of Cryo Chamber Official Samples at Cold Meat Industries Atrium Carceri at MySpace

Catherine de' Medici's patronage of the arts

Catherine de' Medici's patronage of the arts made a significant contribution to the French Renaissance. Catherine was inspired by the example of her father-in-law, King Francis I of France, who had hosted the leading artists of Europe at his court; as a young woman, she witnessed at first hand the artistic flowering stimulated by his patronage. As governor and regent of France, Catherine set out to imitate Francis's politics of magnificence. In an age of civil war and declining respect for the monarchy, she sought to bolster royal prestige through lavish cultural display. After the death of her husband, Henry II, in 1559, Catherine governed France on behalf of her young sons King Francis II and King Charles IX. Once in control of the royal purse, she launched a program of artistic patronage which lasted for three decades, she continued to employ Italian performers, including the artist-architect Primaticcio. By the 1560s, however, a wave of home-grown talent—trained and influenced by the foreign masters brought to France by Francis—came to the fore.

Catherine patronised these new artists and presided over a distinctive late French Renaissance culture. New forms emerged in literature and the performing arts. At the same time, as art historian Alexandra Zvereva suggests, Catherine became one of the great art collectors of the Renaissance. Although Catherine spent ruinous sums on the arts, the majority of her patronage had no lasting effect; the end of the Valois dynasty shortly after her death brought a change in priorities. Her collections were dispersed, her palaces sold, her buildings were left unfinished or destroyed. Where Catherine had made her mark was in the magnificence and originality of her famous court festivals. Today's ballets and operas are distantly related to Catherine de' Medici's court productions. An inventory drawn up at the Hôtel de la Reine after Catherine de' Medici's death shows that she was a keen collector of art and curiosities. Works of art included tapestries, hand-drawn maps and hundreds of pictures, many by Côme Dumoûtier and Benjamin Foulon, Catherine's last official painters.

There were rich fabrics, ebony furniture inlaid with ivory, sets of china, Limoges pottery. Curiosities included fans, caskets, pious objects, a stuffed chameleon, seven stuffed crocodiles. By the time of Catherine's death in 1589, the Valois dynasty was in a terminal crisis. Catherine's properties and belongings were sold off to pay her debts and dispersed with little ceremony, she had hoped for a far different posterity. In 1569, the Venetian ambassador had identified her with her Medici forebears: "One recognises in the queen the spirit of her family, she wishes to leave a legacy behind her: buildings, collections of antiquities". Despite the destruction and fragmentation of Catherine's heritage, a collection of portraits in her possession has been assembled at the Musée Condé, Château de Chantilly; the vogue for portrait drawings intensified during Catherine de' Medici's life, she may have regarded part of her collection as the equivalent of today's family photograph album. Catherine loved having her children painted: "I would like", she wrote in 1547 to her children's governor, Jean d'Humières, "to have paintings of all the children done... and sent to me, without delay, as soon as they are finished".

However, the more formal pictures include a high proportion of portraits of European kings and queens and present, most of which she commissioned personally. On 3 July 1571, Catherine wrote to Monsieur de la Mothe-Fénelon, ambassador in London, discussing the work of François Clouet and requesting a portrait of Queen Elizabeth. Catherine gave detailed instructions: "I pray you do me the pleasure that I may soon have a painting of the queen of England of small volume, in great, that it be well portrayed and done in the same fashion as the one sent be by the earl of Leicester, ask, as I have one in full face, it would be better to have her turning to the right." The large group of portraits from Catherine's collection, now at the Musée Condé, Château de Chantilly, reveals her passion for the genre. These include portraits by his son François Clouet. Jean drew and painted in the style of the Italian High Renaissance, but in the portraits of François, a northern-European naturalism is apparent, a flatter, more meticulous technique.

