click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Liberty Global

Liberty Global is a multinational telecommunications company with headquarters in London and Denver. It was formed in 2005 by the merger of the international arm of Liberty Media and UGC. Liberty Global is the largest broadband internet service provider outside the US. Liberty Global had an annual revenue of $11.9 billion in 2018, with operations in six countries and 20,600 employees by 2019. Its cable services pass 25 million homes, with 25.3 million RGUs. In 2016, Liberty Global was ranked 88th on the Forbes World's Most Innovative Companies list. Liberty Global is in turn, a spinoff and an international version of TCI. Liberty Global Inc. was founded in 2005 when Liberty Media International, Inc. and UnitedGlobalCom, Inc. merged. LMI and UGC became subsidiaries of Liberty Global; the new entity had operations in 18 countries and networks over 23 million homes, making it one of the largest broadband services companies in the world. Liberty acquired German company Unitymedia in November 2009 for $5.2 billion.

Unitymedia was Liberty's first German acquisition and the largest private-equity exit in Europe in 2009. In 2010, Liberty sold its stake in Jupiter Telecommunications, a Japanese telecommunications-services provider as Liberty shifted its resources back toward Europe. In January 2013, Liberty Global raised its stake in Belgium-based Telenet from 50.2% to 58%. In June 2013, Liberty Global acquired British cable group Virgin Media for $24 billion in cash and stock; the agreement expanded Liberty into Europe's largest cable market. The acquisition was ranked as one of the 10 largest cable deals of all time. Liberty agreed in October 2013 to sell Chellomedia for $1.035 billion except for its Benelux unit to AMC Networks. It was reported that this acquisition would make Liberty Global the largest broadband company in the world. Liberty Global announced it would be acquiring Dutch cable company Ziggo for €10 billion in January 2014; the acquisition was completed in November 2014, when the services of UPC Nederland began to be merged into the new business.

Liberty Global and Discovery Communications became joint owners of All3Media in May 2014 in a £500 million joint deal. In July 2014, Liberty Global acquired a 6.4% stake in ITV plc, valued at £481 million. Liberty's stake in the company increased to 9.9% in July 2015. In November 2015, Liberty Global announced its acquisition of Wireless Communications; the $5.3 billion deal expanded Liberty Global's presence into the greater Latin America. The acquisition was completed in May 2016. In 2015, Liberty established the stock Liberty Latin American & Caribbean focusing on Panama and the Caribbean with assets in Chile and Puerto Rico; the company owned a 49% stake in majority state-owned Trinidadian telco, TSTT, which it was obliged to dispose of as the company itself competes with Liberty's wholly owned Trinidadian subsidiary, FLOW Trinidad. Liberty Global and Discovery Communications paid $195 million for a 3.4% stake in Lions Gate Entertainment Group in November 2015. Liberty CEO Mike Fries joined the Lion's Gate board of directors as part of the acquisition.

Liberty invested £7.5million in global broadband cable network Technetix in July 2016. In November 2016, Liberty Global's Virgin Media subsidiary released its Netflix and other app-enabled set-top V6 box. At the end of 2017, Liberty Global announced the decision to sell its operations in Austria, UPC Austria – the country's largest cable operator, to T-Mobile Austria for €1.9 billion, rebranded Magenta Telekom. In January 2018, Liberty Latin America spun off from Liberty Global; the new publicly traded company, Liberty Latin America Ltd. operates independently throughout parts of the Caribbean and South America. In May 2018, Liberty Global announced the sale of its operations in Germany, Hungary and the Czech Republic to Vodafone for €19 billion; the sale closed for $21.3 billion in July 2019. In December 2018, Liberty Global announced the sale of its DTH satellite TV operations in Hungary, Czech Republic and Romania to M7 Group. In June 2015, Vodafone confirmed talks with Liberty Global focused on potential partnerships, but denied that a full merger was in the works.

Liberty Global invested in Guavus, a data analytics company, in September 2015. In February 2016, it was announced that Liberty Global would merge Dutch operations. Liberty's Dutch subsidiary, would work with Vodafone's mobile network. Vodafone paid Liberty €1 billion as part of the joint venture valued at €3.5 billion. The deal was approved by the European Commission in August 2016. On December 31, 2016, the proposed merger of Liberty Global's and Vodafone Group's Dutch operations was completed, resulting in a joint venture called VodafoneZiggo Group Holding B. V. In 2013–2016, Liberty Global invested EUR 14.5 billion in infrastructure, including investments to bring high-speed internet to four million more European households through new build and upgrades. These upgrades are reported to have generated EUR 7 billion worth of social benefits for local economies. In October 2017, Liberty Global opened the Telenet Innovation Center in Brussels, its second innovation hub alongside the Tech Campus near Amsterdam.

