The Portuguese Empire known as the Portuguese Overseas or the Portuguese Colonial Empire, was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history. It existed for six centuries, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415, to the handover of Portuguese Macau to China in 1999; the empire began in the 15th century, from the early 16th century it stretched across the globe, with bases in North and South America and various regions of Asia and Oceania. The Portuguese Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description given to the Spanish Empire; the Portuguese Empire originated at the beginning of the Age of Discovery, the power and influence of the Kingdom of Portugal would expand across the globe. In the wake of the Reconquista, Portuguese sailors began exploring the coast of Africa and the Atlantic archipelagos in 1418–19, using recent developments in navigation and maritime technology such as the caravel, with the aim of finding a sea route to the source of the lucrative spice-trade.
In 1488 Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope, in 1498 Vasco da Gama reached India. In 1500, either by an accidental landfall or by the crown's secret design, Pedro Álvares Cabral discovered Brazil on the South American coast. Over the following decades, Portuguese sailors continued to explore the coasts and islands of East Asia, establishing forts and factories as they went. By 1571 a string of naval outposts connected Lisbon to Nagasaki along the coasts of Africa, the Middle East and South Asia; this commercial network and the colonial trade had a substantial positive impact on Portuguese economic growth, when it accounted for about a fifth of Portugal's per-capita income. When King Philip II of Spain inherited the Portuguese crown in 1580 there began a 60-year union between Spain and Portugal known to subsequent historiography as the Iberian Union; the realms continued to have separate administrations. As the King of Spain was King of Portugal, Portuguese colonies became the subject of attacks by three rival European powers hostile to Spain: the Dutch Republic and France.
With its smaller population, Portugal found itself unable to defend its overstretched network of trading posts, the empire began a long and gradual decline. Brazil became the most valuable colony of the second era of empire, until, as part of the wave of independence movements that swept the Americas during the early 19th century, it broke away in 1822; the third era of empire covers the final stage of Portuguese colonialism after the independence of Brazil in the 1820s. By the colonial possessions had been reduced to forts and plantations along the African coastline, Portuguese Timor, enclaves in India and China; the 1890 British Ultimatum led to the contraction of Portuguese ambitions in Africa. Under António Salazar, the Second Portuguese Republic made some ill-fated attempts to cling on to its last remaining colonies. Under the ideology of Pluricontinentalism, the regime renamed its colonies "overseas provinces" while retaining the system of forced labour, from which only a small indigenous élite was exempt.
In 1961 India annexed Goa and Dahomey annexed Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá. The Portuguese Colonial War in Africa lasted from 1961 until the final overthrow of the Estado Novo regime in 1974; the so-called Carnation Revolution of April 1974 in Lisbon led to the hasty decolonization of Portuguese Africa and to the 1975 annexation of Portuguese Timor by Indonesia. Decolonization prompted the exodus of nearly all the Portuguese colonial settlers and of many mixed-race people from the colonies. Portugal returned Macau to China in 1999; the only overseas possessions to remain under Portuguese rule, the Azores and Madeira, both had overwhelmingly Portuguese populations, Lisbon subsequently changed their constitutional status from "overseas provinces" to "autonomous regions". The origin of the Kingdom of Portugal lay in the reconquista, the gradual reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from the Moors. After establishing itself as a separate kingdom in 1139, Portugal completed its reconquest of Moorish territory by reaching Algarve in 1249, but its independence continued to be threatened by neighbouring Castile until the signing of the Treaty of Ayllón in 1411.
