It has a population of around 4.5 million, of whom nearly a quarter live in the metropolitan area of the capital and largest city, San José. Costa Rica was sparsely inhabited by people before coming under Spanish rule in the 16th century. Since then, Costa Rica has remained among the most stable, following a brief civil war, it permanently abolished its army in 1949, becoming one of only a few sovereign nations without a standing army. Costa Rica is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. The country has consistently performed favourably in the Human Development Index, placing 69th in the world as of 2015 and its rapidly developing economy, once heavily dependent on agriculture, has diversified to include sectors such as finance and ecotourism. Costa Rica is known for its environmental policies, being the only country to meet all five UNDP criteria established to measure environmental sustainability. Costa Rica officially plans to become a country by 2021. In 2012, it became the first country in the Americas to ban recreational hunting, historians have classified the indigenous people of Costa Rica as belonging to the Intermediate Area, where the peripheries of the Mesoamerican and Andean native cultures overlapped.
More recently, pre-Columbian Costa Rica has described as part of the Isthmo-Colombian Area. The oldest evidence of occupation in Costa Rica is associated with the arrival of various groups of hunter-gatherers about 10,000 to 7,000 years BCE in the Turrialba Valley. The presence of Clovis culture type spearheads and arrows from South America opens the possibility that, in this area, agriculture became evident in the populations that lived in Costa Rica about 5,000 years ago. They mainly grew tubers and roots, for the first and second millennia BCE there were already settled farming communities. These were small and scattered, although the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture as the livelihood in the territory is still unknown. The earliest use of pottery appears around 2,000 to 3,000 BCE, shards of pots, cylindrical vases, platters and other forms of vases decorated with grooves and some modelled after animals have been found. The impact of indigenous peoples on modern Costa Rican culture has been small compared to other nations.
Costa Rica was described as the poorest and most miserable Spanish colony in all America by a Spanish governor in 1719, for all these reasons, Costa Rica was, by and large and overlooked by the Spanish Crown and left to develop on its own. Costa Rica became a democracy with no oppressed mestizo or indigenous class. It was not long before Spanish settlers turned to the hills, where they found rich volcanic soil, like the rest of Central America, Costa Rica never fought for independence from Spain
Bernardo OHiggins Riquelme was a Chilean independence leader who freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence. He was a landowner of Spanish and Irish ancestry. Although he was the second Supreme Director of Chile, he is considered one of Chiles founding fathers and his mother was Isabel Riquelme, a prominent local, the daughter of Don Simón Riquelme y Goycolea, a member of the Chillán Cabildo, or council. OHiggins spent his years with his mothers family in central-southern Chile, and he lived with the Albano family. At age 15, OHiggins was sent to Lima by his father and he had a distant relationship with Ambrosio, who supported him financially and was concerned with his education, but the two never met in person. At the time of his sons birth, Ambrosio was only a military officer. Two years later, Isabel married Don Félix Rodríguez, a friend of her father, OHiggins used his mothers surname until the death of his father in 1801. Bernardos father continued his rise and became Viceroy of Peru.
There, studying history and the arts, OHiggins became acquainted with American ideas of independence and he met Francisco de Miranda, a Venezuelan idealist and believer in independence, and joined a Masonic Lodge established by Miranda, dedicated to achieving the independence of Latin America. In 1798 OHiggins went to Spain from Great Britain, his return to the Americas delayed by the French Revolutionary Wars and his father died in 1801, leaving OHiggins a large piece of land, the Hacienda Las Canteras, near the Chilean city of Los Ángeles. OHiggins returned to Chile in 1802, adopted his fathers surname. In 1806, he was appointed to the cabildo as the representative of Laja, in 1808 Napoleon took control of Spain, triggering a sequence of events in South America. On 18 September 1810, OHiggins joined the revolt against the now French dominated Spanish government and this date is now recognized as Chiles Independence Day. OHiggins was a friend of Juan Martínez de Rozas, an old friend of his father.
