SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Liberian dollar

The dollar has been the currency of Liberia since 1943. It was the country's currency between 1847 and 1907, it is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively L$ or LD$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents; the first Liberian dollar was issued in 1847. It was pegged to the US dollar at par and circulated alongside the US dollar until 1907, when Liberia adopted the British West African pound, pegged to sterling. In 1847 and 1862, copper 1 and 2 cents coins were issued and were the only Liberian coins until 1896, when a full coinage consisting of 1, 2, 10, 25 and 50 cents coins were introduced; the last issues were made in 1906. The Treasury Department issued notes between 1857 and 1880 in denominations of 10 and 50 cents, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 dollars. United States currency replaced the British West African pound in Liberia in 1935. Starting in 1937, Liberia issued its own coins; the flight of suitcase-loads of USD paper by Americo-Liberian following the April 12, 1980 coup d'état created a currency shortage.

This was remedied by minting of the Liberian $5 coins. The 7-sided coins were the weight as the one-dollar coin. In the late 1980s the coins were replaced with a newly designed $5 note modeled on the US greenback; the design was modified during the 1990-2004 civil war to ostracize notes looted from the Central Bank of Liberia. This created two currency zones -- the new "Liberty" notes were legal tender in government-held areas, while the old notes were legal tender in non-government areas; each was of course illegal in the other territory. Following Charles Taylor arrival in Monrovia, the capital, in 1995; the J. J. Robert's bank notes were accepted in most parts of Monrovia for purchases. Banking and some majors institutions did not accept the J. J. Robert's bank note during this period. Following the election of the Charles Taylor government in 1997 a new series of banknotes dated 1999 was introduced on March 29, 2000. In 1937, coins were issued in denominations of 1 and 2 cents; these were augmented in 1960 with coins for 5, 10, 25 and 50 cents.

A $1 coin was issued the following year. Five-dollar coins were issued in 1982 and 1985. According to the 2009 Standard Catalog of World Coins, numerous commemorative coins in denominations ranging from 1 to 2500 Dollars have been issued beginning in the 1970s through the present. Due to high inflation, only 50c, $1 coins are in common use as at 2019. Five-dollar notes were introduced in 1989; these were known as "J. J." notes. In 1991, similar notes were issued; these were known as "Liberty" notes. On 29 March 2000, the Central Bank of Liberia introduced a new “unified” currency, exchanged at par for “J. J.” notes and at a ratio of 1:2 for “Liberty” notes. The new banknotes each feature a portrait of a former president; these notes remain in current use, although they underwent a minor redesign in 2003, with new dates and the CENTRAL BANK OF LIBERIA banner on the back. On 27 July 2016, the Central Bank of Liberia announced new banknotes will be introduced with enhanced security features. All of the denominations are the same as previous issues, with the $500 banknote being introduced as part of this series.

On 6 October 2016, the Central Bank of Liberia introduced new banknotes, as announced. When the $500 note was introduced it was worth US$5.50. Its value has since falling still. Central Bank of Liberia Economy of Liberia Media related to Money of Liberia at Wikimedia Commons Liberian banknotes

USS Sampson (DD-394)

The second USS Sampson was a Somers-class destroyer in the United States Navy. She was named for William Thomas Sampson. Sampson was laid down on 8 April 1936 by Bath Iron Works, Maine. Following shakedown in European waters in October and November, Sampson returned to Boston, Massachusetts where she was assigned to the Battle Force of the United States Fleet. Sampson sailed from Boston on 8 March 1939 to take part in combined fleet maneuvers in waters off Cuba and Puerto Rico, she returned from this duty to Yorktown, Virginia, on 12 April and stood out from Hampton Roads on 20 April and headed for the United States west coast. She arrived at San Diego, California on 12 May 1939 and spent the next year in fleet tactics along the western seaboard from that base, taking part in the combined battle practice and maneuvers of the Battle Force off the Hawaiian Islands from 1 April to 20 June 1940, she cleared San Diego on 5 July to base her operations from Norfolk, Virginia where she arrived on the 20th.

She cruised through the Caribbean Sea, from 14 November to 15 December, transporting a government mission, compiling an economic survey of the British West Indies. Sampson continued operations out of Norfolk, engaged in Neutrality Patrol along the eastern seaboard to various ports of the Caribbean Sea, steamed as far north as Placentia Bay, Newfoundland. On 3 September 1941, she got underway from Boston Harbor to escort convoys and to search for enemy submarines in shipping lanes running from Newfoundland to Iceland, she arrived at Hvalfjordur Fjord, Iceland, on 16 September and cleared that port on 23 October in the escort screen of a merchant convoy which reached Boston on 4 November. With the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the United States declaration of war, Sampson patrolled, with Warrington, off Newport, Rhode Island from 23 December 1941 to 12 January 1942 when the two destroyers set course for the Panama Canal Zone. Sampson arrived at Balboa on 17 January to join the Southeast Pacific Forces based there.