Free from threats to its existence and unchallenged by the wars fought by other European states, Portuguese attention turned overseas and towards a military expedition to the Muslim lands of North Africa. There were several probable motives for their first attack, on the Marinid Sultanate, it offered the opportunity to continue the Christian crusade against Islam. In 1415 an attack was made on Ceuta, a strategically located North African Muslim enclave along the Mediterranean Sea, one of the terminal ports of the trans-Saharan gold and slave trades; the conquest was a military success, marked one of the first steps in Portuguese expansion beyond the Iberian Peninsula, but it proved costly to defend against the Muslim forces that soon besieged it. The Portuguese were unable to use it as a base for further expansion into the hinterland, the trans-Saharan caravans shifted their routes to bypass Ceuta and/or used alternative Muslim ports. Although Ceuta proved to be a disappointment for the Portuguese
Portuguese Restoration War
The Portuguese Restoration War was the name given by nineteenth-century Romantic historians to the war between Portugal and Spain that began with the Portuguese revolution of 1640 and ended with the Treaty of Lisbon in 1668. The period from 1640 to 1668 was marked by periodic skirmishes between Portugal and Spain, as well as short episodes of more serious warfare, much of it occasioned by Spanish and Portuguese entanglements with non-Iberian powers. Spain was involved in the Thirty Years' War until 1648 and the Franco–Spanish War until 1659, while Portugal was involved in the Dutch–Portuguese War until 1663. In the seventeenth century and afterwards, this period of sporadic conflict was known, in Portugal and elsewhere, as the Acclamation War; the war established the House of Braganza as Portugal's new ruling dynasty, replacing the House of Habsburg. This ended the so-called Iberian Union; when Philip II of Portugal died, he was succeeded by his son Philip III, who had a different approach to Portuguese issues.
Taxes on the Portuguese merchants were raised, the Portuguese nobility began to lose its influence at the Spanish Cortes, government posts in Portugal were occupied by Spaniards. Philip III tried to make Portugal a Spanish province, Portuguese nobles stood to lose all of their power; this situation culminated in a revolution organized by the nobility and bourgeoisie, executed on 1 December 1640, sixty years after the crowning of Philip I, the first "dual monarch". The plot was planned by Antão Vaz de Almada, Miguel de Almeida, João Pinto Ribeiro. They, together with several associates, known as the Forty Conspirators, killed the Secretary of State, Miguel de Vasconcelos, imprisoned the king's cousin, Margaret of Savoy, governing Portugal in his name; the moment was well chosen. The support of the people became apparent immediately, within a matter of hours, Philip III's 6th cousin John, 8th Duke of Braganza was acclaimed as King John IV of Portugal. By 2 December 1640, the day following the coup, John IV, acting in his capacity as sovereign of the country, had sent a letter to the Municipal Chamber of Évora.
The ensuing conflict with Spain brought Portugal into the Thirty Years' War as, at least, a peripheral player. From 1641 to 1668, the period during which the two nations were at war, Spain sought to isolate Portugal militarily and diplomatically, Portugal tried to find the resources to maintain its independence through political alliances and maintenance of its colonial income. After assuming the Portuguese throne, João IV took several steps to strengthen his position. On 11 December 1640, a'Council of War' was created to organize all of the operations. Next, the king created the'Junta of the Frontiers' to take care of the fortresses near the border, the hypothetical defense of Lisbon, the garrisons and sea ports. A year in December 1641, he created a tenancy to assure that all of the country's fortresses would be upgraded and that the improvements would be financed with regional taxes. João IV organized the army, re-established the'Military Laws of King Sebastian', undertook a diplomatic campaign focused on restoring good relations with England.
After gaining several small victories, João tried to make peace quickly. However, his demand that Philip recognize the new ruling dynasty in Portugal was not fulfilled until the reign of his son, Afonso VI, during the regency of Peter of Braganza Confrontations with Spain lasted twenty-eight years. In 1640, Cardinal Richelieu, the chief adviser to Louis XIII of France, was aware of the fact that France was operating under strained circumstances. Louis was at war with Spain at that time. In addition to their shared frontier at the Pyrenees, Philip IV of Spain Philip III of Portugal as well, under various titles, in Flanders and the Franche-Comté, to the north and east of France. In addition, Philip IV controlled large territories in Italy, where he could, at will, impose a fourth front by attacking French-controlled Savoy. Spain had enjoyed the reputation of having the most formidable military force in Europe, with the introduction of the arquebus and the so-called "Spanish School"; this reputation and tactic had however diminished with the Thirty Years' War.
