Liberty Place is a skyscraper complex in Philadelphia, United States. The complex is composed of a 61-story, 945-foot skyscraper called One Liberty Place, a 58-story, 848-foot skyscraper called Two Liberty Place, a two-story shopping mall called the Shops at Liberty Place, the 14-story Westin Philadelphia Hotel. Prior to the construction of Liberty Place, there was a gentlemen's agreement not to build any structure in Center City higher than the statue of William Penn on top of Philadelphia City Hall; the tradition lasted until 1984 when developer Willard G. Rouse III of Rouse & Associates announced plans to build an office building complex that included two towers taller than City Hall. There was a great amount of opposition to the construction of the towers with critics believing breaking the height limit would lead to construction of many more tall skyscrapers, ruining the livability and charm of Center City. Despite the opposition, construction of One Liberty Place was approved and the first phase of the project began in 1985 and was completed in 1987.
One Liberty Place became the city's first skyscraper. Phase 2 of the project included Two Liberty Place, a hotel, a shopping mall, a parking garage. Construction began 1988. Construction was completed in 1990, making Two Liberty Place the second-tallest building in the city; the two towers held their place as first- and second-tallest buildings in Philadelphia until the Comcast Center was topped off in 2007. Liberty Place was received enthusiastically by critics and led to the construction of other tall skyscrapers giving Philadelphia what architecture critic Paul Goldberger called "one of the most appealing skylines of any major American city". Liberty Place was designed by his firm Murphy/Jahn; the steel and blue glass skyscrapers were influenced by New York City's Chrysler Building. The major influence is the spire made of gabled angular setbacks. Two Liberty Place's spire is shorter and squatter, a design influenced by the needs of tenant Cigna. In the 2000s, Cigna reduced its presence in the tower, which led to the owners converting the upper floors into 122 luxury condominiums.
Below the two towers is the 289 room Westin hotel and the 143,000 square feet Shops at Liberty Place. The main feature of the mall is a round atrium topped by a large glass dome. In Philadelphia, there was a gentlemen's agreement not to build any structure in Center City higher than the statue of William Penn on top of Philadelphia City Hall; the tradition lasted until the 1980s when developer Willard G. Rouse III of Rouse & Associates announced plans to build an office building complex that included two towers taller than City Hall. Prior to any development plans, Rouse wanted to acquire prime real estate in Philadelphia and he eyed a block in Center City occupied by parking lots and several small buildings; the Oliver Tyrone Pulver Corp. eyed the land for development and the company and Rouse both vied for the block of land by buying small lots throughout the site. Neither developer was able to acquire enough contiguous space to build a large office building, so after a lawsuit and failed negotiations, the two developers agreed to an organized bidding war for each other's properties.
Under the rules agreed upon, the highest bidder would get the option to buy the other's property. Rouse won the auction in 1983 for an undisclosed amount. Rouse envisioned a $US150 million 38-story skyscraper, but on April 5, 1984 Rouse announced his plans to build a complex that would include two office towers, one 65 stories the other 55 stories, a hotel, retail space. Rumors and local lore speculate Rouse spent so much money buying the land that he had to build something that justified the expense. Opposition to the project had begun before the April 5 official announcement at a Planning Commission meeting; the meeting was attended by 300 people and a number of attendees were opposed or skeptical of the idea that the skyscrapers would be taller than City Hall. Critics feared breaking the gentlemen's agreement would lead to the development of more tall skyscrapers that would end up dwarfing City Hall and changing the makeup of the city. Critic of the plan and former Philadelphia city planner Edmund Bacon said, "Once smashed, it's gone."
A phone poll conducted by the Philadelphia Daily News had callers opposing breaking the height barrier by 3,809 to 1,822. Philadelphia Inquirer editorial feared; the location of City Hall was intended as the city's center from the city's founding, critics feared taller buildings would move the city's center away from City Hall. Critics of breaking the height ceiling favored the smaller scale of the cityscape and felt that a Philadelphia with skyscrapers would affect the livability of the city. Edmund Bacon and Center City civic leaders said that Philadelphia owes its livability and charm to its low profile. Chairman of the City Planning Commission, Graham S. Finney, noted that there was a general feeling that the sky above the city was considered a public space. Supporters of breaking the height limitation noted that the project would bring needed jobs and business to Center City and that shorter buildings were blocking views of City Hall from certain directions. A planning commission meeting was held on May 3 to decide if they would approve skyscrapers that break the height limit.
Executive director of the commissioners, Barbara J. Kaplan, said the project had "substantial merit" and "that there is an opportunity here we should not pass up." She cited that the project would create US$15 million in tax revenue. Opponent Lee Copeland, dean of the University of Pennsylvani
"Wait for Life" is a song produced by Emile Haynie featuring the vocals of singer-songwriter Lana Del Rey. The pair wrote the song together alongside Thomas Bartlett; the song was released as a single to promote Haynie's debut album, We Fall, on 29 January 2015. After initial success as a producer for artists including Kanye West, Kid Cudi, Eminem, Haynie gained notable recognition as a music producer. Through 2011 and 2012, Haynie began working with American indie pop singer Lana Del Rey, producing eight singles from her Born to Die album, namely the title-track, "Off to the Races", "Carmen", "Blue Jeans", "Summertime Sadness", "National Anthem", "Blue Velvet" and "Dark Paradise". According to Haynie, he was struggling in 2013 and 2014, leading to him not having the same amount of involvement in Del Rey's follow-up record, Ultraviolence, as he had wanted to have: "I tried doing regular production work... one of the things, hard at the beginning was I was supposed to be working on Lana's Ultraviolence, she's someone, so important to me, I just couldn't do it.
