John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill cited as J. S. Mill, was a British philosopher, political economist, civil servant. One of the most influential thinkers in the history of classical liberalism, he contributed to social theory, political theory, political economy. Dubbed "the most influential English-speaking philosopher of the nineteenth century", Mill's conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state and social control. Mill was a proponent of utilitarianism, an ethical theory developed by his predecessor Jeremy Bentham, he contributed to the investigation of scientific methodology, though his knowledge of the topic was based on the writings of others, notably William Whewell, John Herschel, Auguste Comte, research carried out for Mill by Alexander Bain. Mill engaged in written debate with Whewell. A member of the Liberal Party, he was the second Member of Parliament to call for women's suffrage after Henry Hunt in 1832. John Stuart Mill was born at 13 Rodney Street in Pentonville, the eldest son of the Scottish philosopher and economist James Mill, Harriet Barrow.
John Stuart was educated by his father, with the advice and assistance of Jeremy Bentham and Francis Place. He was given an rigorous upbringing, was deliberately shielded from association with children his own age other than his siblings, his father, a follower of Bentham and an adherent of associationism, had as his explicit aim to create a genius intellect that would carry on the cause of utilitarianism and its implementation after he and Bentham had died. Mill was a notably precocious child, he describes his education in his autobiography. At the age of three he was taught Greek. By the age of eight, he had read Aesop's Fables, Xenophon's Anabasis, the whole of Herodotus, was acquainted with Lucian, Diogenes Laërtius and six dialogues of Plato, he had read a great deal of history in English and had been taught arithmetic and astronomy. At the age of eight, Mill began studying Latin, the works of Euclid, algebra, was appointed schoolmaster to the younger children of the family, his main reading was still history, but he went through all the taught Latin and Greek authors and by the age of ten could read Plato and Demosthenes with ease.
His father thought that it was important for Mill to study and compose poetry. One of Mill's earliest poetic compositions was a continuation of the Iliad. In his spare time he enjoyed reading about natural sciences and popular novels, such as Don Quixote and Robinson Crusoe, his father's work, The History of British India was published in 1818. In the following year he was introduced to political economy and studied Adam Smith and David Ricardo with his father completing their classical economic view of factors of production. Mill's comptes rendus of his daily economy lessons helped his father in writing Elements of Political Economy in 1821, a textbook to promote the ideas of Ricardian economics. Ricardo, a close friend of his father, used to invite the young Mill to his house for a walk in order to talk about political economy. At the age of fourteen, Mill stayed a year in France with the family of Sir Samuel Bentham, brother of Jeremy Bentham; the mountain scenery he saw led to a lifelong taste for mountain landscapes.
The lively and friendly way of life of the French left a deep impression on him. In Montpellier, he attended the winter courses on chemistry, logic of the Faculté des Sciences, as well as taking a course in higher mathematics. While coming and going from France, he stayed in Paris for a few days in the house of the renowned economist Jean-Baptiste Say, a friend of Mill's father. There he met many leaders of the Liberal party, as well as other notable Parisians, including Henri Saint-Simon. Mill went through months of pondered suicide at twenty years of age. According to the opening paragraphs of Chapter V of his autobiography, he had asked himself whether the creation of a just society, his life's objective, would make him happy, his heart answered "no", unsurprisingly he lost the happiness of striving towards this objective. The poetry of William Wordsworth showed him that beauty generates compassion for others and stimulates joy. John Stuart Mill's Mental Breakdown, Victorian Unconversions, Romantic Poetry With renewed joy he continued to work towards a just society, but with more relish for the journey.