The consummate statesman, decided to force Philip IV to look to his own internal problems. In order to divert the Spanish troops besieging France, Louis XIII, on the advice of Richelieu, supported the claim of João IV of Portugal during the Acclamation War; this was done on the reasoning. To fulfill the common foreign-policy interests of Portugal and France, a treaty of alliance between the two countries was concluded at Paris on 1 June 1641, it lasted eighteen years before Richelieu's successor as unofficial foreign minister, Cardinal Mazarin, broke the treaty and abandoned his Portuguese and Catalan allies to sign a separate peace with Madrid. The Treaty of the Pyrenees was signed in 1659, under the terms of which France received the portion of Catalonia north of the P
Battle of Alcácer Quibir
The Battle of Alcácer Quibir was fought in northern Morocco, near the town of Ksar-el-Kebir and Larache, on 4 August 1578. The combatants were the army of the deposed Moroccan Sultan Abu Abdallah Mohammed II, with his ally, the King of Portugal Sebastian I, against a large Moroccan army nominally under the new Sultan of Morocco Abd Al-Malik I; the Christian king, Sebastian I, had planned a crusade after Abu Abdallah asked him to help recover his throne. Abu Abdallah's uncle, Abd Al-Malik, had taken it from him with Ottoman support; the defeat of Portugal and attendant death of the childless Sebastian led to the end of the Aviz dynasty, the integration of the country in the Iberian Union for 60 years under the Philippine Dynasty in a dynastic union with Spain. Sebastian, who would be known in Portugal as the Desired, was the son of the Infante Dom John and Joanna, daughter of the Emperor Charles V, his father died before he was born, he became king at the age of three after the death of his grandfather in 1557.
He was educated entirely by Jesuits, by his guardian and tutor Aleixo de Meneses and by Catherine of Austria, sister of Charles V and wife of King John III. Some, judging him after his defeat, alleged that under these influences his youthful idealism soon mutated into religious fanaticism, although he never joined the Holy League; the Portuguese Cortes asked Sebastian several times to go to Morocco and stop the turmoil of the advancing Turkish military presence, because the Ottomans would be a threat to the security of the Portuguese coasts and to the commerce with Guinea and the Atlantic Islands. But it was only when Abu Abdallah Mohammed II Saadi went to Portugal and asked for Sebastian's help in recovering his throne from his uncle that Sebastian decided to mount a military effort. Sebastian felt driven to revive lost glories by intervening in North Africa, influenced by the events such as the defense of Mazagan in 1562 from a Moroccan siege. Accordingly, in 1568, the kingdom began to prepare for intervention in Morocco.
This policy was not only supported by the mercantile bourgeoisie as it would benefit commerce in this area, but by the nobility. Up to that time Portuguese military action in Africa had been confined to small expeditions and raids. Sebastian proposed to change this strategy entirely. In 1574 Sebastian visited some of the Portuguese bases in North Africa and led a successful raid on Muslim territory beyond the Portuguese city of Tangier, engaging in several skirmishes and in a confrontation of greater magnitude on 21 October. Although in numerical inferiority but with a heavy contingent of cavalry, he was successful, which encouraged him to grander designs against the new Saadian ruler of Morocco, he gave his support to Abu Abdallah Mohammed II Saadi, engaged in a civil war to recover the throne of Morocco from his uncle, the Emir Abd Al-Malik -, aided by the Ottomans. Despite the admonitions of his mother and his uncle Philip II of Spain, Sebastian was determined to wage a military campaign, he used much of Portugal's imperial wealth to equip a large fleet and gather an army which included soldiers of several nationalities: 2,000 volunteers from Spain, 3,000 mercenaries from Flanders and Germany, 600 Italians recruited to aid in an invasion of Ireland under the leadership of the English adventurer, Thomas Stukley.
It is said that the expeditionary force numbered 500 ships, the army in total numbered about 18,000 men, including the flower of the Portuguese nobility. After haranguing his troops from the windows of the Church of Santa Maria in Lagos, Sebastian departed that port in his armada on 24 June 1578, he landed at Arzila, in Portuguese Morocco, where Abu Abdallah joined him with an additional 6,000 Moorish allied troops, marched into the interior. The Emir, gravely ill, had meanwhile collected a large army, rallying his countrymen to jihad against the Portuguese invaders; the two armies approached each other near Ksar-el-Kebir, camping on opposite sides of a Loukkos river. On 4 August 1578, the Portuguese and Moorish allied troops were drawn up in battle array, Sebastian rode around encouraging the ranks, but the Moroccans advanced on a broad front. The Sultan had 10,000 cavalry on the wings, in the center had placed Moors, driven out of Spain and thus bore a special grudge against Christians. Despite his illness, the Sultan led his forces on horseback.
