Asa Gray is considered the most important American botanist of the 19th century. His Darwiniana was considered an important explanation of how religion and science were not mutually exclusive. Gray was adamant, he was strongly opposed to the ideas of hybridization within one generation and special creation in the sense of its not allowing for evolution, as he felt evolution was guided by a Creator. As a professor of botany at Harvard University for several decades, Gray visited, corresponded with, many of the leading natural scientists of the era, including Charles Darwin, who held great regard for him. Gray made several trips to Europe to collaborate with leading European scientists of the era, as well as trips to the southern and western United States, he built an extensive network of specimen collectors. A prolific writer, he was instrumental in unifying the taxonomic knowledge of the plants of North America. Of Gray's many works on botany, the most popular was his Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States, from New England to Wisconsin and South to Ohio and Pennsylvania Inclusive, known today as Gray's Manual.
Gray was the sole author of the first five editions of the book and co-author of the sixth, with botanical illustrations by Isaac Sprague. Further editions have been published, it remains a standard in the field. Gray worked extensively on a phenomenon, now called the "Asa Gray disjunction", the surprising morphological similarities between many eastern Asian and eastern North American plants. Several structures, geographic features, plants have been named after Gray. Gray was born in Sauquoit, New York, on November 18, 1810, to Moses Gray a tanner, Roxanna Howard Gray. Born in the back of his father's tannery, Gray was the eldest of their eight children. Gray's paternal great-grandfather had arrived in Boston from Northern Ireland in 1718, his parents married on July 30, 1809. Tanneries needed a lot of wood to burn, the lumber supply in the area had been shrinking, so Gray's father used his profits to buy farms in the area, in about 1823 sold the tannery and became a farmer. Gray was an avid reader in his youth.
He completed Clinton Grammar School from about 1823 to 1825, in those years reading many books from the nearby library at Hamilton College. In 1825 he enrolled at Fairfield Academy, switching to its Fairfield Medical College known as the Medical College of the Western District of Fairfield, in autumn 1826, it was during this time. On a trip to New York City, he attempted to meet with John Torrey to get assistance in identifying specimens, but Torrey was not home, so Gray left the specimens at Torrey's house. Torrey was so impressed with Gray's specimens. Gray graduated and became an M. D. in February 1831 though he was not yet 21 years of age, a requirement at the time. Although Gray did open a medical office in Bridgewater, New York, where he had served an apprenticeship with Doctor John Foote Trowbridge while he was in medical school, he never practiced medicine as he enjoyed botany more, it was around this time that he began making explorations in New Jersey. By autumn 1831 he had given up his medical practice to devote more time to botany.
In 1832 he was hired to teach chemistry and botany at Bartlett's High School in Utica, New York, at Fairfield Medical School, replacing instructors who had died in mid-term. Agreeing to teach for one year, with a break from August to December 1832, Gray had to cancel his plans for an expedition to Mexico, which at the time included what is now the southwestern United States. Gray first met Torrey in person in September 1832, they went on an expedition to New Jersey. After completing his teaching assignment in Utica on August 1, 1833, Gray became an assistant to Torrey at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City. By this time, Gray was corresponding and trading specimens with botanists not just in America, but in Asia and the Pacific Islands. Gray held a temporary teaching position in 1834 at Hamilton College. Due to funding shortages, in 1835 Gray was obliged to leave his job as Torrey's assistant, in February or March 1836 became curator and librarian at the Lyceum of Natural History in New York, now called the New York Academy of Sciences.
He had an apartment in their new building in Manhattan. Torrey's attempt to get Gray a job at Princeton University was unsuccessful, as were other attempts to find him a position in science. Despite Gray no longer being his assistant and Gray became lifelong friends and colleagues. Torrey's wife, Eliza Torrey, had a profound impact upon Gray in his manners, tastes and religious life. In October 1836 Gray was selected to be one of the botanists on the United States Exploring Expedition known as the "Wilkes Expedition", supposed to last three years. Gray began getting paid well for his work preparing and planning for this expedition to the point of loading supplies onto a ship in New York harbor. However, the expedition was fraught with politics, turmoil and delays. Referring to the Secretary of the Navy, Mahlon Dickerson, Gray wrote of "abominable management & stupidity". Despite this, Gray resigned from the Lyceum in April 1837 to devote his time to the preparations. By 1838 the expedition was in utter turmoil.