OHiggins strongly recommended that a national congress be created, and was elected a deputy to the first National Congress of Chile in 1811 as a representative of the Laja district. Tensions between the royalist and increasingly pro-independence factions, to which OHiggins remained attached as a junior member, the anti-Royalist camp in Chile was deeply split along lines of patronage and personality, by political beliefs, and by geography. José Miguel Carrera, the most prominent member of the Carrera family, enjoyed a power base in Santiago, that of de Rozas, and OHiggins, lay in Concepción. As a result, OHiggins was to find himself increasingly in political and military competition with Carrera—although early on, de Rozas initially appointed OHiggins to a minor military position in 1812, possibly because of his illegitimate origins, poor health, or lack of military training
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
He was a professor at the Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo in Valladolid and was ousted in 1792. He served in a church in Colima and in Dolores, after his arrival, he was shocked by the poverty he found. He tried to help the poor by showing them how to grow olives and grapes, both of Hidalgos parents were descended from well-respected families within the criollo community. Hidalgos father was a manager, which presented Hidalgo with the opportunity to learn at a young age to speak the indigenous languages of the laborers. Eight days after his birth, Hidalgo was baptized into the Roman Catholic faith in the church of Cuitzeo de los Naranjos. Hidalgos parents would have three sons, José Joaquín, Manuel Mariano, and José María. In 1759, enlightened despot Charles III of Spain ascended to the throne of Spain, he sent out a visitor-general with the power to investigate. During this period, Don Cristobal was determined that Miguel and his younger brother Joaquin should both enter the priesthood and hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church, being of significant means he paid for all of his sons to receive the best education the region had to offer.
After receiving private instruction, likely from the priest of the neighboring parish, at the age of fifteen Hidalgo was sent to Valladolid, Michoacán to study at the Colegio de San Francisco Javier with the Jesuits, along with his brothers. When the Jesuits were expelled from Mexico in 1767, he entered the Colegio de San Nicolas and he completed his preparatory education in 1770. After this, he went to the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico in Mexico City for further study, earning his degree in philosophy and his education for the priesthood was traditional, with subjects in Latin and logic. Like many priests in Mexico, he learned some Indian languages, such as Nahuatl, Otomi and he studied Italian and French, which were not commonly studied in Mexico at this time. He earned the nickname El Zorro for his reputation for cleverness at school, Hidalgos study of French allowed him to read and study works of the Enlightenment current in Europe but, at the same time, forbidden by the Catholic church in Mexico.
Hidalgo was ordained as a priest in 1778 when he was 25 years old, from 1779 to 1792, he dedicated himself to teaching at the Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo in Valladolid, it was one of the most important educational centers of the viceroyalty. He was a professor of Latin grammar and arts, as well as a theology professor, beginning in 1787, he was named treasurer, vice-rector and secretary, becoming dean of the school in 1790 when he was 39. As rector, Hidalgo continued studying the liberal ideas that were coming from France, authorities ousted him in 1792 for revising traditional teaching methods there, but for irregular handling of some funds. The Church sent him to work at the parishes of Colima and San Felipe Torres Mochas until he became the parish priest in Dolores, succeeding his brother Felipe, who died in 1802. Although Hidalgo had an education for the priesthood, as an educator at the Colegio de San Nicolás, he had innovated in teaching methods
The CONMEBOL Libertadores, named as Copa Libertadores de América, is an annual international club football competition organized by CONMEBOL since 1960. It is one of the most prestigious tournaments in the world, the tournament is currently sponsored by Bridgestone and is thus known as the CONMEBOL Libertadores Bridgestone. The competition has had different formats over its lifetime. At the beginning, only the champions of the South American leagues participated, in 1966, the runners-up of the South American leagues began to join. In 1998, Mexican teams were invited to compete, and have contested regularly since 2000, today at least three clubs per country compete in the tournament, while Argentina and Brazil each have five clubs participating. Traditionally, a stage has always been used but the number of teams per group has varied several times. In the present format, the tournament consists of six stages, the six surviving teams from the first stage join 26 teams in the second stage, in which there are eight groups consisting of four teams each.
The eight group winners and eight runners-up enter the four stages, better known as the knockout stages. The winner of the Copa Libertadores becomes eligible to play in the FIFA Club World Cup, Independiente of Argentina are the most successful club in the cups history, having won the tournament seven times. Argentine clubs have accumulated the most victories with 24 wins, while Brazil has the largest number of different winning teams, the cup has been won by 24 different clubs,13 of which have won the title more than once, and won consecutively by six clubs. The clashes for the Copa Río de La Plata between the champions of Argentina and Uruguay kindled the idea of a competition in the 1930s. In 1948, the South American Championship of Champions, the most direct precursor to the Copa Libertadores, was played and organized by Chilean club Colo-Colo after years of planning, held in Santiago, it brought together the champions of each nations top national leagues. The tournament was won by Vasco da Gama of Brazil, in 1958, the basis and format of the competition was created by Peñarols board leaders.