The battle started as both sides exchanged several volleys of gunfire from artillery. Stukley, commanding the Portuguese center, was killed by a cannonball early in the battle; the Moroccan cavalry began to encircle the Portuguese army. Both armies soon became engaged in a melee; the flanks of the Portuguese army began to give way to the Moorish cavalry, the center became threatened as well. Seeing the flanks compromised, having lost its commander early in battle, the Portuguese center lost heart and was overcome; the battle ended after nearly four hours of heavy fighting and resulted in the total defeat of the Portuguese and Abu Abdallah's army with 8,000 dead, including the sl
Miguel I of Portugal
Dom Miguel I, nicknamed The Absolutist, The Traditionalist and The Usurper, was the King of Portugal between 1828 and 1834, the seventh child and third son of King João VI and his queen, Carlota Joaquina of Spain. Following his exile as a result of his actions in support of absolutism in the April Revolt, Miguel returned to Portugal as regent and fiancé of his niece Queen Maria II; as regent, he claimed the Portuguese throne in his own right, since according to the so-called Fundamental Laws of the Kingdom his older brother Pedro IV and therefore the latter's daughter had lost their rights from the moment that Pedro had made war on Portugal and become the sovereign of a foreign state. This led to a difficult political situation, during which many people were killed, persecuted or sent into exile, which culminated in the Portuguese Liberal Wars between authoritarian absolutists and progressive constitutionalists. In the end Miguel lived the last 32 years of his life in exile. In order to counter the Republican opposition from the Portuguese Freemasons, the dynastic order known as Order of Saint Michael of the Wing was revived in 1848, with statutes issued by King Miguel I of Portugal.
Miguel Maria do Patrocinio de Bragança e Bourbon, the third son of King João VI and Carlota Joaquina, was born in the Queluz Royal Palace and was created by his father Duke of Beja. Some sources have suggested that Miguel I could be the illegitimate son from an adulterous affair between his mother, Queen Charlotte, one of her alleged lovers D. Pedro José Joaquim Vito de Meneses Coutinho, Marquis of Marialva. Sources close to King João VI confirmed as much by asserting that he had not had sexual relations with his wife for two and a half years prior to Miguel's birth, but despite the gossip, Miguel was always considered to be a son of the king, by the king, by his mother, by the rest of the family, by the court, by the church. The "illegitimate child" theories may have had their origins in the writings of pro-liberal propagandists or royalists who wanted to denigrate the queen and undermine the claims of Miguel and of his descendants to the Portuguese throne. What is clear is that Miguel was the queen's favourite child.
After the death of her firstborn, it was Miguel who received most of her attention, rather than Pedro, closer to his father. In 1807, at the age of 5, Miguel accompanied the Portuguese Royal Family on their transfer to Brazil in order to escape from the first Napoleonic invasion of Portugal. Miguel was a mischievous child, sometimes seen in the miniature uniform of a general. At sixteen he was seen galloping around Mata-Carvalos, knocking off the hats of passers-by with his riding crop, he spent most of his time with a rowdy band of Indian farm-hands. In general, Miguel was spoiled by the queen and her royal household, influenced by the base tendencies of others; the Duke of Palmela described him as: "A good man when among good men, when among the bad, worse than they." Miguel was an avowed conservative and admirer of Prince Metternich, who had referred to the liberal revolutions in the 1820s as unrealistic and without any historical roots: "A people who can neither read nor write, whose last word is the dagger — fine material for constitutional principles!...
The English constitution is the work of centuries.... There is no universal recipe for constitutions."Miguel was 20 years old when he first challenged the liberal institutions established after the 1820 revolution, which may have been part of a wider strategy by the queen. He was at the head of the counter-revolution of 1823, known as the Vilafrancada, which erupted on May 27, 1823 in Vila Franca de Xira. Early in the day, Miguel joined the 23rd Infantry Regiment, commanded by Brigadier Ferreira Sampaio in Vila Franca, where he declared his support for an absolutist monarchy, he called on General Pampluna to join him and his cause. The general, not a fan of the liberal constitution, obeyed his summons and within five days he controlled the insurrectionary forces; the prince, supported by the queen, went so far as to demand the abdication of the king, faithful to his earlier oath, wanted to maintain the 1822 Constitution, despite the growing support for absolutist forces in Vila Franca. Miguel and the queen were interested in overthrowing the parliamentary system and, inspired by the return of the absolutist monarchy in Spain they exploited factionalism and plotted with outside reactionaries to overthrow the liberal Cortes.
