Liao dynasty

The Liao dynasty known as the Liao Empire the Great Liao, or the Khitan State, was an empire and imperial dynasty in East Asia that ruled from 916 to 1125 over present-day Northern and Northeast China and portions of the Russian Far East and North Korea. The empire was founded by Yelü Abaoji, Khagan of the Khitans around the time of the collapse of the Tang dynasty and was the first state to control all of Manchuria. Being ruled by the Khitan Yelü clan, the Liao dynasty is considered by historians to be a conquest dynasty of China. After its founding, the Liao dynasty began a process of territorial expansion, with Abaoji leading a successful conquest of Balhae. Emperors would gain the Sixteen Prefectures by fueling a proxy war that led to the collapse of the Later Tang and would establish tributary relationships with Goryeo after losing the Goryeo–Khitan Wars. In 1004, the Liao dynasty launched an imperial expedition against the Northern Song dynasty. After heavy fighting and large casualties between the two empires, both sides worked out the Chanyuan Treaty.

Through the treaty, the Liao dynasty forced the Northern Song to recognize them as peers and heralded an era of peace and stability between the two powers that lasted 120 years. Tension between traditional Khitan social and political practices and Chinese influence and customs was a defining feature of the dynasty; this tension led to a series of succession crises. So different were Chinese practices that Abaoji set up two parallel governments; the Northern Administration governed Khitan areas following traditional Khitan practices, while the Southern Administration governed areas with large non-Khitan populations, adopting traditional Chinese governmental practices. Differences between Chinese and Khitan society included gender roles and marital practices: the Khitans took a more egalitarian view towards gender, in sharp contrast to Chinese cultural practices that segregated men's and women's roles. Khitan women were taught to hunt, managed family property, held military posts. Many marriages were not arranged, women were not required to be virgins at their first marriage, women had the right to divorce and remarry.

The Liao dynasty was destroyed by the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty in 1125 with the capture of Emperor Tianzuo of Liao. However, the remnant Khitans, led by Yelü Dashi, established the Western Liao dynasty, which ruled over parts of Central Asia for a century before being conquered by the Mongols. Although cultural achievements associated with the Liao dynasty are considerable, a number of various statuary and other artifacts exist in museums and other collections, major questions remain over the exact nature and extent of the influence of the Liao Khitan culture upon subsequent developments, such as the musical and theatrical arts; the dynasty was founded in 916 when Abaoji proclaimed himself emperor and adopted the dynastic name of "Khitan". In 946, the Emperor Taizong of Liao renamed the dynasty as "Great Liao"; the name was once again changed to "Khitan" in 983 during the reign of the Emperor Shengzong of Liao. In 1066, the Emperor Daozong of Liao reintroduced the dynastic name "Great Liao" and the title remained in official use until the dynasty's collapse.

In 1124, the successor state established by Yelü Dashi in the Western Regions officially adopted the dynastic name "Great Liao". In historiography, this regime is more called the "Western Liao" or "Qara Khitai". There is no consensus among historians regarding the etymology of "Liao"; some believe that "Liao" was derived from the word for "iron" in the Khitan language, while others believe that the name came from the Liao River catchment, the traditional homeland of the Khitan people. Neither the origins, ethnic makeup, nor early history of the Khitans are well documented in historical records; the earliest reference to a Khitan state is found in the Book of Wei, a history of the Northern Wei Dynasty, completed in 554. Several books written after 554 mention the Khitans as being active during the late third and early fourth centuries; the Book of Jin, a history of the Jin dynasty, refers to the Khitans in the section covering the reign of Murong Sheng. Samguk Sagi, a history of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, mentions a Khitan raid taking place in 378.

