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Libanius was a Greek teacher of rhetoric of the Sophist school. During the rise of Christian hegemony in the Roman Empire, he remained unconverted and in religious matters was a pagan Hellene. Libanius was born into a once-influential cultured family of Antioch that had come into diminished circumstances. At fourteen years old he began his study of rhetoric, for which he withdrew from public life and devoted himself to philosophy. Unfamiliar with Latin literature, he deplored its influence, he began his career in Constantinople as a private tutor. He was temporarily exiled to Nicomedia but returned to Constantinople and taught there until 354. Before his exile, Libanius was a friend of the emperor Julian, with whom some correspondence survives, in whose memory he wrote a series of orations. In 354 he accepted the chair of rhetoric in Antioch, his birthplace, where he stayed until his death, his pupils included both Christians. Libanius used his arts of rhetoric to advance various political causes.

He attacked the increasing imperial pressures on the traditional city-oriented culture, supported and dominated by the local upper classes. He is known to have protested against the persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire. In 386, he appealed without success to emperor Theodosius to prevent the destruction of a temple in Edessa, pleaded for toleration and the preservation of the temples against the predation of Christian monks, who he claimed: "hasten to attack the temples with sticks and stones and bars of iron, in some cases, disdaining these, with hands and feet. Utter desolation follows, with the stripping of roofs, demolition of walls, the tearing down of statues and the overthrow of altars, the priests must either keep quiet or die. After demolishing one, they scurry to another, to a third, trophy is piled on trophy, in contravention of the law; such outrages occur in the cities, but they are most common in the countryside. Many are the foes who perpetrate the separate attacks, but after their countless crimes this scattered rabble congregates and they are in disgrace unless they have committed the foulest outrage...

Temples, are the soul of the countryside: they mark the beginning of its settlement, have been passed down through many generations to the men of today. In them the farming communities rest their hopes for husbands, children, for their oxen and the soil they sow and plant. An estate that has suffered so has lost the inspiration of the peasantry together with their hopes, for they believe that their labour will be in vain once they are robbed of the gods who direct their labours to their due end, and if the land no longer enjoys the same care, neither can the yield match what it was before, and, if this be the case, the peasant is the poorer, the revenue jeopardized."The surviving works of Libanius, which include over 1,600 letters, 64 speeches and 96 progymnasmata, are valuable as a historical source for the changing world of the 4th century. His oration "A Reply To Aristides On Behalf Of The Dancers" is one of the most important records of Roman concert dance that immensely popular form known as pantomime.

His first Oration I is an autobiographical narrative, first written in 374 and revised throughout his life, a scholar's account that ends as an old exile's private journal. Progymnasma 8 is an imaginary summation of the prosecution's case again a physician charged with poisoning some of his patients. Although Libanius was not a Christian his students included such notable Christians as John Chrysostom and Theodore of Mopsuestia. Despite his friendship with the restorationist Emperor Julian he was made an honorary praetorian prefect by the Christian Emperor Theodosius I. 64 orations in the three fields of oratory: judicial and epideictic, both orations as if delivered in public and orations meant to be read in the study. The two volumes of selections in the Loeb Classical Library devote one volume to Libanius' orations that bear on the emperor Julian, the other on Theodosius. A. Russell, "Libanius: Imaginary Speeches"; some 400 additional letters in Latin were accepted, purporting to be translations, but a dispassionate examination of the texts themselves shows them to be misattributed or forgeries, by the Italian humanist Francesco Zambeccari in the 15th century.

Among his correspondents there was Censorius Datianus. Scott Bradbury, Selected Letters of Libanius. Liverpool, University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-85323-509-0 Raffaella Cribiore, The School of Libanius in Late Antique Antioch. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007. Margaret E. Molloy: Libanius and the Dancers, Olms-Weidmann, Hildesheim 1996 ISBN 3-487-10220-X A. F. Norman, Libanius: Selected Works, 2 volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Loeb Classical Library


WPSU-TV, virtual channel 3, is a Public Broadcasting Service member television station licensed to Clearfield, United States and serving West-Central Pennsylvania. Licensed to the Pennsylvania State University Board of Trustees as a part of Penn State Public Media, it is sister to National Public Radio member station WPSU and student radio station WKPS; the three stations share studios at Innovation Park on Penn State's University Park campus in State College. WPSU-TV's primary transmitter is located seven miles north of Clearfield in Lawrence Township, with a secondary transmitter in Pine Grove Mills, Pennsylvania. WPSU-TV reaches 500,000 households in west-central and central Pennsylvania, southern New York, as well as a few households in western Pennsylvania. In many rural portions of this area, viewers need cable television to receive other stations; the station's signal is receivable as far away as Warren where it is carried on local cable systems instead of Erie's WQLN, Williamsport and Bradford, as far north as some high ground in Cattaraugus County, New York, where WNED is the local PBS member station.