He considered this one of the most pivotal shifts in his thinking. In fact, many of the differences between him and his father stemmed from this expanded source of joy. Mill had been engaged in a pen-friendship with Auguste Comte, the founder of positivism and sociology, since Mill first contacted Comte in November 1841. Comte's sociologie was more an early philosophy of science than we know it today, the positive philosophy aided in Mill's broad rejection of Benthamism; as a nonconformist who refused to subscribe to the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England, Mill was not eligible to study at the University of Oxford or the University of Cambridge. Instead he followed his father to work for the East India Company, attended University College, London, to hear the lectures of John Austin, the first Professor of Jurisprudence, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1856. Mill's career as a colonial administrator at the British East India Company spanned from when he was 17 years old in 1823 until 1858, when the Compan
Leybourne is a small village in Kent, England situated off Junction 4 of the M20 Motorway. Leybourne is adjacent to West Malling; the area was extensively quarried, leaving a number of flooded gravel pits. These have been developed into Leybourne Lakes Country Park, a housing development. Several of the houses on the development feature in the Channel 4 TV Series Cape Wrath. Nearby New Hythe was home of Meridian's newsroom and studio for the South East. Leybourne church is a small church with a big history; the church was built in Saxon times but the church building was changed in 1874. The Leybourne history started when the ancestor of the Leybourne family came over with William the Conqueror from France, he lived there with his family for a long time. His descendent, Sir Philip Libourne, decided to live in a village in Kent called Lillieburn; the names mixed to call the place Leybourne. He was the first baron of Leybourne. Two people who were quite important were barons of Leybourne; the first, the baron of Leybourne, Sir Roger de Leybourne great grandson of Philip, was good friends with Prince Edward.
In 1270 he set off with Edward on a crusade to the Holy Land. On the way he was ill so, his heart was put in the left-hand side box of the niche. The second is Sir William Baron de Leybourne, son of Sir Roger, the first Englishman to have the title admiral. On 25 October 1286 King Edward Queen Eleanor of Castille visited William at Leybourne Castle, they left two crowns as gifts, which hang above the wooden plaque about Sir William, unveiled in 1956 by Richard Talbot. In the church tower there used to be three bells, it is because the tower collapsed in 1580. In Friday 10 June 1966 a bolt of lightning hit the tower and it caught fire they decided only to have one bell; the tower was Norman, but in 1874, architect Sir Arthur Blomfeld encased it in an extra layer of wall. The Domesday Book says about Leybourne: "Adam holds Leybourne of the bishop, it is assessed at 2 sulungs. There is land. In demesne are 3 ploughs. There is a church, 10 slaves, 1 mill rendering 7s, 12 acres of meadow, woodland for 50 pigs.
In the time of King Edward it was worth £8. Richard of Tonbridge holds in his lowy; the king holds as a recent gift from the bishop. Thorgisl holds this manor of Earl Godwine." The blank entry above is as shown in the Domesday Book. Leybourne has a primary school, pre Norman-conquest church, 13th-century castle, shop and general store, village hall, pub/restaurant and a Brewers Fayre restaurant and motel. Leybourne and the neighbouring town of West Malling elect three councillors to Tonbridge and Malling Borough Council, it has its own Parish Council. There are junior football teams aging from Under 6's to Under 18's and a cricket club for adults and children on the school premises: Leybourne St Peter and St Paul Church of England Primary school. Nearby Leybourne Lakes Country Park offer fishing, scenic walking and cycle paths plus water sports such as windsurfing and scuba diving. In mid-2005 work was started on the Leybourne bypass; the bypass was opened late in October 2006, with the aim of reducing traffic coming off the motorway and through Leybourne along Castle Way.
The need for the bypass is because of vastly increased traffic resulting from the development of nearby Kings Hill. Leybourne Woods is a small area of wood & heathland set between the communities of Leybourne and West Malling in Kent. Used by local residents for dog walking, leisure walks, mountain bike & horse riding the woods conceal an amazing amount of wildlife. A Facebook page @Leybournewoodswildlife has been set up for local residents to share photos and experiences of local wildlife in the surrounding area, it is the hope that this will raise awareness of the woodland and encourage more local residents to use it and help to maintain the wildlife habitats that are in place there and educate future generations. A228 Bypass Info Parish Council Leybourne church
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west; the county shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames, with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. The county town is Maidstone. Canterbury Cathedral in Kent has been the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, leader of the Church of England, since the Reformation. Prior to that it was built by Catholics, dating back to the conversion of England to Catholicism by Saint Augustine that began in the 6th century. Before the English Reformation the cathedral was part of a Benedictine monastic community known as Christ Church, Canterbury, as well as being the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury; the last Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury was Reginald Pole. Rochester Cathedral is in Kent, in Medway, it is the second-oldest cathedral in England, with Canterbury Cathedral being the oldest. Between London and the Strait of Dover, which separates it from mainland Europe, Kent has seen both diplomacy and conflict, ranging from the Leeds Castle peace talks of 1978 and 2004 to the Battle of Britain in World War II.