François Clouet drew and painted portraits of all Catherine's family as well as of many members of the court. His drawing has been called profound, owing to its accuracy and harmony of form and its psychological penetration; this tradition of court portraiture was carried on by Jean Decourt, Étienne, Côme, Pierre Dumoûtier, by the less polished Benjamin Foulon and François Quesnel. The last two artists, plus another known as "Anonyme Lécurieux", tended to use a more stylised technique, producing flatter portraits, with less three-dimensional modelling. After the death of Catherine de' Medici, a decline in the quality of portraiture set in. Little is known about the painting at Catherine de' Medici's court. In the last two decades of Catherine's life, only two painters stand out as recognisable personalities, Antoine Caron and Jean Cousin the Younger; the majority of paintings and portrait drawings that have survived from the late Valois period remain difficult or impossible to attribute to p

Stable homotopy theory

In mathematics, stable homotopy theory is that part of homotopy theory concerned with all structure and phenomena that remain after sufficiently many applications of the suspension functor. A founding result was the Freudenthal suspension theorem, which states that given any pointed space X, the homotopy groups π n + k stabilize for n sufficiently large. In particular, the homotopy groups of spheres π n + k stabilize for n ≥ k + 2. For example, ⟨ id S 1 ⟩ = Z = π 1 ≅ π 2 ≅ π 3 ≅ ⋯ ⟨ η ⟩ = Z = π 3 → π 4 ≅ π 5 ≅ ⋯ In the two examples above all the maps between homotopy groups are applications of the suspension functor; the first example is a standard corollary of the Hurewicz theorem, that π n ≅ Z. In the second example the Hopf map, η, is mapped to its suspension Σ η which generates π 4 ≅ Z / 2. One of the most important problems in stable homotopy theory is the computation of stable homotopy groups of spheres. According to Freudenthal's theorem, in the stable range the homotopy groups of spheres depend not on the specific dimensions of the spheres in the domain and target, but on the difference in those dimensions.

With this in mind the k th. This is an abelian group for all k, it is a theorem of Serre that these groups are finite for k ≠ 0. In fact, composition makes π ∗ S into a graded ring. Nishida's theorem states, thus the only prime ideals are the primes in π 0 s ≅ Z. So the structure of π ∗. In the modern treatment of stable homotopy theory, spaces are replaced by spectra. Following this line of thought, an entire stable homotopy category can be created; this category has many nice properties which are not present in the homotopy category of spaces, following from the fact that the suspension functor becomes invertible. For example, the notion of cofibration sequence and fibration sequence are equivalent. Adams filtration Chromatic homotopy theory Equivariant stable homotopy theory Adams, J. Frank, Stable homotopy theory, Second revised edition. Lectures delivered at the University of California at Berkeley, 1961, New York: Springer-Verlag, MR 0196742 May, J. Peter, "Stable Algebraic Topology, 1945–1966", Stable algebraic topology, 1945--1966, Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 665–723, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.30.6299, doi:10.1016/B978-044482375-5/50025-0, ISBN 9780444823755, MR 1721119 Ravenel, Douglas C.

Nilpotence and periodicity in stable homotopy theory, Annals of Mathematics Studies, 128, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-02572-8, MR 1192553

New Mexico State Road 145

State Road 145 is a 3.500-mile-long, two-lane state highway in Hidalgo County in the U. S. state of New Mexico. NM 145's western terminus is at the road's junction with NM 80, right after the road turns north passing through Peloncillo Mountains; the road's eastern terminus is north of Cotton City at the highway's junction with NM 338. NM 145 is known as Goat Camp Road. NM 145 begins at the junction with NM 80, right after the road passes through the southern edge of Peloncillo Mountains, skirting the old lead mines; the road heads east through the arid sparsely populated desert plains occupied by ranchos. After 3.5 miles the road reaches its eastern terminus at the intersection with NM 338, just north of Cotton City. The old Route 145 was created some time in 1930s, running from Route 184 near Black Springs to its intersection with Route 52. Shortly thereafter, Route 145 together with several other roads in the area were combined to form an extension of Route 78 which existed until 1988. After reorganization of 1988, the route was renamed NM 163.

A road connecting NM 80 to NM 338 first appears on the mid-1960s topographic maps, as a local paved highway. In 1988 the New Mexico Department of Transportation went through a radical road renumbering program, the local road was transferred to the State control, designated as NM 145; the entire route is in Hidalgo County. U. S. Roads portal Geographic data related to New Mexico State Road 145 at OpenStreetMap