Penn State has a long history of using new media to extend access to education. It was the first American institution of higher education to offer agricultural correspondence courses in 1892; when radio became popular in the 1920s, the institution tried broadcasting courses and was the first U. S. university to experiment with closed-circuit television delivery in the 1940s. Penn State hosted a conference on April 20, 1952, at Nittany Lion Inn where the federal government announced its decision to set aside bandwidth to support non-commercial educational television stations; this conference led to the creation of national educational television broadcasting and to the creation of PBS. After Congress passed the Educational Facilities Act on May 1, 1962, which provided federal funding for the construction of educational television stations, Penn State was granted a transmitter construction permit in September 1964 and became the first educational television station in Pennsylvania to be licensed to a university, the 101st such station in the U.

S. Construction of the tower and transmitter site began on Penfield Mountain, seven miles north of Clearfield; the 539-foot tower was built on Rattlesnake Mountain to comply with the FCC "legal triangle" that required 170 miles to separate co-channels. Because the Wagner Annex studio was not yet completed, video playback machines and slide chains, audio tape equipment were installed at the transmitter site in conjunction with a "mobile recording unit"; the "X" in the original call sign WPSX-TV denotes. "The establishment of the station," said Dr. Eric Walker, then-president of the university, "will enable Penn State to expand its educational services". WPSX-TV was led by Marlow Froke, director of the Division of Broadcasting at Penn State, as a unit of Continuing Education. On March 1, 1965, under his leadership in cooperation with the newly-formed Allegheny Educational Broadcast Council advisory board, WPSX-TV broadcast to 124 elementary and secondary schools across Pennsylvania to supplement the curriculum and provide in-service training for teachers.

The first day's lineup included Saludos Amigos, Primary Concepts in Math, Focus on Fitness, 12 other programs between 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. Froke, a former journalism instructor and radio-television newsman, said in a 1965 Altoona Mirror interview, "Television can combine all the channels of communication—sight and motion—to give the greatest impact on the student". During the first WPSX-TV broadcast school year, the classroom TV service reached 250,000 students in 22 counties. Evening programs of culture, public affairs, adult education were added on June 7, 1965, in a Monday-to-Friday, 7–11 p.m. schedule. Saturday and Sunday programming was not added until nearly two years later. Once the microwave link that carried the broadcast signal to Wagner was completed, WPSX-TV began moving its broadcast and studio operations to its new facility. On December 10, 1965, engineering and programming staff were all based at the Wagner studios for the first time, remained there until a new digital broadcast facility was dedicated on September 8, 2005, as the Outreach Building in Innovation Park.

WPSX-TV drew upon Penn State's faculty and staff to develop original programming for the new evening lineup. Art History 10, hosted by assistant professor of art history Carl Barnes and covered painting and sculpture, was the first University credit course to be produced for broadcast in late 1965. Public affairs programs covered national and University issues. In 1969, P. J. O'Connell produced The Year Behind, the Year Ahead, reporting on the events that led to the student sit-in protest on Old Main Lawn. O'Connell and co-producer Kimberlie Kranich went on the create the Rural American Documentary Project with more than 150 titles that captured the life and struggles of rural Pennsylvanians, including Notes on an Appalachia County: Visiting with Darlene, Notes on an American Business, Profiles of Rural Religion: Go and I'll Be With You. In the midst of this growth, the public television movement gained traction, which signified the creation of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting in 1967 and two years PBS to manage the programming of public television national interconnections.

In the 1970s, the station joined a statewide community service project, broadcasting programs that focused on community issues and organizing community meetings in the viewing area. Children's shows were de

Benjamín Vidal

Benjamín Fernando Vidal Allende is a Chilean footballer who plays for the Chilean Primera División side Coquimbo Unido on loan from Universidad Católica as a centre back. Fuentes started his career at Primera División de Chile club O'Higgins, he progressed from the under categories club all the way to the senior team. Vidal debuted with O'Higgins in the match against Everton on November 14, 2010; the match finished 0:0. In 2012, Vidal was runner-up with O'Higgins, after lose the final against Universidad de Chile in the penalty shoot-out. In 2013, he won the Apertura 2013-14 with O'Higgins. In the tournament, he played in 10 of 18 matches. In 2014, he won the Supercopa de Chile against Deportes Iquique, playing the 90 minutes of the match, he participated with the club in the 2014 Copa Libertadores where they faced Deportivo Cali, Cerro Porteño and Lanús, being third and being eliminated in the group stage. For the 2014–15 season, Vidal is signed for Universidad de Chile for a US$1.5M fee. In the U dispute the Copa Libertadores 2015 and consecrated champion of the Apertura 2014, the Supercopa of Chile 2015 and the Glass Chile 2015, although without having more protagonism in the stellar equipment.