The new state of Michigan was starting its university, Gray a
Egyptian Revival architecture
Egyptian revival is an architectural style that uses the motifs and imagery of ancient Egypt. It is attributed to the public awareness of ancient Egyptian monuments generated by Napoleon's conquest of Egypt and Admiral Nelson's defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of the Nile in 1798; the size and monumentality of the façades'discovered' during his adventure cement the hold of Egyptian aesthetics on the Parisian elite. Napoleon took a scientific expedition with him to Egypt. Publication of the expedition's work, the Description de l'Égypte, began in 1809 and was published as a series through 1826. However, works of art and architecture in the Egyptian style had been made or built on the European continent and the British Isles since the time of the Renaissance; the most important example is Gian Lorenzo Bernini's obelisk in the Piazza Navona in Rome. It influenced the obelisk constructed as a family funeral memorial by Sir Edward Lovatt Pierce for the Allen family at Stillorgan in Ireland in 1717, one of several Egyptian obelisks erected in Ireland during the early 18th century.
Others may be found at County Kildare. The Casteltown Folly in County Kildare is the best known, albeit the least Egyptian-styled. Egyptian buildings had been built as garden follies; the most elaborate was the one built by Frederick I, Duke of Württemberg in the gardens of the Château de Montbéliard. It included an Egyptian bridge across which guests walked to reach an island with an elaborate Egyptian-influenced bath house. Designed by the duke's court architect, Jean Baptiste Kleber, the building had a billiards room and a "bagnio". New after the Napoleonic invasion was a sudden increase of the number of works of art and the fact that, for the first time, entire buildings began to be built to resemble those of ancient Egypt. In France and Britain this was at least inspired by successful war campaigns undertaken by each country while in Egypt. According to David Brownlee, the 1798 Karlsruhe Synagogue, an early building by the influential Friedrich Weinbrenner was "the first large Egyptian building to be erected since antiquity."
According to Diana Muir Appelbaum, it was "the first public building in the Egyptian revival style." The ancient Egyptian influence was shown in the two large engaged pylons flanking the entrance. Among the earliest monuments of the Egyptian revival in Paris is the Fontaine du Fellah in Paris, built in 1806, it was designed by François-Jean Bralle. A well-documented example, destroyed after Napoleon was deposed, was the monument to General Louis Desaix in the Place des Victoires was built in 1810, it featured a nude statue of the general and an obelisk, both set upon an Egyptian revival base. Another example of a still standing site of Egyptian Revival is the Egyptian Gate of Tsarskoe Selo, built in 1829. A street or passage named the Place du Caire or Foire du Caire was built in Paris in 1798 on the former site of the convent of the "Filles de la Charité". No. 2 Place du Caire, from 1828, is in overall form a conventional Parisian structure with shops on the ground floor and apartments above, but with considerable Egyptianizing decoration including a row of massive Hathor heads and a frieze by sculptor J. G. Garraud.
One of the first British buildings to show an Egyptian revival interior was the newspaper office of the Courier on the Strand in London. It was built in 1804 and featured a cavetto cornice and Egyptian-influenced columns with palmiform capitals. Other early British examples include the Egyptian Hall in London, completed in 1812, the Egyptian Gallery, a private room in the home of connoisseur Thomas Hope to display his Egyptian antiquities, illustrated in engravings from his meticulous line drawings in his book Household Furniture, were a prime source for the regency style of British furnishings. Egyptian revival architecture enjoyed considerable popularity in other countries as well; the first Egyptian revival building in the United States was the 1824 synagogue building of Congregation Mikveh Israel Synagogue in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania It was followed by a series of major public buildings in the first half of the 19th century including the 1835 Philadelphia County Prison, Pennsylvania, United States, the 1836 Fourth District Police Station in New Orleans and the 1838 New York City jail known as the Tombs.