England relied on the county's ports to provide warships through much of its history. France can be seen in fine weather from Folkestone and the White Cliffs of Dover. Hills in the form of the North Downs and the Greensand Ridge span the length of the county and in the series of valleys in between and to the south are most of the county's 26 castles; because of its relative abundance of fruit-growing and hop gardens, Kent is known as "The Garden of England". Kent's economy is diversified. In northwest Kent industries include extraction of aggregate building materials and scientific research. Coal mining has played its part in Kent's industrial heritage. Large parts of Kent are within the London commuter belt and its strong transport connections to the capital and the nearby continent makes Kent a high-income county. Twenty-eight per cent of the county forms part of two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty: the North Downs and The High Weald; the name Kent is believed to be of British Celtic origin and was known in Old English as Cent, Cent lond, Centrice.
In Latin sources Kent is mentioned as Canticum. The meaning is explained by some researchers as "coastal district," or "corner-land, land on the edge". If so, the name could be etymologically related to the placename Cantabria a Celtiberian-speaking coastal region in pre-Roman Iberia, today a province of Spain; the area has been occupied since the Palaeolithic era, as attested by finds from the quarries at Swanscombe. The Medway megaliths were built during the Neolithic era. There is a rich sequence of Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman era occupation, as indicated by finds and features such as the Ringlemere gold cup and the Roman villas of the Darent valley; the modern name of Kent is derived from the Brythonic word kantos meaning "rim" or "border", or from a homonymous word kanto "horn, hook". This describes the eastern part of the current county area as coastal district. Julius Caesar had described the area as um, or home of the Cantiaci in 51 BC; the extreme west of the modern county was by the time of Roman Britain occupied by Iron Age tribes, known as the Regnenses.
Caesar wrote that the people of Kent are'by far the most civilised inhabitants of Britain'. East Kent became a kingdom of the Jutes during the 5th century and was known as Cantia from about 730 and recorded as Cent in 835; the early medieval inhabitants of the county were known as the Kent people. These people regarded the city of Canterbury as their capital. In 597, Pope Gregory I appointed the religious missionary as the first Archbishop of Canterbury. In the previous year, Augustine converted the pagan King Æthelberht of Kent to Christianity; the Diocese of Canterbury became England's first Episcopal See with first cathedral and has since remained England's centre of Christianity. The second designated English cathedral was in Kent at Rochester Cathedral. In the 11th century, the people of Kent adopted the motto Invicta, meaning "undefeated" or "unconquered"; this naming followed the invasion of Britain by William of Normandy. The Kent people's continued resistance against the Normans led to Kent's designation as a semi-autonomous county palatine in 1067.