The Innovation Center is focused on testing Internet of Things solutions and mobile technologies, including the introduction and preparation of 5G networks. Liberty Global offers Netflix in several countries and other video-on-demand platforms as MaxDome in Germany and Play More in Belgium, MyPrime in Poland, Czech Republic, Ireland, Switzerland Hungary and the Netherlands. In 2017, Libe

Bolivarian Revolution

The Bolivarian Revolution is a political process in Venezuela, led by Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, the founder of the Fifth Republic Movement and the United Socialist Party of Venezuela. The Bolivarian Revolution is named after Simón Bolívar, an early 19th-century Venezuelan and Latin American revolutionary leader, prominent in the Spanish American wars of independence in achieving the independence of most of northern South America from Spanish rule. According to Chávez and other supporters, the Bolivarian Revolution seeks to build an inter-American coalition to implement Bolivarianism, nationalism and a state-led economy. On his 57th birthday, while announcing that he was being treated for cancer, Chávez announced that he had changed the slogan of the Bolivarian Revolution from "Motherland, socialism, or death" to "Motherland and socialism. We will live, we will come out victorious"; as of 2018, the vast majority of mayoral and gubernatorial offices are held by PSUV candidates, while the opposition Democratic Unity coalition won two thirds of parliamentary seats in 2015.

Political hostility between the PSUV and MUD have led to several incidents where both pro-government and opposition demonstrations have turned violent, with an estimated 150 dead as a result in 2017. Additionally, there are claims and counterclaims relating to the imprisonment of opposition figures, with the government claiming that their political status neither impedes nor motivates prosecution for the crimes that they have been convicted of, while the opposition claims that these arrests and charges are politically motivated. Since the death of Chávez, the revolution has gone into decline and the political and economic situation in Venezuela has deteriorated. Simón Bolívar has left a long lasting imprint on Venezuela's history in particular and South America in general; as a military cadet, Hugo Chávez was "a celebrant of the Bolivarian passion story". Chávez relied upon the ideas of Bolívar and on Bolívar as a popular symbol in his military career as he put together his MBR-200 movement which would become a vehicle for his 1992 coup-attempt.

South America in the late 1980s and early 1990s was just recovering from the Latin American debt crisis of the mid-1980s and many governments had adopted austerity and privatization policies to finance International Monetary Fund loans. Following the end of the Cold War and the fall of the military dictatorships in Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, social movements including labor and indigenous currents opposed the austerity and called for debt forgiveness, sometimes resulting in clashes with the state, it was in this context that Chávez and MBR-200 won the 1998 elections and initiated the constituent process that resulted in the Venezuelan Constitution of 1999. Chavismo policies include social welfare programs and opposition to neoliberalism. According to Hugo Chávez, Venezuelan socialism accepts private property, but this socialism seeks to promote social property too. Chavismo support participatory democracy and workplace democracy. In January 2007, Chávez proposed to build the communal state, whose main idea is to build self-government institutions like communal councils and communal cities.

According to the United States Army Combined Arms Center: A few year after Chávez rose to power in 1999, he began implementing a political-strategic plan he called the'Bolivarian Revolution,' which threatened Latin American peace. Chávez's plan was characterized by a hostile and confrontational posture toward the United States, actions designed to export Chávez's autocratic, socialist model to other countries of the region, a foreign policy that embroiled Venezuela in international-level conflicts. Chávez was seen as a leader of the "pink tide", a turn towards left-wing governments in Latin American democracies. Analysts have pointed out additional anti-American and authoritarian-leaning traits in those governments. Chávez refocused Venezuelan foreign policy on Latin American economic and social integration by enacting bilateral trade and reciprocal aid agreements, including his so-called "oil diplomacy", making Venezuela more dependent on using oil and increasing its longterm vulnerability.