As a result, in June 2016, his transfer to Palestine is confirmed. In the team led by Nicolás Cordova takes up regularity and becomes the owner of the team, fulfilling an outstanding participation in the Copa Sudamericana 2016, where his team would be eliminated in the quarterfinals at the hands of San Lorenzo de Almagro, after having left in the Way to Flamengo from Brazil. After a big step for Palestino, where he is in several parties, he is bought by the UC, left with 65% of Benjamin's pass Vidal played for Chile at the U–18 and U–20 levels, he scored a goal against New Zealand. O'HigginsPrimera División de Chile: 2013 Apertura Supercopa de Chile: 2014PalestinoCopa Chile: 2018Universidad CatólicaSupercopa de Chile: 2019 O'HigginsMedalla Santa Cruz de Triana: 2014 Benjamín Vidal at Football Lineups

Philip Lutgendorf

Philip Lutgendorf is an American Indologist. He is Modern Indian Studies at the University of Iowa, his areas of work and interest include the epic poem Ramcharitmanas, the life and works of Hindu poet Tulsidas, the worship of Hanuman, Indian popular cinema, the Indian tea culture. He is translating the Ramcharitmanas into English: this translation will be published by the Murty Classical Library of India in seven volumes, he serves as the President of American Institute of Indian Studies. Lutgendorf received a B. A. degree from the University of Chicago. In 1987, he received a PhD degree with distinction from the Department of South Asian Languages and Civilizations of the University of Chicago, his dissertation was titled "The Life of a Text: Tulsidas' Ramcaritmanas in Performance."Since 1985, Lutgendorf has taught at the Department of Asian and Slavic Languages and Literature of the University of Iowa. He has developed and taught courses on several subjects including Hindi language and written and oral narrative traditions of South Asia including the Ramcharitmanas, Hindu mythology, Indian literature, Indian theatre, Indian cinema.

Lutgendorf received the A. K. Coomaraswamy Prize for the book The Life of a Text. In March 2002, he received the Guggenheim Fellowship for research on the Hindu god Hanuman. In 2014, he received the Fulbright-Hays fellowship for research on the cultural history of chai in India. Historians Barbara Metcalf and Thomas Metcalf called the website on Hindi films maintained by Lutgendorf "an excellent website on Hindi films." Freek Bakker wrote that Lutgendorf is an "expert in the Indian Ramayana tradition" and has done "profound research into the Ramayana katha tradition."Dr. Lutgendorf received the Tulsi Award by Pujya Morari Bapu on June 25 2017 in Estes Park, CO; the Tulsi Award is presented on the day of Tulsi Jayanti and recognises the lineage of those who recite kathas – their efforts to preserve the teachings of the scriptures and maintain the traditions of India. Although Dr. Lutgendorf was invited to Mahuva, India in the coming weeks, due to scheduling conflicts, Pujya Morari Bapu awarded the Tulsi Award in June 2017.

The Life of a Text: Performing the Ramcaritmanas of Tulsidas, University of California Press. 1991. ISBN 978-0520066908. Ramcaritmanas Word Index/Manas shabda anukramanika, New Delhi: Manohar Publisher & Distributors, New Delhi. 1997. ISBN 817304208X. From the Ramcaritmanas of Tulsidas, Book Five: Sundar Kand, Indian Literature, vol. XLV, no. 3: 143–181. Hanuman's Tale: The Messages of a Divine Monkey, New York: Oxford University Press. 2006. ISBN 9780199885824; the Indo-Aryan languages, RoutledgeCurzon, 2002 ISBN 0-7007-1130-9 Tulsidas: The Epic of Ram, Murty Classical Library of India: Harvard University Press. Forthcoming. Philip Lutgendorf's webpage on the website of University of Iowa philip's fil-ums: notes on Indian popular cinema by Philip Lutgendorf

August Becker

August Becker was a mid-ranking functionary in the SS of Nazi Germany and chemist in the Reich Main Security Office. He helped design the vans with a gas chamber built into the back compartment used in early Nazi mass murder of disabled people, political dissidents and other "racial enemies," including Action T4 as well as the Einsatzgruppen in the Nazi-occupied portions of the Soviet Union, his role was to provide important technical support, but on at least one occasion he gassed about 20 people. August Becker was born on 17 August 1900 in Staufenberg in the German state of Hesse, he was the son of a factory owner. He was inducted into the German Army towards the end of World War I. Afterwards, Becker studied chemistry and physics at the University of Giessen where, in 1933, he earned a PhD degree in chemistry. From 1933 to 1935, he remained as an assistant at the university. By September 1930, Becker had joined the Nazi party, in February 1931, he became a member of the SS. From February to April 1934, he was active in the Gestapo office at Giessen before he left the university in 1935.