Under the nominal rule of William's half-brother Odo of Bayeux, the county was granted similar powers to those granted in the areas bordering Wales and Scotland. Kent was traditionally partitioned into East and West Kent, into lathes and hundreds; the traditional border of East and West Kent was the Medway. Men and women from east of the Medway are Men of Kent, those from the west are Kentishmen or Kentish Maids. During the medieval and early modern period, Kent played a major role in several of England's most notable rebellions, including the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, led by Wat Tyler,Jack Cade's Kent rebellion of 1450, Wyatt's Rebellion of 1554 against Queen Mary I; the Royal Navy first used the River Medway in 1547. By the reign of Elizabeth I a small dockyard had been established at Chatham. By 1618, storehouses, a ropewalk, a drydock, houses for officials had
Pomerol is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. It is located near Bordeaux; the small-sized producers in this area of about 7.60 km2 produce red wines. As in the neighbouring appellation of Saint-Émilion, the predominant grape variety is Merlot with Cabernet Franc and smaller quantities of Cabernet Sauvignon. Unlike other Bordeaux regions, Pomerol has classification. However, wines like Château Pétrus and Château Le Pin are priced as high as the classified first growths of the Pauillac and Saint-Émilion such as Château Ausone and Château Cheval Blanc; the next-door and larger "satellite" appellation of Lalande-de-Pomerol produces similar wines which are shorter-lived and less expensive. French wine Bordeaux wine Plan Bordeaux Bordeaux wine regions Communes of the Gironde department INSEE Pomerol wine information
Gascony is an area of southwest France, part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution. The region is vaguely defined, the distinction between Guyenne and Gascony is unclear. Most definitions put Gascony south of Bordeaux, it is divided between the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine and the region of Occitanie. Gascony was inhabited by Basque-related people who appear to have spoken a language similar to Basque; the name Gascony comes from the same root as the word Basque. From medieval times until today, the Gascon language has been spoken, although it is classified as a regional variant of the Occitan language. Gascony is the land of d'Artagnan, who inspired Alexandre Dumas's character d'Artagnan in The Three Musketeers, as well as the land of Cyrano de Bergerac, who inspired the play of the same name by Edmond Rostand, it is home to Henry III of Navarre, who became king of France as Henry IV. In pre-Roman times, the inhabitants of Gascony were the Aquitanians, who spoke a non-Indo-European language related to modern Basque.
The Aquitanians inhabited a territory limited to the north and east by the Garonne River, to the south by the Pyrenees mountain range, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean. The Romans called this territory Aquitania, either from the Latin word aqua, in reference to the many rivers flowing from the Pyrenees through the area, or from the name of the Aquitanian Ausci tribe, in which case Aquitania would mean "land of the Ausci". In the 50s BC, Aquitania was conquered by lieutenants of Julius Caesar and became part of the Roman Empire. In 27 BC, during the reign of Emperor Augustus, the province of Gallia Aquitania was created. Gallia Aquitania was far larger than the original Aquitania, as it extended north of the Garonne River, in fact all the way north to the Loire River, thus including the Celtic Gauls that inhabited the regions between the Garonne and the Loire rivers. In 297, as Emperor Diocletian reformed the administrative structures of the Roman Empire, Aquitania was split into three provinces.
The territory south of the Garonne River, corresponding to the original Aquitania, was made a province called Novempopulania, while the part of Gallia Aquitania north of the Garonne became the province of Aquitanica I and the province of Aquitanica II. The territory of Novempopulania corresponded quite well to; the Aquitania Novempopulana or Novempopulania suffered like the rest of the Western Roman Empire from the invasions of Germanic tribes, most notably the Vandals in 407–409. In 416–418, Novempopulania was delivered to the Visigoths as their federate settlement lands and became part of the Visigoth kingdom of Toulouse, while other than the region of the Garonne river their actual grip on the area may have been rather loose; the Visigoths were defeated by the Franks in 507, fled into Spain and Septimania. Novempopulania became part of the Frankish Kingdom like the rest of southern France. However, Novempopulania was far away from the home base of the Franks in northern France, was only loosely controlled by the Franks.
During all the troubled and obscure period, starting from early 5th-century accounts, the bagaudae are cited, social uprisings against tax exaction and feudalization associated to Vasconic unrest. Old historical literature sometimes claims the Basques took control of the whole of Novempopulania in the Early Middle Ages, founding its claims on the testimony of Gregory of Tours, on the etymological link between the words "Basque" and "Gascon" – both derived from "Vascones" or "Wasconia", the latter being used to name the whole of Novempopulania. Modern historians reject this hypothesis, sustained by no archeological evidence. For Juan José Larrea, Pierre Bonnassie, "a Vascon expansionism in Aquitany is not proved and is not necessary to understand the historical evolution of this region"; this Basque-related culture and race is, whatever the origin, attested in Medieval documents, while their exact boundaries remain unclear. The word Vasconia evolved into Wasconia, into Gasconia; the gradual abandonment of the Basque-related Aquitanian language in favor of a local Vulgar Latin was not reversed.