She took part in the search, from 25 to 29 January, to locate submarine S-26, sunk in 290 feet of water the night of 24 January by a surface collision with USS Sturdy, 12 miles west of Isla San José in Panama Bay. On 1 February, she sailed from Balboa in the escort for twelve troopships. On 12 February, she broke off from the convoy to inspect Marquesa Island, she arrived at Bora Bora, Society Islands, on 18 February and patrolled a station off Teavanui Harbor until 9 March when she set course, in company with cruiser Trenton, for Panama, reached Balboa on 23 March. Sampson spent the next year in a series of coastal patrol sweeps from Balboa to waters off South America, making calls at such ports as Guayaquil, Ecuador, she varied this service with infrequent escort voyages from Balboa to the Society and Galapagos Islands. Sampson returned from her last cruise along the South American coast to Balboa, on 7 May 1943, cleared port on 23 May as one of the escorts for a troopship convoy which reached Great Roads, New Caledonia, on 13 June.

The next day, she sailed for Bora Bora, Society Islands, returned to Nouméa with a convoy of troopships on 8 July. Two days she set course for a point of rendezvous off Pago Pago, American Samoa. On 27 July, the two destroyers cleared Pearl Harbor escorting four Army troopships bound for Australia and reached Sydney on 8 August, she got underway the next day and arrived at Nouméa, New Caledonia, on 12 August 1943. During the following months, Sampson alternately based her operations at Nouméa and Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides Islands, made frequent escort voyages to Guadalcanal, or Purvis Bay, Solomon Islands. On the night of 2 and 3 October, while escorting a convoy from Nouméa to Espiritu Santo, she fired at an enemy submarine and, after that vessel submerged, dropped depth charges that produced a heavy oil slick. On 15 March 1944, Sampson cleared Espiritu Santo as one of four destroyers screening the escort carriers, Natoma Bay and Manila Bay; that day, four battleships and more destroyers joined the formation.

This force struck Kavieng, New Ireland, nearby airfields in an air-sea bombardment on 20 March while the 4th Marine Regiment made an unopposed landing to occupy Emirau Island, a base from which the north coast of New Ireland could be kept under surveillance. After guarding the escort carriers while they launched strikes against Kavieng and providing air cover for reinforcement convoys to Emirau, Sampson joined a convoy at Port Purvis, Florida Island, escorted it to Espiritu Santo. On 11 April, she received the armed guard crew from the merchant ship, stranded on Cook Reef and transferred them to Celtic in Havannah Harbor, New Hebrides. Sampson cleared Havannah Harbor on 17 April and, after escorting Ataseosa to Kukum Beach, arrived off Tenaru Beach of Guadalcanal on the 20th, joining troopships which reached Borgen Bay, New Britain Island, on 25 April. After guarding one more convoy shuttling troops between Guadalcanal and Borgen Bay, she touched at Purvis Bay. There she joined the 7th Fleet.

She shifted to Humboldt Bay, New Guinea, on 22 May. Three days Major General Horace H. Fuller, the commander of the 41st United States Army Division, came on board Sampson with his staff. Rear Admira

Small nucleolar RNA SNORD115

SNORD115 is a non-coding RNA molecule known as a small nucleolar RNA which functions in guiding the modification of other non-coding RNAs. This type of modifying RNA is located in the nucleolus of the eukaryotic cell, a major site of snRNA biogenesis. HBII-52 refers to the human gene, whereas RBII-52 is used for the rat gene and MBII-52 is used for naming the mouse gene. HBII-52 belongs to the C/D box class of snoRNAs which contain the conserved sequence motifs known as the C box and the D box. Most of the members of the box C/D family function in directing site-specific 2'-O-methylation of substrate RNAs. In the human genome, HBII-52 is encoded in a tandemly repeated array with another C/D box snoRNA, HBII-85, in the Prader-Willi syndrome region of chromosome 15. However, a microdeletion in one family of the snoRNA HBII-52 cluster has excluded it from playing a major role in the disease. HBII-52 is found in 47 tandem near identical copies on human chromosome 15q11-13; this locus is maternally imprinted.

HBII-52 is expressed in the brain but is absent in PWS patients. HBII-52 lacks any significant complementarity with ribosomal RNAs, but does have an 18 nucleotide region of conserved complementarity to serotonin 2C receptor mRNA; the serotonin 2C receptor is expressed in the brain. It has been shown that this snoRNA is to bind to a silencing element of exon Vb increasing its inclusion and production of a functional spliceform of the serotonin 2C receptor; the chromosomal locus containing the SNORD115 gene cluster has been duplicated in many individuals with autistic traits. A mouse model engineered to have a duplication of the SNORD115 cluster displays autistic-like behaviour. There is evidence that a truncated form of MBII-52 regulates the alternative splicing of the protein coding genes DPM2, TAF1, RALGPS1, PBRM1, CRHR1. Page for Small nucleolar RNA SNORD115 at Rfam Entry for SNORD115 at snoRNABase