Other public buildings in Egyptian style included the 1844 Old Whaler's Church in Sag Harbor, New York, the 1846 First Baptist Church in Essex, the 1845 Egyptian Building of the Medical College of Virginia in Richmond and the 1848 United States Custom House in New Orleans. The most notable Egyptian structure in the United States was the Washington Monument, begun in 1848, this obelisk featured doors with cavetto cornices and winged sun disks removed; the National World War I Museum and Memorial in Kansas City, Missouri is another example of Egyptian revival architecture and art. The South African College in the then-British Cape Colony features an "Egyptian building" constructed in 1841; the Great Synagogue was Australia's first Egyptian revival building, followed by the Hobart Synagogue, the Launceston Synagogue and the Adelaide Hebrew Congregation, all by 1850. The earliest obelisk in Australia was erected at Macquarie Place, Sydney in 1818; the expeditions that led to the discovery in 1922 of the treasure of Tutankhamun's tomb by the a
Charles Robert Darwin, was an English naturalist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. His proposition that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors is now accepted, considered a foundational concept in science. In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding. Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species. By the 1870s, the scientific community and a majority of the educated public had accepted evolution as a fact. However, many favoured competing explanations, it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution.
Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life. Darwin's early interest in nature led him to neglect his medical education at the University of Edinburgh. Studies at the University of Cambridge encouraged his passion for natural science, his five-year voyage on HMS Beagle established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's uniformitarian ideas, publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author. Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin began detailed investigations, in 1838 conceived his theory of natural selection. Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority, he was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay that described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories.
Darwin's work established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature. In 1871 he examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, his research on plants was published in a series of books, in his final book, The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms, he examined earthworms and their effect on soil. Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, he was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey. Since 2008, a statue of Charles Darwin occupies the place of honour at London's Natural History Museum. Charles Robert Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, on 12 February 1809, at his family's home, The Mount, he was the fifth of six children of wealthy society doctor and financier Robert Darwin and Susannah Darwin. His grandfathers Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood were both prominent abolitionists.
Both families were Unitarian, though the Wedgwoods were adopting Anglicanism. Robert Darwin, himself a freethinker, had baby Charles baptised in November 1809 in the Anglican St Chad's Church, but Charles and his siblings attended the Unitarian chapel with their mother; the eight-year-old Charles had a taste for natural history and collecting when he joined the day school run by its preacher in 1817. That July, his mother died. From September 1818, he joined his older brother Erasmus attending the nearby Anglican Shrewsbury School as a boarder. Darwin spent the summer of 1825 as an apprentice doctor, helping his father treat the poor of Shropshire, before going to the University of Edinburgh Medical School with his brother Erasmus in October 1825. Darwin found lectures dull and surgery distressing, so he neglected his studies, he learned taxidermy in around 40 daily hour-long sessions from John Edmonstone, a freed black slave who had accompanied Charles Waterton in the South American rainforest.
In Darwin's second year at the university he joined the Plinian Society, a student natural-history group featuring lively debates in which radical democratic students with materialistic views challenged orthodox religious concepts of science. He assisted Robert Edmond Grant's investigations of the anatomy and life cycle of marine invertebrates in the Firth of Forth, on 27 March 1827 presented at the Plinian his own discovery that black spores found in oyster shells were the eggs of a skate leech. One day, Grant praised Lamarck's evolutionary ideas. Darwin was astonished by Grant's audacity, but had read similar ideas in his grandfather Erasmus' journals. Darwin was rather bored by Robert Jameson's natural-history course, which covered geology—including the debate between Neptunism and Plutonism, he learned the classification of plants, assisted with work on the collections of the University Museum, one of the largest museums in Europe at the time. Darwin's neglect of medical studies annoyed his father, who shrewdly sent him to Christ's College, Cambridge, to study for a Bachelor of Arts degree as the first step towards becoming an Anglican country parson.
As Darwin was unqualified for the Tripos, he joined the ordinary degree course in January 1828. He preferred shooting to studying, his cousin William Darwin Fox introduced him to the popular craze for beetle collecting.
Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences
The New York State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences is a statutory college established and supervised by the State University of New York system. CALS is located on the campus of Cornell University in New York. With enrollment of 3,100 undergraduate and 1,000 graduate students, CALS is the third-largest college of its kind in the United States and the second-largest undergraduate college on the Cornell campus. Established as a Land-grant college, CALS administrates New York's cooperative extension program jointly with New York State College of Human Ecology. CALS runs the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, New York, the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, as well as other research facilities in New York. In 2007-08, CALS total budget is $283 million, with $96 million coming from tuition and $52 million coming from state appropriations; the Geneva Station budget was an additional $25 million. CALS offers more than 20 majors, each with a focus on Life Sciences, Applied Social Sciences, Environmental Sciences and Agriculture and Food.
CALS undergraduate programs lead to a Bachelor of Science degree in one of 23 different majors. The Applied Economics and Management program, for example, was ranked 3rd nationally in BusinessWeek's Best Undergraduate Business Programs, 2012, edition. CALS offers graduate degrees in various fields of study, including the M. A. T. M. L. A. M. P. S. M. S. and Ph. D.. Cornell's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences is one of the most renowned institutions in its field. In 2019, it is ranked 1st in the "Food and Nutrition" and "Agricultural Sciences" sectors of Niche.com With an admission rate of 11.5% for the fall of 2018, admission into the college is competitive and in the middle relative to the other colleges at Cornell. The Agriculture Quadrangle is a grouping of buildings dedicated to programs offered by the NYS College of Agriculture and Life Sciences; the oldest building on the quad is Caldwell Hall. The Plant Science Building, Warren Hall, flank the art deco style Albert R. Mann Library. A newer Kennedy and Roberts Halls replaced the original 1906 building, The Computing and Communications Center was Comstock Hall).
These buildings are owned by New York State, which pays for their maintenance. The College operates extension programs through the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, New York, in 20 buildings, including the Barton Laboratory Greenhouse and Sutton Road Solar Farm, on 130 acres and over 700 acres of test plots and other land parcels used to conduct horticultural research and substations: the Vineyard Research Laboratory in Fredonia, Hudson Valley Laboratory in Highland, Long Island Horticultural Research Laboratory in Riverhead; the Dilmun Hill Student Farm is located in Ithaca, New York is a student-run farm facility operated according to sustainable agricultural practices. The Social Media Lab, is part of the College's Communications Department. In this modern research laboratory, faculty supervise undergraduate and graduate research focusing on human interaction in CMC and online communities, including the investigation of social phenomena, such as disclosure or deception among users of social media computer applications, such as Facebook, Grindr.
Studies examine human behavior, personal experience, human interaction in the digital realm along the dimensions of language processes, self-representation, interpersonal interaction. In 2009, The Social Media Lab coined the term, the Butler Lie, a reference to factually untrue verbal communication used to politely initiate or end an instant message conversation, such as "Gotta go, boss is coming!" These statements buffer the otherwise negative experience of social ostracism. The established Rich’s Food Safety Lab was made possible by a donation from frozen food industry giant Rich; the laboratory aims to engages in critical food safety research and the education of the next generation of food safety leaders. Cornell's first president, Andrew Dickson White, had little enthusiasm for agricultural education, the Board of Trustees were without much enthusiasm. Agriculture could not be ignored, because Ezra Cornell was committed, the provisions of the Morrill Land Grant Act required it. After much difficulty, George Chapman Caldwell was recruited in 1867 as Professor of Chemistry.
He was the first professor of what was to become the Cornell University. The university opened in September 1868 with professor Caldwell, the nominal leader of a group of three professors with interests touching upon agriculture. In addition to Caldwell, there was Albert N. Prentiss, professor of botany, Dr. James Law, professor of veterinary medicine; the Faculty of Agriculture consisted of this informal group of three and a professor of agriculture of the moment. The arrival of Isaac P. Roberts, as professor of agriculture, from Michigan, in 1874 brought credibility to agriculture at Cornell. During the period of 1879-1887, Cornell president Charles Kendall Adams changed the Trustees hostility toward agriculture. In June 1888, the "informal" departments, including agriculture taught by Isaac Roberts, agricultural chemistry taught by George Caldwell, botany taught by Albert Prentiss, entomology taught by Henry Comstock, veterinary medicine taught by James Law, were combined to form the Cornell College of Agriculture.