But General Pampluna was loyal to the king, made it clear that he would do nothing to defy the monarch, advised the prince to obey his father's summons. The king himself marched on Vila Franca where he received the submission of his son, but he took advantage of the situation to abolish the 1822 Constitution and dismiss the Cortes. Many liberals went into exile. Although Miguel returned to Lisbon in triumph, the king was able to maintain complete control of power and did not succumb to the ultra-reactionary forces that supported his abdication. After the events of the Vilafrancada
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean: a sociologically defined class in contemporary times, referring to people with a certain cultural and financial capital belonging to the middle or upper middle class: the upper and petty bourgeoisie. Originally and "those who live in the borough", to say, the people of the city, as opposed to those of rural areas. A defined class of the Middle Ages to the end of the Ancien Régime in France, that of inhabitants having the rights of citizenship and political rights in a city; the "bourgeoisie" in its original sense is intimately linked to the existence of cities recognized as such by their urban charters, so there was no bourgeoisie "outside the walls of the city" beyond which the people were "peasants" submitted to the stately courts and manorialism. In Marxist philosophy, the bourgeoisie is the social class that came to own the means of production during modern industrialization and whose societal concerns are the value of property and the preservation of capital to ensure the perpetuation of their economic supremacy in society.
Joseph Schumpeter saw the incorporation of new elements into an expanding bourgeoisie entrepreneurs who took risks to bring innovation to industries and the economy through the process of creative destruction, as the driving force behind the capitalist engine. The Modern French word bourgeois derived from the Old French burgeis, which derived from bourg, from the Old Frankish burg. In its literal sense, bourgeois in Old French means "town dweller". In English, the word "bourgeoisie" identified a social class oriented to economic materialism and hedonism, to upholding the extreme political and economic interests of the capitalist ruling-class. In the 18th century, before the French Revolution, in the French feudal order, the masculine and feminine terms bourgeois and bourgeoise identified the rich men and women who were members of the urban and rural Third Estate – the common people of the French realm, who violently deposed the absolute monarchy of the Bourbon King Louis XVI, his clergy, his aristocrats in the French Revolution of 1789-1799.
Hence, since the 19th century, the term "bourgeoisie" is politically and sociologically synonymous with the ruling upper-class of a capitalist society. The medieval French word bourgeois denoted the inhabitants of the bourgs, the craftsmen, artisans and others, who constituted "the bourgeoisie", they were the socio-economic class between the peasants and the landlords, between the workers and the owners of the means of production; as the economic managers of the materials, the goods, the services, thus the capital produced by the feudal economy, the term "bourgeoisie" evolved to denote the middle class – the businessmen and businesswomen who accumulated and controlled the capital that made possible the development of the bourgs into cities. Contemporarily, the terms "bourgeoisie" and "bourgeois" identify the ruling class in capitalist societies, as a social stratum; the 18th century saw a partial rehabilitation of bourgeois values in genres such as the drame bourgeois and "bourgeois tragedy".
The bourgeoisie emerged as a historical and political phenomenon in the 11th century when the bourgs of Central and Western Europe developed into cities dedicated to commerce. This urban expansion was possible thanks to economic concentration due to the appearance of protective self-organisation into guilds. Guilds arose when individual businessmen conflicted with their rent-seeking feudal landlords who demanded greater rents than agreed. In the event, by the end of the Middle Ages, under régimes of the early national monarchies of Western Europe, the bourgeoisie acted in self-interest, politically supported the king or queen against legal and financial disorder caused by the greed of the feudal lords. In the late-16th and early 17th centuries, the bourgeoisies of England and the Netherlands had become the financial – thus political – forces that deposed the feudal order. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the bourgeoisie were the politically progressive social class who
Battle of Aljubarrota
The Battle of Aljubarrota was a battle fought between the Kingdom of Portugal and the Crown of Castile on 14 August 1385. Forces commanded by King John I of Portugal and his general Nuno Álvares Pereira, with the support of English allies, opposed the army of King John I of Castile with its Aragonese and French allies at São Jorge, between the towns of Leiria and Alcobaça, in central Portugal; the result was a decisive victory for the Portuguese, ruling out Castilian ambitions to the Portuguese throne, ending the 1383–85 Crisis and assuring John as King of Portugal. Portuguese independence was confirmed and a new dynasty, the House of Aviz, was established. Scattered border confrontations with Castilian troops would persist until the death of John I of Castile in 1390, but these posed no real threat to the new dynasty. To celebrate his victory and acknowledge divine help, John I of Portugal ordered the construction of the monastery of Santa Maria da Vitória na Batalha and the founding of the town of Batalha, close to the site where the battle was fought.
