The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom with the opposing Conservative Party in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The party arose from an alliance of Whigs and free trade-supporting Peelites and the reformist Radicals in the 1850s. By the end of the 19th century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone. Despite being divided over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to government in 1905 and won a landslide victory in the following year's general election. Under prime ministers Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman and H. H. Asquith, the Liberal Party passed the welfare reforms that created a basic British welfare state. Although Asquith was the party's leader, its dominant figure was David Lloyd George. Asquith was overwhelmed by the wartime role of coalition prime minister and Lloyd George replaced him as prime minister in late 1916, but Asquith remained as Liberal Party leader; the pair fought for years over control of the party. In The Oxford Companion to British History, historian Martin Pugh argues: Lloyd George made a greater impact on British public life than any other 20th-century leader, thanks to his pre-war introduction of Britain's social welfare system.
Furthermore, in foreign affairs, he played a leading role in winning the First World War, redrawing the map of Europe at the peace conference, partitioning Ireland. The government of Lloyd George was dominated by the Conservative Party, which deposed him in 1922. By the end of the 1920s, the Labour Party had replaced the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rival; the party went into decline after 1918 and by the 1950s won no more than six seats at general elections. Apart from notable by-election victories, its fortunes did not improve until it formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance with the newly formed Social Democratic Party in 1981. At the 1983 general election, the Alliance won over a quarter of the vote, but only 23 of the 650 seats it contested. At the 1987 general election, its share of the vote fell below 23% and the Liberals and Social Democratic Party merged in 1988 to form the Liberal Democrats. A splinter group reconstituted the Liberal Party in 1989. Prominent intellectuals associated with the Liberal Party include the philosopher John Stuart Mill, the economist John Maynard Keynes and social planner William Beveridge.
The Liberal Party grew out of the Whigs, who had their origins in an aristocratic faction in the reign of Charles II and the early 19th century Radicals. The Whigs were in favour of increasing the power of Parliament. Although their motives in this were to gain more power for themselves, the more idealistic Whigs came to support an expansion of democracy for its own sake; the great figures of reformist Whiggery were Charles James Fox and his disciple and successor Earl Grey. After decades in opposition, the Whigs returned to power under Grey in 1830 and carried the First Reform Act in 1832; the Reform Act was the climax of Whiggism, but it brought about the Whigs' demise. The admission of the middle classes to the franchise and to the House of Commons led to the development of a systematic middle class liberalism and the end of Whiggery, although for many years reforming aristocrats held senior positions in the party. In the years after Grey's retirement, the party was led first by Lord Melbourne, a traditional Whig, by Lord John Russell, the son of a Duke but a crusading radical, by Lord Palmerston, a renegade Irish Tory and a conservative, although capable of radical gestures.
As early as 1839, Russell had adopted the name of "Liberals", but in reality his party was a loose coalition of Whigs in the House of Lords and Radicals in the Commons. The leading Radicals were John Bright and Richard Cobden, who represented the manufacturing towns which had gained representation under the Reform Act, they favoured social reform, personal liberty, reducing the powers of the Crown and the Church of England, avoidance of war and foreign alliances and above all free trade. For a century, free trade remained the one cause. In 1841, the Liberals lost office to the Conservatives under Sir Robert Peel, but their period in opposition was short because the Conservatives split over the repeal of the Corn Laws, a free trade issue; this allowed ministries led by Russell and the Peelite Lord Aberdeen to hold office for most of the 1850s and 1860s. A leading Peelite was William Ewart Gladstone, a reforming Chancellor of the Exchequer in most of these governments; the formal foundation of the Liberal Party is traditionally traced to 1859 and the formation of Palmerston's second government.
However, the Whig-Radical amalgam could not become a true modern political party while it was dominated by aristocrats and it was not until the departure of the "Two Terrible Old Men", Russell and Palmerston, that Gladstone could become the first leader of the modern Liberal Party. This was brought about by Palmerston's death in 1865 and Russell's retirement in 1868. After a brief Conservative government, Gladstone won a huge victory at the 1868 election and formed the first Liberal government; the establishment of the party as a national membership organisation came with the foundation of the National Liberal Federation in 1877. The philosophe
The telluride ion is the anion Te2− and its derivatives. It is analogous to the other chalcogenide anions, the lighter O2−, S2−, Se2−, the heavier Po2−; the telluride anion is formed from the reduction of tellurium metalloid. The redox potential of pure Te metal is negative, −1.14 V. Te + 2 e− ↔ Te2−The acid hydride of tellurium, hydrogen telluride, H2Te, is an unstable compound that decomposes to tellurium metal, it is acidic, dissociating into a hydrogen telluride ion in aqueous solutions. Like its sulfide and selenide counterparts, the Te2− anion only exists in aqueous solutions in basic conditions. Tellurides describe a class of organotellurium compounds formally derived from Te2−. An illustrative member is dimethyl telluride, which results from the methylation of telluride salts: 2 CH3I + Na2Te → 2Te + 2 NaIDimethyl telluride is formed by the body when tellurium is ingested; such compounds are called telluroethers because they are structurally related to ethers with tellurium replacing oxygen, although the length of the C–Te bond is much longer than a C–O bond.
C–Te–C angles tend to be closer to 90°. Many metal tellurides are known, including some telluride minerals; these include natural gold tellurides, like calaverite and krennerite, sylvanite. Commercially, the tellurides are minor ores of gold, although they comprise the major occurring compounds of gold.. Although the bonding in such materials is fairly covalent, they are described casually as salts of Te2−. Using this approach, Ag2Te is derived from Ag+ and Te2−. Tellurides do not have any great economic importance. Cadmium telluride does however have photovoltaic properties, both bismuth telluride and lead telluride are exceptional thermoelectric materials, although not commercialized
Damiano Zenoni is an Italian football manager and former player, who played as a midfielder or defender. He was capable of playing anywhere in midfield or defence, although he played on the right flank as a winger, wing-back, or full-back, he is the twin brother of former footballer Cristian Zenoni. Damiano Zenoni began his career with the Atalanta youth side, was promoted to the club's senior side, he was sent on loan to Pistoiese and Alzano Virescit for the 1996–97 and 1997–98 seasons in order to gain experience and playing time. After helping Atalanta back to the top Italian division, Zenoni made his Serie A debut with Atalanta on 1 October 2000, against S. S. Lazio, along with his brother, established himself as one of the most promising young full-backs in the league throughout the 2000–01 season. In 2005, he joined Udinese under the Bosman ruling, leaving Atalanta 5 months before his contract had ended, he signed a 4 year-deal which would keep him at his new club until 2009. Atalanta promoted Marco Motta from the youth team to the first team to play Zenoni's position.
In the summer of 2007, Parma signed Zenoni for €3 million in a 3-year deal, while Damiano Ferronetti moved to Udinese for €2 million. In January 2011, Zenoni joined Piacenza Calcio for the remainder of the 2010–11 season. Zenoni made his only appearance for the Italian senior team in a 1–0 friendly home win against England on 15 November 2000, under manager Giovanni Trapattoni. On 7 May 2019, he was appointed the head coach of Serie C club Feralpisalò, where he worked with the youth team. On 25 September 2019, he was fired by the club following a 1–3 loss to Fano. Damiano is the twin brother of former footballer Cristian Zenoni. Uefa.com Profile at La Gazzetta dello Sport