On March 5,1959, at the 24th South American Congress held in Buenos Aires, the competition was approved by the International Affairs Committee. In 1966, it was named in honor of the heroes of South American liberation, such as José Gervasio Artigas, Bernardo OHiggins, José de San Martín, Pedro I, the first edition of the Copa Libertadores took place in 1960. Seven teams participated, Bahia of Brazil, Jorge Wilstermann of Bolivia, Millonarios of Colombia, Olimpia of Paraguay, Peñarol of Uruguay, San Lorenzo of Argentina, all these teams were domestic champions of their respective leagues in 1959. The first Copa Libertadores match took place on April 19,1960 and it was won by Peñarol, who defeated Jorge Wilstermann 7–1. The first goal in Copa Libertadores history was scored by Carlos Borges of Peñarol, the Uruguayans won the first ever edition, defeating Olimpia in the finals, and successfully defended the title in 1961
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, the territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Muisca, the Quimbaya and the Tairona. The Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 the Gran Colombia Federation was dissolved. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada, the new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, and the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886.
Since the 1960s the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict, Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, and thereby possesses a rich cultural heritage. Cultural diversity has influenced by Colombias varied geography. The urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains. Colombian territory encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines, ecologically, it is one of the worlds 17 megadiverse countries, and the most densely biodiverse of these per square kilometer. Colombia is a power and a regional actor with the fourth-largest economy in Latin America, is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and is an accessing member to the OECD. Colombia has an economy with macroeconomic stability and favorable growth prospects in the long run. The name Colombia is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus and it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those portions under Spanish and Portuguese rule.
The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819. When Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, New Granada officially changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was changed, this time to United States of Colombia. To refer to country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica, the oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 km southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period, at Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found
British invasions of the River Plate
The invasions took place between 1806 and 1807, as part of the Napoleonic Wars, when Spain was an ally of Napoleonic France. The invasions occurred in two phases, a detachment from the British army occupied Buenos Aires for 46 days in 1806 before being expelled. In 1807, a second force stormed and occupied Montevideo, remaining for several months, after several days of street-fighting against the local militia and Spanish colonial army, in which half of the British forces were killed or wounded, the British were forced to withdraw. The social effects of the invasions are among the causes of the May Revolution, the criollos, who had so far been denied important positions, could get political strength through military roles. The successful resistance with little help from Spain fostered the desire for self-determination, pedro de Mendoza founded the Ciudad de Nuestra Señora del Buen Ayre on 2 February 1536 as a Spanish settlement. A Portuguese colony was founded nearby at Colonia del Sacramento in 1680, the South Sea Company was granted trading concessions in South America in the time of Queen Anne, under the Treaty of Utrecht.
The British had long harboured ambitions in South America, considering the estuary of the Río de la Plata as the most favourable location for a British colony. The Napoleonic Wars played a key role in the Rio de la Plata conflict and since the beginning of the conquest of the Americas, the Peace of Basel in 1795 ended the war between Spain and France. In 1796, by the Second Treaty of San Ildefonso, Spain joined France in its war with Britain, in 1805 Britain judged it the right moment after the defeat of the Franco-Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar. This battle forced Spain to reduce to a minimum its naval communications with its American colonies, Buenos Aires had been relatively neglected by Spain, which sent most of its ships to the more economically important city of Lima. The last time when a significant Spanish military force had arrived in Buenos Aires was in 1784, back in 1711, John Pullen stated that the Río de la Plata was the best place in the world for making a British colony.
His proposal included Santa Fe and Asunción, and would have generated an area with Buenos Aires as the main port. Admiral Vernon declared the benefit of opening markets in areas in 1741. By 1780 the British government approved a project of colonel William Fullarton to take the Americas with attacks from both the Atlantic and the Pacific, in 1789 the war between Britain and Spain seemed imminent after the Nootka incident. In return for help, Britain would receive the benefits of unrestricted trade and usufruct of the Isthmus of Panama. Pitt accepted the proposal and began to organize the expedition, the Nootka Convention in 1790 ended hostilities, and the Miranda mission was canceled. Nicholas Vansittart made a new proposal in 1796, the plan was to take Buenos Aires, move to Chile and this proposal was canceled the following year, but was improved by Thomas Maitland in 1800 as the Maitland Plan. The new plan was to control of Buenos Aires with 4,000 soldiers and 1,500 cavalry, move to Mendoza
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, to the west and south it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east and north by Spain. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 kilometres long and considered the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union, the republic includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The territory of modern Portugal has been settled, invaded. The Pre-Celts, Celts and the Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigothic, in 711 the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by the Moors, making Portugal part of Muslim Al Andalus. Portugal was born as result of the Christian Reconquista, and in 1139, Afonso Henriques was proclaimed King of Portugal, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the worlds major economic and military powers.