The king, his wife Philippa of Lancaster, several of his sons are buried in this monastery, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The end of the 14th century in Europe was a time of revolution and crisis, with the Hundred Years' War between the English and the French for Western France, the Black Death devastating the continent, famine afflicting the poor. Portugal was no exception. In October 1383, King Ferdinand I of Portugal died with no son to inherit the crown; the only child of his marriage with Leonor Telles de Meneses was a girl, Princess Beatrice of Portugal. In April of that same year the King had signed the Treaty of Salvaterra de Magos with King Juan I of Castile; the treaty determined that Princess Beatrice was to marry Juan I, king of Castile, the Crown of Portugal would belong to the descendants of this union. This situation left the majority of the Portuguese discontent, the Portuguese nobility was unwilling to support the claim of the princess because that could mean the incorporation of Portugal into Castile.
The powerful merchants of the capital, were enraged at being excluded from the negotiations. Without an undisputed option, Portugal remained without a king from 1383–85, in an interregnum known as the 1383–85 Crisis; the first clear act of hostility was carried out in December 1383 by the faction of John, the Grand Master of the Aviz Order, with the murder of Count Andeiro. This prompted the Lisbon merchants to name him "rector and defender of the realm". However, the Castilian king would not relinquish his wife's claims to the throne. In an effort to normalize the situation and secure the crown for himself or Beatrice, he forced Leonor to abdicate from the regency. In April 1384, in Alentejo, a punitive expedition was promptly defeated by Nuno Álvares Pereira, leading a much smaller Portuguese army at the Battle of Atoleiros; this was an example of the use of the defensive tactic of forming an infantry square to repel cavalry without any casualties to the Portuguese. A larger second expedition led by the Castilian king himself reached and besieged Lisbon for four months in the summer of 1384, before being forced to retreat by a shortage of food supplies due to harassment from Nuno Álvares Pereira, the bubonic plague.
In order to secure his claim, John of Aviz engaged in politics and intense diplomatic negotiations with both the Holy See and England. In October 1384, Richard II wrote to John, regent of Portugal, reporting on negotiations, conducted in England, with John's envoys - Dom Fernando, master of the order of Santiago, Laurence Fogaça, chancellor of Portugal saying that an agreement had been reached under which a small English contingent was to be sent to Portugal, to help defend the kingdom against its Castilian neighbor. On 6 April 1385, the Council of the kingdom assembled in Coimbra and declared him King John I of Portugal. After his accession to the throne, John I of Portugal proceeded to annex the cities whose military commanders supported Princess Beatrice and her husband's claims, namely Caminha and Guimarães among others. Enraged by this "rebellion", Juan I ordered a host of 31,000 men to engage in a two-pronged invasion in May; the smaller Northern force sacked and burnt towns along the border, a common practice at the time and similar to what the English were doing in Scotland, before being defeated by local Portuguese nobles in the battle of Trancoso, in the first week of June.
On the news of the invasion by the Castilians, John I of Portugal's army met with Nuno Álvares Pereira, the Constable of Portugal, in the town of Tomar. There they decided to face the Castilians before they could get close to Lisbon and lay siege to it again. English allies arrived at Easter of 1385, consisting of a company of about 100 English longbowmen, veterans from the Hundred Years' War, sent to honor the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373; the Portuguese set out to intercept the invading army near the town of Leiria. Nuno Álvares Pereira took on the task of choosing the ground for the battle. Russell notes that the two Portuguese leaders had shown themselves masters of the new developments in methods of warfare, i.e. the use of archers and dismounted men-at-arms. The chosen location was São Jorge near Aljubarrota suitable for the chosen military tactic, being a small flattened hill surrounded by creeks, with the small settlement of Chão da Feira (Fair's
Oeiras is a municipality in the western part of Lisbon Metropolitan Area, a subregion of Greater Lisbon, in continental Portugal. It is part of the urban agglomeration of Lisbon; the population in 2011 was 172,120 living in an area of 45.88 km2, making the municipality the fifth-most densely populated in Portugal. Oeiras is an important economic hub, being one of the most developed municipalities of Portugal and Europe, it has the highest GDP per capita in the country, being the second highest municipality in terms of purchasing power as well as the second one collecting taxes in the country. These economic indicators reflect the inhabitants' studies, as Oeiras is the municipality with the highest concentration of population with higher education in the country, it has the lowest unemployment rate in the Lisbon area. The mild climate, access to water, quality of its soils and geographically advantageous location at the mouth of the Tagus River attracted early settlement to this region; the rugged hilltops of the interior conditioned cultivation and allowed the settlement of several small agricultural castros within the region's limits, such as Castro of Leceia.
