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Liaoning

Liaoning is a coastal province in Northeast China, is the smallest, but the most populous province in the region. Located on the northern shore of Yellow Sea, it is the northernmost coastal province in China; the modern Liaoning province was established in 1907 as Fengtian or Fengtien province and was renamed Liaoning in 1929 known as Mukden Province at the time for the Manchu pronunciation of Shengjing, the former name of the provincial capital Shenyang. Under the Japanese-puppet Manchukuo regime, the province reverted to its 1907 name, but the name Liaoning was restored in 1945 and again in 1954. Liaoning is known in Chinese as "the Golden Triangle" from its shape and strategic location, with the Yellow Sea in the south, North Korea's North Pyongan and Chagang provinces in the southeast, Jilin to the northeast, Hebei to the southwest, Inner Mongolia to the northwest; the Yalu River marks its border with North Korea, emptying into the Korea Bay between Dandong in Liaoning and Sinuiju in North Korea.

In the past Liaoning formed part of Korean kingdoms as Gojoseon and Goguryeo, as well as Chinese polities such as the Yan State and the Han Dynasty. It was inhabited by non-Han peoples such as Xiongnu, Xianbei. In addition, the Balhae, Jurchen, Mongol Empire and Northern Yuan ruled Liaoning; the Ming Empire took control of Liaoning in 1371, just three years after the expulsion of the Mongols from Beijing. Around 1442, a defense wall was constructed to defend the agricultural heartland of the province from a potential threat from the Jurchen-Mongol Oriyanghan from the northwest. Between 1467 and 1468, the wall was expanded to protect the region from the northeast as well, against attacks from Jianzhou Jurchens. Although similar in purpose to the Great Wall of China, this "Liaodong Wall" was of a lower-cost design. While stones and tiles were used in some parts, most of the wall was in fact an earth dike with moats on both sides. Despite the Liaodong Wall, the Manchus conquered Liaodong, or eastern Liaoning, in the early 17th century, decades before the rest of China fell to them.

The Manchu dynasty, styled "Later Jin", established its capital in 1616–1621 in Xingjing, located outside of the Liaodong Wall in the eastern part of the modern Liaoning Province. It was moved to Dongjing, in 1625 to Shengjing. Although the main Qing capital was moved from Shengjing to Beijing after it fell to the Qing in 1644, Shengjing retained its importance as a regional capital throughout most of the Qing era; the Qing conquest of Liaoning resulted in a significant population loss in the area, as many local Chinese residents were either killed during fighting, or fled south of the Great Wall, many cities being destroyed by the retreating Ming forces themselves. As late as 1661, the Civil Governor of Fengtian Province, Zhang Shangxian reported that, outside of Fengtian City and Haicheng, all other cities east of the Liaohe were either abandoned, or hardly had a few hundred residents left. In the Governor's words, "Tieling and Fushun only have a few vagrants". West of the Liaohe, only Ningyuan and Guangning had any significant populations remaining.

In the latter half of the seventeenth century, the imperial Qing government recruited migrants from south of the Great Wall to settle the sparsely populated area of Fengtian Province. Many of the current residents of Liaoning trace their ancestry to these seventeenth century settlers; the rest of China's Northeast, remained off-limits to Han Chinese for most of the Manchu era. To prevent the migration of Chinese to those regions, the so-called Willow Palisade was constructed; the Palisade encircled the agricultural heartlands of Fengtian, running in most areas either somewhat outside the old Ming Liaodong Wall, or reusing it, separating it from the Manchu forests to the northeast and the Mongol grazing lands to the northwest. On, the Qing government tried to stop the migrants flow to Fengtian or to make some settlers return to their original places of residence – or, failing that, to legalize them. For example, an edict issued in 1704 commented on the recent Han Chinese settlers in Fengtian having failed to comply with earlier orders requiring them to leave, asked them either to properly register and join a local defense group, or to leave the province for their original places within the next ten years.

Ten years naturally, another edict appeared, reminding of the necessity to do something with illegal migrants... In any event, the restrictive policy was not as effective as desired by the officials in Beijing, Fengtian's population doubled between 1683 and 1734. During the Qing Dynasty, Manchuria was ruled by three generals, one of whom, the General of Shengjing ruled much of modern Liaoning. In 1860, the Manchu government began to reopen the region to migration, which resulted in Han Chinese becoming the dominant ethnic group in the region. In the 20th century, the province of Fengtian was set up in; when Japan and Russia fought the Russo-Japanese War in 1904–1905, many key battles took place in Liaoning, including the Battle of Port Arthur and the B