In June 1888, which had pla
William James Beal
William James Beal was an American botanist. He was a pioneer in the development of hybrid corn and the founder of the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden. Beal was born in Adrian, Michigan, to William and Rachel Beal, His parents were pioneering Quaker settlers/farmers from New York state. Beal grew up in forested land surrounded by native animal life, he married Hannah Proud in 1863. He retired to Amherst and died there in 1924, he attended the University of Michigan, where he earned an A. B. degree in 1859 and an A. M. degree in 1862. B. degree from Harvard University, 1865, an M. S. degree from the University of Chicago, 1875, a number of honorary degrees. Between 1858 and 1861 he was a teacher of Natural Sciences at Friends Academy at Union Springs, New York. After serving as professor of botany at the University of Chicago in 1868-70, Beal went on to Michigan Agricultural College, where he was a professor of botany, curator of the museum. While at MAC, he arranged for Liberty Hyde Bailey to work as an assistant to Asa Gray at Harvard University for two years during 1883-1884.
He served as director of the state Forestry Commission. He was a key leader of the experimental movement of agricultural botany at the college, his research at the MAC involved using cross fertilization to increase the yield from 8 rowed Indian corn to 24 rowed hybrid corn. His contributions planted him as “one of the pioneers in the development of hybrid corn” in the late 19th century. Using his techniques, Beal was able to produce crops that bloomed earlier, were hardier, had more vigor, had “better qualities” than traditionally grown varieties, he began conducting these experiments in 1878. He conducted the first turf grass experiments at the college in 1880. Beal first visited the Michigan Agricultural college in 1870, he was to teach a botany class during the summer. At that time, Lansing had a population of 1,541 residents and the addition of a new hall on campus allowed the college to accept 150 students, up from the previous 82 student accommodation, he described the college as “young and small”.
Due to a lack of faculty, Beal taught a wide range of subjects. In addition to teaching his passion of botany, he taught English and civil engineering, his successor at the Michigan Agricultural College, P. G. Holden, is quoted as praising Beal’s work by saying “From his original experiment has come the Twentieth Century Miracle - hybrid corn.”Beal founded MSU's W. J. Beal Botanical Garden in 1877, making it the oldest continuously operated botanical garden in the United States. Beals work was inspired by many influential scientists of the late 19th century, he arrived at Harvard to complete an undergraduate degree a mere 3 years after Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species. Emerson and Holmes were still writing and lecturing, Thoreau was still alive. Beal heard all of them as a young student from Michigan; the groundbreaking research by Darwin and the writing of Emerson, Lowell and Thoreau were inspiration to a young Beal as he transitioned from studying at Harvard to conducting his research at the Michigan Agricultural College.
Darwin’s research on inheritance seems to have influenced Beal’s development of hybrid corn. In 1887, he and Professor Rolla C. Carpenter created "Collegeville", the first neighborhood in what became East Lansing. In 1879 Beal started one of the longest running experiments in botany, he filled 20 bottles with a mixture of sand and seeds, with each bottle containing 50 seeds from 21 species of plant. The bottles were buried, their necks pointing down to exclude water; the goal of the experiment was to unearth one of the bottles every five years, plant the seeds, observe the number that would sprout. Caretakers extended the experiment by opening a bottle once every decade, every two decades; the most recent bottle was unearthed in 2000, 2 of the 21 plant species sprouted. The experiment is still running, with the bottles buried on the campus of Michigan State University, the next bottle due to be tested in spring 2020; the end of the study is due in 2100. He was the author of The New Botany, Grasses of North America, Seed Dispersal and History of Michigan Agricultural College.