Portugal monopolized the trade during this time, and the Portuguese Empire expanded with military campaigns led in Asia. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, democracy was restored after the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories, Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe and a legacy of over 250 million Portuguese speakers today. Portugal is a country with a high-income advanced economy and a high living standard. It is the 5th most peaceful country in the world, maintaining a unitary semi-presidential republican form of government and it has the 18th highest Social Progress in the world, putting it ahead of other Western European countries like France and Italy. Portugal is a pioneer when it comes to drug decriminalization, as the nation decriminalized the possession of all drugs for use in 2001.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe, the name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale. Other influences include some 5th-century vestiges of Alan settlements, which were found in Alenquer, the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula. These were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing. Chief among these tribes were the Calaicians or Gallaeci of Northern Portugal, the Lusitanians of central Portugal, the Celtici of Alentejo, a few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements were founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians-Carthaginians. Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC, during the last days of Julius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula had been annexed to the Roman Republic.
The Carthaginians, Romes adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies and it suffered a severe setback in 150 BC, when a rebellion began in the north
With an estimated population of around 15.8 million, it is the most populated state in Central America. Guatemala is a democracy, its capital and largest city is Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción. The territory of modern Guatemala once formed the core of the Maya civilization, most of the country was conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century, becoming part of the viceroyalty of New Spain. Guatemala attained independence in 1821 as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, from the mid to late 19th century, Guatemala experienced chronic instability and civil strife. Beginning in the early 20th century, it was ruled by a series of dictators backed by the United Fruit Company, in 1944, authoritarian leader Jorge Ubico was overthrown by a pro-democratic military coup, initiating a decade-long revolution that led to sweeping social and economic reforms. A U. S. -backed military coup in 1954 ended the revolution, from 1960 to 1996, Guatemala endured a bloody civil war fought between the US-backed government and leftist rebels, including genocidal massacres of the Maya population perpetrated by the military.
As of 2014, Guatemala ranks 31st of 33 Latin American and Caribbean countries in terms of the Human Development Index, Guatemalas abundance of biologically significant and unique ecosystems includes a large number of endemic species and contributes to Mesoamericas designation as a biodiversity hotspot. The country is known for its rich and distinct culture. The name Guatemala comes from the Nahuatl word Cuauhtēmallān, or place of many trees and this was the name the Tlaxcaltecan soldiers who accompanied Pedro de Alvarado during the Spanish Conquest gave to this territory. The first evidence of habitation in Guatemala dates back to 12,000 BC. Evidence, such as obsidian arrowheads found in parts of the country. There is archaeological proof that early Guatemalan settlers were hunters and gatherers, pollen samples from Petén and the Pacific coast indicate that maize cultivation had been developed by 3500 BC. Sites dating back to 6500 BC have been found in the Quiché region in the Highlands, archaeologists divide the pre-Columbian history of Mesoamerica into the Preclassic period, the Classic period, and the Postclassic period.
Until recently, the Preclassic was regarded as a period, with small villages of farmers who lived in huts. This period is characterized by urbanisation, the emergence of independent city-states and this lasted until approximately 900 AD, when the Classic Maya civilization collapsed. The Maya abandoned many of the cities of the lowlands or were killed off by a drought-induced famine. The cause of the collapse is debated, but the Drought Theory is gaining currency, supported by such as lakebeds, ancient pollen. A series of prolonged droughts, among other such as overpopulation, in what is otherwise a seasonal desert is thought to have decimated the Maya
Chilean War of Independence
Traditionally, the beginning of the war is dated as September 18,1810. A declaration of independence was issued by Chile on February 12,1818 and formally recognized by Spain in 1844. The Chilean War of Independence was part of the more aroused Spanish American wars of independence, Independence did not have unanimous support among Chileans, who were divided between independentists and royalists. What started as a movement among elites against the colonial power. Traditionally, the process is divided into three stages, the Patria Vieja, 1810–1814, the Reconquista, 1814–1817, and the Patria Nueva, 1817–1823. In May 1808 the overthrow of Charles IV and Ferdinand VII, their replacement by Joseph Bonaparte, in the meantime, Chile was facing its own internal political problems. Governor Guzmán had suddenly died in February of that year and the crown had not been able to appoint a new governor before the invasion, since her father and brother were being held prisoners in France, she regarded herself as the heiress of her captured family.