Lancaster Herald

Lancaster Herald of Arms in Ordinary is an English officer of arms at the College of Arms in London. The title of Lancaster Herald first occurs in 1347 at Calais, to begin with this officer was a servant to the noble house of Lancaster; as a retainer of John of Gaunt Lancaster was advanced to the rank of King of Arms, was promoted to the royal household of Henry IV, made king of the northern province. This arrangement continued until 1464. Since the reign of King Henry VII Lancaster has been a herald in ordinary; the badge of office is a red of Lancaster, royally crowned. The current Lancaster Herald of Arms in Ordinary is MA, MPhil. Heraldry Officer of Arms Notes Citations BibliographyThe College of Arms, Queen Victoria Street: being the sixteenth and final monograph of the London Survey Committee, Walter H. Godfrey, assisted by Sir Anthony Wagner, with a complete list of the officers of arms, prepared by H. Stanford London, A History of the College of Arms &c, Mark Noble, The College of Arms CUHGS Officer of Arms Index

Mae Ngai

Mae Ngai is an American historian and Lung Family Professor of Asian American Studies and Professor of History at Columbia University. She focuses on nationalism, ethnicity and race in 20th-century United States history. Ngai is the daughter of Chinese immigrants and describes herself as a student who took a non-traditional route, she took a break from her schooling in 1972 to work as a community activist. After working in the Education and Political Action Department and the Consortium for Worker Education as a researcher and professional labor educator in an environment "where being Chinese and being American existed in tension, but not in contradiction", Ngai decided to pursue graduate school focusing on immigration studies, she graduated from Empire State College with a BA, from Columbia University with a M. A. in 1993, Ph. D. in 1998, where she wrote her dissertation under Eric Foner. After graduation, Ngai obtained postdoctoral fellowships from the Social Science Research Council, the New York University School of Law, and, in 2003, the Radcliffe Institute.

She taught at the University of Chicago as an associate professor before returning to Columbia as a full professor in 2006. Ngai is interested in problems of nationalism and race as they are produced in law and society, in processes of transnational migration, in the formation of ethno-racial communities. In addition to publishing in numerous academic journals, Ngai has written on immigration and related policy for the Washington Post, the New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The Nation, the Boston Review. Ngai's most notable work is Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America which discusses the creation of the legal category of an "illegal alien" in the early 20th century, its social and historical consequences and context. Immigrants in American History and Life, Lecture Colonization/Decolonization, Undergraduate Seminar Transnational Migration and Citizenship, Graduate & Undergraduate Seminar Historiography for PhD students Shelby Collum Davis for Historical Studies, Princeton University, Spring 2018 Kluge Chair in Countries and Cultures of the North, Library of Congress, Fall 2017 Huntington Library, Spring 2017 Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2013 OAH-AHRAC China Residency Program, 2013 Chiang Ching-Kuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange, 2012 Cullman Center for Scholars and Writers, New York Public Library, 2012 Institute for Advanced Study, 2009 John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, 2009 Huntington Library, 2006 Frederick Jackson Turner Award, Organization of American Historians for Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America, 2005 Theodore Saloutos Book Award, the Immigration and Ethnic History Society, 2004 Littleton-Griswold Prize, the American Historical Association, 2004 Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard, 2003 NYU Law School, 2000 Social Science Research Council, 1999 "The Strange Career of the Illegal Alien", Law and History Review, Spring 2003, Vol. 21 No. 1 "The Architecture of Race in American Immigration Law", The Journal of American History, June 1999, Vol. 86 No. 1 Ngai, Mae.

"The Lost Immigration Debate". Boston Review. Ngai, Mae M.. "How grandma got legal". The Los Angeles Times. Mae M. Ngai. "We Need a Deportation Deadline". The Washington Post. Ngai, Mae "A Slight Knowledge of the Barbarian Language": Chinese Interpreters in Late-Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth-Century America" Ngai, Mae. "Immigration Border-Enforcement Myth". NYTimes. Ngai, Mae. "Chinese Gold Minders and the "Chinese Question" in Nineteenth-Century California and Victoria" Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America. Princeton University Press. 2004. ISBN 978-0-691-07471-9. Ronald H. Bayor, ed.. "Race and Citizenship in Late Nineteenth Century America". The Columbia documentary history of race and ethnicity in America. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11994-8. Janice A. Radway, Kevin Gaines, Barry Shank, Penny Von Eschen, eds.. "The Johnson-Reed Act of 1924 and the Reconstruction of Race in Immigration Law". American Studies: An Anthology. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-1-4051-1351-9.

CS1 maint: uses editors parameter Marc S. Rodriguez, ed.. "Braceros, "Wetbacks", the National Boundaries of Class". Repositioning North American migration history: new directions in modern continental migration and community. Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 978-1-58046-158-0; the Lucky Ones: One Family and the Extraordinary Invention of Chinese America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2010. ISBN 978-0-618-65116-0. Appearances on C-SPAN