Though Chávez inspired other movements in Latin America to follow his model of chavismo in an attempt to reshape South America, it was seen as being erratic and his influence internationally became exaggerated, with the pink tide beginning to subside in 2009. The social programs that came into being during the term of Hugo Chávez sought to reduce social disparities and were funded in large part by oil revenues; the sustainability and design of the welfare programs have been both criticized. Specific examples of social programs are listed below. Plan Bolívar 2000 was the first of the Bolivarian Missions enacted under of administration of Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez. According to the United States Department of State, Chávez wanted to "send the message that the military was not a force of popular repression, but rather a force for development and security"; the United States State Department commented that this happened "only 23 days after his inauguration" and that he wanted to show his closest supporters "that he had not forgotten them".

The plan involved around 40,000 Venezuelan soldiers engaged in door-to-door anti-poverty activities, including mass vaccinations, food distribution in slum areas and education. Several scandals affected the program as allegations of corruption were formulated against Generals involved in the plan, arguing that significant am

Thomas James Harris

Thomas James Harris VC MM was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. Son of William John and Sarah Ann Harris of Rochester He was 26 years old, a serjeant in the 6th Battalion, Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment, British Army during the First World War. On 9 August 1918 at Morlancourt, France, he performed the deeds for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross. No. 358 Sjt. Thomas James Harris, M. M. late R. W. Kent R.. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty in attack when the advance was much impeded by hostile machine guns concealed in crops and shell-holes. Sjt. Harris led his section against one of these, killing seven of the enemy. On two successive occasions, he attacked single-handed two enemy machine guns which were causing heavy casualties and holding up the advance, he captured the first gun and killed the crew, but was himself killed when attacking the second one.

It was due to the great courage and initiative of this gallant N. C. O. that the advance of the battalion was continued without delay and undue casualties. Throughout the operations he showed a total disregard for his own personal safety, set a magnificent example to all ranks, his Victoria Cross is displayed at The Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment Museum, Kent. Profile

Romanian Border Police

The Romanian Border Police is the structure of the Romanian Ministry of Administration and Interior responsible for the border security and passport control at border crossing points and ports. The Border Police uses the same ranking system as the Romanian Police, with different colors. Before 2002, the Border Police had military status and a military ranking system, within the Ministry of Administration and Interior. In June 2002 it became a civilian police force, together with the National Police and its personnel was structured into two corps: Corpul ofiţerilor de poliţie - corresponding to the commissioned ranks of a military force, to the ranks of Inspector and Commissioner in a British-style police force or to the both Corps de conception et de direction and Corps de commande et d'encadrement in the French National Police. Corpul agenţilor de poliţie - corresponding to the non-commissioned ranks of a military force, to the Corps de maîtrise et d'application in the French National Police or to the ranks of Constable or Sergeant in a British-style police force.

SNR-17 class patrol boat:25 ton built by Istanbul Shipyard,Turkey, MAI 1105 Stefan Cel Mare Patrol Vessel:950 ton built by Damen Group,Netherlands. Neustadt class patrol boat : Built by Lürssen shipyard in Germany. VG-10 class patrol boat:built in Santierul Naval Braila in 1953–1954 years. Although the former Interior Minister Cristian David declared that the Border Police would be integrated into the National Police until 2010 or 2011, when Romania was expected to join the Schengen Area, the Border Police keeps its current status and remains the sole agency tasked with border security and passport control. Romanian Police Romanian Gendarmerie Ministry of Administration and Interior Official site

Invariant mass

The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects, independent of the overall motion of the system. More it is a characteristic of the system's total energy and momentum, the same in all frames of reference related by Lorentz transformations. If a center-of-momentum frame exists for the system the invariant mass of a system is equal to its total mass in that "rest frame". In other reference frames, where the system's momentum is nonzero, the total mass of the system is greater than the invariant mass, but the invariant mass remains unchanged. Due to mass–energy equivalence, the rest energy of the system is the invariant mass times the speed of light squared; the total energy of the system is its total mass times the speed of light squared. Systems whose four-momentum is a null vector have zero invariant mass, are referred to as massless. A physical object or particle moving faster than the speed of light would have space-like four-momenta, these do not appear to exist.

Any time-like four-momentum possesses a reference frame where the momentum is zero, a center of momentum frame. In this case, invariant mass is referred to as the rest mass. If objects within a system are in relative motion the invariant mass of the whole system will differ from the sum of the objects' rest masses; this is equal to the total energy of the system divided by c2. See mass–energy equivalence for a discussion of definitions of mass. Since the mass of systems must be measured with a weight or mass scale in a center of momentum frame in which the entire system has zero momentum, such a scale always measures the system's invariant mass. For example, a scale would measure the kinetic energy of the molecules in a bottle of gas to be part of invariant mass of the bottle, thus its rest mass; the same is true for massless particles in such system, which add invariant mass and rest mass to systems, according to their energy. For an isolated massive system, the center of mass of the system moves in a straight line with a steady sub-luminal velocity.