Allegedly among her plan was to send armies to occupy Buenos Aires and northern Argentina, brigadier García Carrasco was a man of crude and authoritarian manners, who managed in a very short time to alienate the criollo elites under his command. Already in Chile, as in most of Latin America, there had some independence agitation but minimal. In 1809, Governor García Carrasco himself was implicated in a flagrant case of corruption that managed to destroy remnants of moral authority he or his office had left. From that moment on the pressure for his removal began to build, in June 1810 news arrived from Buenos Aires that Napoleon Bonapartes forces had conquered Andalusia and laid siege to Cádiz, the last redoubt against the French on Spanish soil. Moreover, the Supreme Central Junta, which had governed the Empire for the past two years, had abolished itself in favor of a Regency Council, among those arrested were José Antonio de Rojas, Juan Antonio Ovalle and Bernardo de Vera y Pintado. Inspired by the May Revolution in Argentina, the movement had propagated through the criollo elite.
They resented the illegal arrests and, together with the news that Cádiz was all that was left of a free Spain, count Toro Zambrano was, by all standards, a very unorthodox selection. He was an old man already and moreover a criollo as opposed to a peninsular. Immediately after his appointment in July, the juntistas began to lobby him in order to obtain the formation of a junta. In August the Royal Appeals Court took a loyalty oath to the Regency Council in front of a massive audience. After vacillating for some time over which party to follow, Toro Zambrano finally agreed to hold an open Cabildo meeting in Santiago to discuss the issue, the date was set for September 18,1810 at 11 AM
Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty with its capital in Lima, ideas of political autonomy spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence, the country has undergone changes in government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict as well as periods of stability, Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions.
It is a country with a high Human Development Index score. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing, the Peruvian population, estimated at 31.2 million in 2015, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages and this mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music. The name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama. When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilasco de la Vega, son of an Inca princess, the Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru.
Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, using such as irrigation and terracing, camelid husbandry. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money, the oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal, the Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Perus Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture. The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, on the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica.
Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo, in the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with their capital in Cusco
Latin American wars of independence
These revolutions followed the American and French Revolutions, which had profound effects on the Spanish and French colonies in the Americas. Haiti, a French slave colony, was the first to follow the United States to independence, during the Haitian Revolution, from this emerged Napoleon Bonaparte as French ruler, whose armies set out to conquer Europe, including Spain and Portugal in 1808. At the same time, the Portuguese monarchy relocated to Brazil during Portugals French occupation, after the royal court returned to Lisbon, the prince regent, remained in Brazil and in 1822 successfully declared himself emperor of a newly independent Brazil. This infuriated many colonists, and eventually became the spark that ignited the American Revolutionary War, initial fighting began in 1775 and lasted until October 1781, when with French aid under Lafayette defeated the British army. British General Cornwallis surrendered in Yorktown, the American colonists subsequently, coming after or later, founded a federated republican government grounded in Enlightenment thought.
A wave of revolutions followed the conclusion of the American Revolution, the remaining portion of British North America remained loyal to the British crown. These changes were accompanied by violent turmoil, including executions and repression during the Reign of Terror and this pivotal point greatly disrupted the political stability of both Spain and its colonies. Cities throughout Spain and its colonies in America each formed governing bodies primarily consisting of local elites, the juntas swore loyalty to the captive Fernando VII and each ruled different and diverse parts of the colony. Most of Fernandos subjects were loyal to him in 1808, but after he was restored to the Spanish crown in 1814 and he abrogated the Cadiz Constitution of 1812 and persecuted anyone who had supported it. The violence used by royalist forces and the prospect of being ruled by Fernando shifted the majority of the colonist population in favor of separation from Spain, the royalists were the American and European supporters of King Ferdinand.
Americans and formed the royalist army, with Americans composing 9% of the royalist forces in all fronts, there were two types of units, the expeditionary units created in Spain and militias created in the Americas. The militias included some veteran units, only 11% of the personnel in the militias were European or American whites. After Rafael del Riegos revolution, in 1820, no more Spanish soldiers were sent to the wars in the Americas. In 1820 there were only 10,001 Spanish soldiers in the Americas, and Spaniards formed only 10% of all the royalist armies, by the Battle of Ayacucho in 1824, less than 1% of the soldiers were European. The Enlightenment spurred the desire for social and economic reform to spread throughout Latin America, ideas about free trade and physiocratic economics were raised by the Enlightenment. Independence movements in South America can be traced back to slave revolts in plantations in the northern-most part of the continent, in 1791, a massive slave revolt sparked a general insurrection against the plantation system and French colonial power.
These events were followed by a violent uprising led by José Leonardo Chirino and José Caridad González that sprung up in 1795 Venezuela, allegedly inspired by the revolution in Haiti. Guatemala declared its own independence September 15,1821, likely to prevent the Mexican Army of the Three Guarantees from liberating Guatemala and over-riding nascent local autonomy