This archaeological site is a witness to the early settlements and defensive structures that developed during the Chalcolithic period, although Paleolithic camps such as Gruta da Ponte da Laje are indicative of earlier settlements. Remnants of the Roman occupation of the Iberian peninsula are evident in many places throughout the municipality, including mosaics along the Rua das Alcássimas, a Roman bridge; the Arab conquest left behind several toponymic markers, including Arab/Moorish place names such as Alcássimas, Algés, Alpendroado and Quinta da Moura. The settlement of Oeiras dates back to 1208, when the area was colonized by Christian tribes from the northern Portugal, moving south into warmer agricultural lands. At the beginning of the Age of Discoveries, Oeiras became the industrial and commercial warehouse of Lisbon; the development of the Gunpowder Factory in Barcarena was therefore important in the expansion of the Portuguese dominions of the Orient, in addition to the aggregate extraction and calcium oxide furnaces in Paço de Arcos.
These industries were supported and guarded by the construction of several fortifications along a maritime defensive line that ringed the southern coast to Lisbon and that controlled navigation in the Tagus estuary from the 16th to 18th centuries. This perimeter included the Fort of São Lourenço da Cabeça Seca, rising from a tiny islet in the middle of the Tagus River, as well as the Fort of São Julião da Barra, both examples of Renaissance military architecture; the municipality was founded in 1759 by the Marquis of Pombal as a reward by King Joseph I to his minister for his efforts in rebuilding Lisbon's historical downtown after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. A royal charter, dated 7 June 1759, gave jurisdiction over the lands within Oeiras to the King's loyal minister, who became the first Count of Oeiras. A month the small village was elevated to the status of town, gained municipal status on 13 June 1759. Although Oeiras had a history of earlier settlement, it was during the reign of Joseph I that economic and social development, conditioned by the influence of the King's Minister, who promoted innovation and supported local economic activities, began to flourish.
In 1770, the first agricultural and industrial fair was established in Oeiras, representing a unique national event that contributed to the creation of fishing shelters and a new customhouse and factory, among other projects. One of the principal developments was the construction of the estate of the Marquess of Pombal, which today exists in its original form, with garden and agricultural dependencies, such as the wine cellar and other buildings, today housing the national institutions responsible for bio-science. In 1894, the municipality was abolished, but it was reestablished four years on 13 January 1898, it was reconstituted without Carcavelos, annexed to Cascais, while gaining the civil parish of Benfica. In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, several estates and palaces began to be constructed in order to explore agricultural production, principally cereals and vineyards, which supported the growing markets of Lisbon. However, this activity began to decline by the 19th century and was replaced by new industry, supported by the Lisbon-Cascais railway link, first inaugurated in 1889.
Large factories began to locate in the municipality, among them the Fábrica do Papel, the Fundição de Oeiras, a Lusalite and Fermentos Holandeses. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the growth of leisure activities along the coast transformed Oeiras, which became a privileged location for the Portuguese elite. By the beginning of the 20th century, many of the beaches in Oeiras were occupied by the higher social classes, who travelled to the municipality for medical reasons; the construction of National Roadway 6 would link Lisboa to Cascais, permitting new travellers to experience the area, resulting in an influx of new residents that expanded the urban centres, giving rise to beach "chalets" and summer cottages. The concentration of economic activities in Lisbon and surrounding urban municipalities meant that Oeiras had direct access to the capital. After 1940-50, the municipality began to function as a suburb and bedroom community, attracting more residential growth along the coast.
This culminated in the 1970s with the