Thus, an observer can always be placed to move along with it. In this frame, the center-of-momentum frame, the total momentum is zero, the system as a whole may be thought of as being "at rest" if it is a bound system. In this frame, which exists under these assumptions, the invariant mass of the system is equal to the total system energy divided by c2; this total energy in the center of momentum frame, is the minimum energy which the system may be observed to have, when seen by various observers from various inertial frames. Note that for reasons above, such a rest frame does not exist for single photons, or rays of light moving in one direction; when two or more photons move in different directions, however, a center of mass frame exists. Thus, the mass of a system of several photons moving in different directions is positive, which means that an invariant mass exists for this system though it does not exist for each photon; the invariant mass of a system includes the mass of any kinetic energy of the system constituents that remains in the center of momentum frame, so the invariant mass of a system may be greater than sum of the invariant masses of its separate constituents.

For example, rest mass and invariant mass are zero for individual photons though they may add mass to the invariant mass of systems. For this reason, invariant mass is in general not an additive quantity. Consider the simple case of two-body system, where object A is moving towards another object B, at rest; the magnitude of invariant mass of this two-body system is different from the sum of rest mass. If we consider the same system from center-of-momentum frame, where net momentum is zero, the magnitude of the system's invariant mass is not equal to the sum of the rest masses of the particles within it; the kinetic energy of such particles and the potential energy of the force fields increase the total energy above the sum of the particle rest masses, both terms contribute to the invariant mass of the system. The sum of the particle kinetic energies as calculated by an observer is smallest in the center of momentum frame, they will also interact through one or more of the fundamental forces, giving them a potential energy of interaction negative.

For an isolated massive system, the center of mass moves in a straight line with a steady sub-luminal velocity. Thus, an observer can always be placed to move along with it. In this frame, the center of momentum frame, the total momentum is zero, the system as a whole may be thought of as being "at rest" if it is a bound system. In this frame, which always exists, the invariant mass of the system is equal to the total system energy divided by c2. In particle physics, the invariant mass m0 is equal to the mass in the rest frame of the particle, can be calculated by the particle's energy E and its momentum p as measured in any f

Predatory mortgage servicing

Predatory mortgage servicing is abusive, deceptive, or fraudulent mortgage servicing practices of some mortgage servicers during the mortgage servicing process. There is no legal definition in the United States for predatory mortgage servicing. However, the term is used and accepted by state and federal regulatory agencies such as the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Federal Trade Commission and Government Sponsored Enterprises such as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. While there are no specific laws against predatory mortgage servicing abuses, there are local and federal laws against many of the specific practices identified as predatory mortgage servicing abuses, various state and federal agencies use the term as a catch-all term for many specific illegal activities in the mortgage servicing industry. Predatory mortgage servicing is not to be confused with predatory lending, used to describe the unfair, deceptive, or fraudulent practices of mortgage brokers and lenders during the mortgage loan origination process.

Predatory mortgage servicing occurs on subprime, Alt-A, scratch and dent, toxic mortgages that are being serviced by special or default servicers or servicers and lenders that are financially in trouble. There are many motives for predatory servicing practices and a report titled Misbehavior and Mistake in Bankruptcy Mortgage Claim by Katherine M. Porter, professor of law at the University of Iowa details the effects and damages caused by servicing abuses. In mortgage securitization transactions, the mortgage servicer forwards the borrower's payment of principal and interest to the certificate holders of the special securitized trust that owns and holds the promissory notes secured by the mortgages and deeds of trust; the mortgage servicer, however, is allowed to retain late fees, BPO fees, inspection fees, other fees charged or assessed to a borrower's account. In addition to the fee income, the servicer is allowed to retain the net liquidation proceeds of any foreclosure sale; this provides an incentive to unscrupulous servicers who aggressively interpret mortgage documents to add additional fees to a borrower's mortgage account.

Many times, the additional fees added on create an event of default allowing the mortgage servicer to foreclose on the property. This practice is referred to as manufacturing a default or manufactured default. Causes of the United States housing bubble Consumer fraud Mortgage discrimination Mortgage-backed securities Poverty industry United States housing bubble