She'd written it and she had her songs that she'd written on piano, it would have been more of a production gig, I just couldn't do it. I made attempts with some of these amazing artists I would have always loved to have worked with, but I just couldn't focus. Once it became a real thing that I was making my own album, I didn't need to do anything else."An article in The Fader stated "When Lana came to Haynie's studio in New York for an Ultraviolencesession one afternoon, the two got talking about relationships instead, spontaneously recorded a demo. That session became the We Fall track "Wait For Life," a song about impossible romance that's pinned around Lana's soft teasing out of the phrase, I'm lonely."Speculation began in December 2014 about Haynie and Del Rey releasing a collaborative effort together. Suspicions were confirmed in early-January. Lyrically, the song tells the story of a tragic romance which involves one person maintaining unrealistic expectations that the relationship's fate will change.
Haynie revealed in an interview that We Fall is indeed a narrative that details his recovery from a shattered romance. Since its release, the song has received universal acclaim from music critics. Emma-Lee Moss of Vice was positive of the song, praising "Lana's husky warble on the line “All I want is to make your money grow”", further adding that it is " of the simplest tracks that leave a lasting impression" Caitilin White of MTV was positive of the pairing of Del Rey's vocals and Haynie's production. Justin Block of Complex praised Haynie's choice of having Del Rey's "sultry voice blast ballads on a deep, multi-faceted track" adding that "Country western strings slide across the song's intro before transitioning into mixture of synths, orchestral strings, sombering piano chords. Lana blesses Haynie's instrumentation with a silky-soft, airy performance." He would encouraged the similar sound it had to Del Rey's Born to Die, adding that hit had matured by incorporating "some of Lana's wholly downtrodden bite."
Emile Haynie – producer, songwriter Lana Del Rey – lead vocals, backing vocals, songwriter Doveman – songwriter, mellotron Larry Gold – woodwind, horns Greg Leisz – pedal steele guitarCredits adapted from the song liner notes on Genius
Index may refer to: Index, a character in the light novel series A Certain Magical Index The Index, an item on a halo megastructure in the Halo series of video games Index Magazine, a publication for art and culture index.hu, a Hungarian-language news and community portal The Index, a student newspaper The Index, an 1860s European propaganda journal created by Henry Hotze to support the Confederate States of America The Index, a newspaper published in Pittsburgh from 1895 until it merged with The Bulletin in 1930 to become The Bulletin Index Truman State University Index, a student newspaper The Index Indexed, a Web cartoon by Jessica Hagy Index, album by Ana Mena Index, a former UK catalogue retailer INDEX, a market research fair in Lucknow, India Index Corporation, a Japanese video game developer Index fund, a collective investment scheme Stock market index, a statistical average of prices of selected securities Index, Arkansas, an unincorporated community Index, Kentucky, an unincorporated community Index, Missouri, a ghost town Index, New York, a hamlet in Hartwick and Otsego, New York Index, Virginia, an unincorporated community Index, Washington, a town Index, West Virginia, an unincorporated community Index, an organized list of information in a publication Index, a hand- or fist-shaped punctuation mark Bibliographic index, a updated publication that lists articles, books, or other information items Citation index Index card, used for recording and storing small amounts of data Index Librorum Prohibitorum, a list of publications which the Catholic Church censored Index on Censorship, a publishing organization that campaigns for freedom of expression, or its magazine of the same name Thumb index, a round cut-out in the pages of a publication The Index, Germany's List of Media Harmful to Young People, published by the Bundesprüfstelle für jugendgefährdende Medien Index, a key in an associative array Index, a character in Unicode, its code is 132 Index, the dataset maintained by search engine indexing Array index, an integer pointer into an array data structure BitTorrent index, a list of.torrent files available for searches Database index, a data structure that improves the speed of data retrieval Index mapping of raw data for an array Index register, a processor register used for modifying operand addresses during the run of a program Indexed color, in computer imagery Indexed Sequential Access Method, used for indexing data for fast retrieval Lookup table, a data structure used to store precomputed information Site map, or site index, a list of pages of a web site accessible to crawlers or users Subject indexing, describing the content of a document by keywords Web indexing, Internet indexing Webserver directory index, a default or index web page in a directory on a web server, such as index.html Index, a single number calculated from an array of prices and quantities Price index, a typical price for some good or service Index, a number or other symbol that specifies an element of an indexed family or set Index, an element of an index set Index, the label of a summand in Σ-notation of a summation Index of a subgroup, the number of a subgroup's left cosets Index, the degree of an nth root Index of a linear map, the dimension of the map's kernel minus the dimension of its cokernel Index of a matrix Index of a real quadratic form Index, the winding number of an oriented closed curve on a surface relative to a point on that surface Diversity index, a measure of distribution or variety in fields such as ecology or information science Index of a vector field, an integer that helps to describe the behaviour of a vector field around an isolated zero Indexicality, in linguistics, the phenomenon of a sign pointing to some object in the context in which it occurs Index, or the discrete logarithm of a number Index, a type of aggregate measure Scale, a method of reporting data in social sciences, sometimes called an index Dental indices, standardized scoring systems for tooth problems Indexing, in mechanical engineering and machining, movement to a known location Refractive index, a measurement of how light propagates through a material Valve Index, a virtual reality headset INDEX, earlier name for the Reimei satellite Index:, a Danish nonprofit organization which promotes Design for Life The Index, a skyscraper Index, a moon crater Indexer All pages with titles beginning with Index All pages with titles containing Index