Learning the name of a plant or parts of a plant can no longer be palmed off as valuable training. Long-term experiment Photo of W. J. Beal William James Beal Society William J. Beal and the Botanical Garden Cowles House Works by William James Beal at Project Gutenberg Works by or about William James Beal at Internet Archive
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, culture of everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order and change or social evolution. While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, others focus on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure; the different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, secularization, sexuality and deviance. As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, economy and penal institutions, the Internet, social capital, the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
The range of social scientific methods has expanded. Social researchers draw upon a variety of quantitative techniques; the linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-20th century led to interpretative and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society. Conversely, the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s have seen the rise of new analytically and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis. Social research informs politicians and policy makers, planners, administrators, business magnates, social workers, non-governmental organizations, non-profit organizations, people interested in resolving social issues in general. There is a great deal of crossover between social research, market research, other statistical fields. Sociological reasoning predates the foundation of the discipline. Social analysis has origins in the common stock of Western knowledge and philosophy, has been carried out from as far back as the time of ancient Greek philosopher Plato, if not before.
The origin of the survey, i.e. the collection of information from a sample of individuals, can be traced back to at least the Domesday Book in 1086, while ancient philosophers such as Confucius wrote about the importance of social roles. There is evidence of early sociology in medieval Arab writings; some sources consider Ibn Khaldun, a 14th-century Arab Islamic scholar from North Africa, to have been the first sociologist and father of sociology. The word sociology is derived from both Greek origins; the Latin word: socius, "companion". It was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès in an unpublished manuscript. Sociology was defined independently by the French philosopher of science, Auguste Comte in 1838 as a new way of looking at society. Comte had earlier used the term social physics, but that had subsequently been appropriated by others, most notably the Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet. Comte endeavoured to unify history and economics through the scientific understanding of the social realm.
Writing shortly after the malaise of the French Revolution, he proposed that social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism, an epistemological approach outlined in The Course in Positive Philosophy and A General View of Positivism. Comte believed a positivist stage would mark the final era, after conjectural theological and metaphysical phases, in the progression of human understanding. In observing the circular dependence of theory and observation in science, having classified the sciences, Comte may be regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Comte gave a powerful impetus to the development of sociology, an impetus which bore fruit in the decades of the nineteenth century. To say this is not to claim that French sociologists such as Durkheim were devoted disciples of the high priest of positivism, but by insisting on the irreducibility of each of his basic sciences to the particular science of sciences which it presupposed in the hierarchy and by emphasizing the nature of sociology as the scientific study of social phenomena Comte put sociology on the map.
To be sure, beginnings can be traced back well beyond Montesquieu, for example, to Condorcet, not to speak of Saint-Simon, Comte's immediate predecessor. But Comte's clear recognition of sociology as a particular science, with a character of its own, justified Durkheim in regarding him as the father or founder of this science, in spite of the fact that Durkheim did not accept the idea of the three states and criticized Comte's approach to sociology. Both Auguste Comte and Karl Marx set out to develop scientifically justified systems in the wake of European industrialization and secularization, informed by various key movements in the philosophies of history and science. Marx rejected Comtean positivism but in attempting to develop a science of society came to be recognized as a founder of sociology as the word gained wider meaning. For Isaiah Berlin, Marx may be regarded as the "true father" of modern sociology, "in so far as anyone can claim the title."To have given clear and unified answers in familiar empirical terms to those theor
Bailey Hall (Ithaca, New York)
Bailey Hall is the largest auditorium at Cornell University, seating 1324 people. It is named for Liberty Hyde Bailey, first dean of what is now Cornell's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences; the building was constructed in 1912 according to the Greek Revival architecture design of Buffalo architect Edward Brodhead Green, an 1878 Cornell graduate. It is shaped as an amphitheatre, with a colonnaded portico wrapping around its south side, monumental stairs leading up to 11-foot main doors. Bailey Hall was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1984; as configured, Bailey seated 1,948. In 2006, the building reopened after a major rehabilitation which brought it up to modern building codes and made it handicapped-accessible, albeit at the cost of several hundred seats of audience capacity; the road and small parking lot in front of Bailey were converted into a pedestrian plaza, opened to the public in 2007. The flagstones of the plaza are hewn from bluestone, similar to the material used to construct the Stone Row on the Arts Quad.
Some of the stones were thermally treated to alter their colors to achieve a cosmetic effect. The benches ringing the plaza extend to 30 feet in length, each having been hewn from a single Oregon Douglas fir. A fountain carved from local stone into a natural, sloping shape invoking Ithaca's gorges is featured on the southern edge of the plaza