According to sinologists Denis C. Twitchett and Klaus-Peter Tietze, it is held that the Khitans emerged from the Yuwen branch of the Xianbei people. Following a defeat at the hands of another branch of the Xianbei in 345, the Yuwen split into three tribes, one of, called the Kumo Xi. In 388 the Kumo Xi itself split, with one group remaining under the name Kumo Xi and the other group becoming the Khitans; this view is backed up by the Book of Wei, which describes the Khitans as being of Xianbei origins. There are several competing theories on the origin of the Khitans. Beginning in the Song dynasty, some Chinese scholars suggested that the Khitans might have descended from the Xiongnu people. While modern historians have rejected the idea that the Khitan were Xiongnu in origin, there is some support for the claim that they are of mixed Xianbei and Xiongnu origin. Beginning with Rashid-al-Din Hamadani in the fourteenth century, s


Muricopsis is a genus of small predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the rock snail family, Muricidae. According to the World Register of Marine Species, the following species with accepted names are included within the genus Muricopsis: Species brought into synonymy Muricopsis angolensis: synonym of Orania fusulus Muricopsis aradasii: synonym of Murexsul aradasii Muricopsis blainvillii: synonym of Muricopsis cristata Muricopsis diadema: synonym of Murexsul aradasii Muricopsis ianlochi: synonym of Murexsul ianlochi Muricopsis mariangelae: synonym of Muricopsis rutila mariangelae Rolan & Fernandes, 1991 Muricopsis medicago: synonym of Murexsul aradasii The Indo-Pacific Molluscan database mentions the following species with names in current use Muricopsis ednae: synonym of Murexsul interserratus Muricopsis espinosus: synonym of Murexsul espinosus Hutton, 1886 Muricopsis espinosus mariae: synonym of Murexsul mariae Finlay, 1930 Muricopsis oliverai Kosuge, 1984: synonym of Poirieria oliverai Muricopsis oxytata - hexagonal murex: synonym of Murexsul oxytatus Muricopsis planilirata: synonym of Murexsul planiliratus "Muricopsis".

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Powell A W B, New Zealand Mollusca, William Collins Publishers Ltd, New Zealand 1979 ISBN 0-00-216906-1 Glen Pownall, New Zealand Shells and Shellfish, Seven Seas Publishing Pty Ltd, New Zealand 1979 ISBN 0-85467-054-8 Houart R. Description of Muricopsis gorii from southern São Tomé. Novapex 13: 37-41

The Del-Lords

The Del-Lords are an American rock and roll band that formed in New York City, United States, in 1982, founded by The Dictators' guitarist Scott Kempner. The band combined elements of 1960s garage rock with country and folk influences to become one of the early originators of urban, roots-rock; the band members were Manny Caiati, Eric Ambel and Frank Funaro. Modeled on British bands of the 1960s that used several singers – The Kinks, The Who - Kempner's vision was to create an act featuring four singers, that some said was like an "East Coast Beach Boys"; the band took its name from director of many early Three Stooges shorts. The four Del-Lords studio albums, released between 1984 and 1990 – Frontier Days, Johnny Comes Marching Home, Based on a True Story and Lovers Who Wander – were released on CD in 2008 by the American Beat label. Twenty-six years after they began, The Del-Lords began work on new recordings, they released their work in progress, Under Construction EP of rough mixes on their website on March 9, 2010.

Their first four albums were re-released by Collector’s Choice-American Beat with bonus tracks and expanded liner notes. In February 2010, The Del-Lords played their first live gigs in 20 years, starting with two unannounced gigs in the northeast US, they played a house concert in Rhode Island, a sneak show at the Lakeside Lounge in New York before embarking on a seven city tour of Spain. On May 14, 2013, Elvis Club, a new album, was released on the Megaforce label. Frontier Days Johnny Comes Marching Home Based on a True Story Lovers Who Wander Elvis Club Under Construction Get Tough: The Best of the Del-Lords Howlin' at the Halloween Moon "Get Tough" / "Pledge of Love" "How Can a Poor Man Stand Such Times and Live" "Get Tough" "True Love" "Soldier's Home" "Heaven" "Cheyenne" "Poem of the River" Official website