At his trial on 4 April 1960, Becker testified that in May 1935 he was assigned to the SS-regiment "Germania" at Bad Arolsen, a small resort town near Kassel, the major city in the northern part of the German state of Hesse, in central Germany. During this time, Becker held the rank of SS-Oberscharführer and was concerned only with military affairs, he remained with this regiment up to 28 February 1938. According to his 1960 testimony, Becker was transferred to Berlin, to the Reich Security Main Office, Office VI, foreign intelligence; this agency was on the Bernerstrasse in the Grunewald. At this time Werner Best was in charge of RSHA Amt VI. Becker was responsible for the department replicating photocopies, he was employed to detect. At this time, he was promoted to rank of SS-Untersturmführer. Becker remained with RSHA Amt VI until December 1939, shortly before Christmas, he received an order by telephone to report to Oberführer Victor Brack in the Reich Chancellery. Becker went to Brack's office that same day.

Brack was part of the office of the Führer Chancellery. According to Becker, Brack told him the following: At the personal command of Himmler, Becker was deputed to Brack; this gas had been studied by a chemist, Dr. Albert Widmann, with the Office of the National Criminal Police in Berlin to assess its utility. Becker "didn't need to have any scruples with this thing, because the killing of these people would be made lawful by a Führer directive; this program was known as Action T4. Becker participated in the first "test", gassing 18 to 20 mentally ill convicts in a former prison known by the euphemistic name of The Brandenburg an der Havel National Institute, which became known to history as a Nazi killing center. Among the Action-T4 personal, Becker was called "the Red Becker" because of his hair color and probably to avoid confusion with the named Hans Joachim Becker, director of the Zentralverrechnungstelle welfare and institutes for care. After the war, Brack was placed on trial for war crimes against humanity.

Brack named Becker among 24 main responsible people for the action T4 in a list Brack produced for the Allied occupying authorities. According to Becker's testimony at the trial of Werner Heyde, the first medical director of Action T4, in the first half January 1940, Becker drove to the Brandenburg institute, where buildings had been prepared specially for this purpose. An area resembling a shower room with showerheads was laid out, about 3 meters by 5 meters in floor size, with a ceiling about three meters high. A pipe ran around the walls of the room, in the pipe were small holes, out of which the carbon monoxide gas flowed; the gas bottles stood outside the area and were attached to the supply pipe. The assembly of the plant was accomplished by a mechanic of the SS-principal office Berlin; the gas-tight entrance door included an observation port through which the behavior of the delinquents could be observed during the course of the gassing. For the first gassing the maintenance personnel led about 18 - 20 persons into the disguised gas chamber.

These men had had to undress in an antechamber, so that they were naked. The door was locked behind them. According to Becker, the victims showed no signs of agitation; as Widmann let in the gas Becker watched through the observation port. After about one minute, the victims lay on top of one another. Becker said he saw tumult. After a further five minutes the area was aired out. At this point, using specially designed stretchers, SS personnel cleared the bodies out of the area and took them to the incinerators. Becker's boss, Victor Brack, his office had designed the stretchers and the incinerator equipment, intended to allow mechanical feeding of the corpses into the furnace. Brack was present at this first gassing to observe his system in operation. According to Becker, afterwards Brack appeared satisfied, made some remarks, saying that "this action should be accomplished only by the physicians" and recited the saying that "the syringe belonged into the hand of the physician." Subsequently, professor Dr. Brandt spoke and stressed that on


Kebapche is a Bulgarian dish of grilled minced meat with spices. The meat is shaped into an elongated cylindrical form, similar to a hot dog. A mix of pork and beef is used, although some recipes involve only pork; the preferred spices are black pepper and salt. Kebapche is a grilled food, it is never baked. A typical addition to a kebapche meal are chips covered with grated sirene; the expression a three kebapcheta with sides is well-known. The preferred drink to go with a kebapche is beer; the word kebapche is derived from kebab, –che is a diminutive Bulgarian neutral suffix, i.e. a "little kebab". A dish similar to kebapche and combined with it is kyufte, the same in terms of meat and spices but round-shaped, it includes onions and parsley, which kebapche does not. It is the same dish as Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian ćevapčići, but the Bulgarian kebapcheta are larger. Ćevapčići, a Balkan dish Mici, a Romanian dish "Recipe Kebapches". Bulgaria Travel. Retrieved 29 August 2015. Georgieff, Anthony. "The rise and fall of the Bulgarian kebapche".

Vagabond. Vagabond Media Ltd. Retrieved 29 August 2015. Паунов, Радко. "В Бачково разкриха тайната на истинското кебапче". 24 часа. Retrieved 29 August 2015