The replacing local Vulgar Latin evolved into Gascon. It was influenced by the original Aquitanian language. Interestingly, the Basques from the French side of the Basque Country traditionally call anyone who does not speak Basque a "Gascon". Meanwhile, Viking raiders conquered several Gascon towns, among them Bayonne in 842–844, their attacks in Gascony may have helped the political disintegration of the Duchy until their defeat against William II Sánchez of Gascony in 982. In turn, the weakened ethnic polity known as Duchy of Wasconia/Wascones, unable to get round the general spread of feudalization, gave way to a myriad of counties founded by Gascon lords, his 1152 marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine allowed the future Henry II to gain cont
Eugène Atget was a French flâneur and a pioneer of documentary photography, noted for his determination to document all of the architecture and street scenes of Paris before their disappearance to modernization. Most of his photographs were first published by Berenice Abbott after his death. An inspiration for the surrealists and other artists, his genius was only recognized by a handful of young artists in the last two years of his life, he did not live to see the wide acclaim his work would receive. Jean-Eugène-Auguste Atget was born 12 February 1857 in Libourne, his father, carriage builder Jean-Eugène Atget, died in 1862, his mother, Clara-Adeline Atget née Hourlier died shortly after. He was brought up by his maternal grandparents in Bordeaux and after finishing secondary education joined the merchant navy. Atget moved to Paris in 1878, he was admitted when he had a second try. Because he was drafted for military service he could attend class only part-time, he was expelled from drama school.
Still living in Paris, he became an actor with a travelling group, performing in the Paris suburbs and the provinces. He met actress Valentine Delafosse Compagnon, he gave up acting because of an infection of his vocal cords in 1887, moved to the provinces and took up painting without success. His first photographs, of Amiens and Beauvais, date from 1888. In 1890, Atget moved back to Paris and became a professional photographer, supplying documents for artists: studies for painters and stage designers. Starting in 1898, institutions such as the Musée Carnavalet and the Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris bought his photographs; the latter commissioned. In 1899 he moved to Montparnasse. While being a photographer Atget still called himself an actor, giving lectures and readings. During World War I Eugène Atget temporarily stored his archives in his basement for safekeeping and completely gave up photography. Valentine's son Léon was killed at the front. In 1920–21, he sold thousands of his negatives to institutions.
Financially independent, he took up photographing the parks of Versailles, Saint-Cloud and Sceaux and produced a series of photographs of prostitutes. Berenice Abbott, while working with Man Ray, visited Atget in 1925, bought some of his photographs, tried to interest other artists in his work, she continued to promote Atget through various articles and books, sold her Atget collection to the Museum of Modern Art in 1968. In 1926, Valentine died, Man Ray published several of Atget's photographs in his La Révolution surréaliste. Abbott took Atget's portrait in 1927. Eugène Atget died 4 August 1927 in Paris. Atget took up photography in the late 1880s, around the time that photography was experiencing unprecedented expansion in both commercial and amateur fields, he sold photos of landscapes and other pleasantries to other artists. It was not until 1897 that Atget started a project he would continue for the rest of his life—his Old Paris collection. Atget photographed Paris with a large-format wooden bellows camera with a rapid rectilinear lens.
The images were developed as 18x24cm glass dry plates. Between 1897 and 1927, Atget captured the old Paris in his pictures, his photographs show the city in its various facets: narrow lanes and courtyards in the historic city center with its old buildings, of which some were soon to be demolished, magnificent palaces from before World War II, bridges and quays on the banks of the Seine, shops with their window displays. He photographed stairwells and architectural details on the façades and took pictures of the interiors of apartments, his interest extended to the environs of Paris. In addition to architecture and the urban environment, he photographed street-hawkers, small tradesmen, rag collectors and prostitutes, as well as fairs and popular amusements in the various districts; the outlying districts and peripheral areas, in which the poor and homeless sought shelter furnished him with pictorial subjects. Distinguishing characteristics of Atget's photography include a wispy, drawn-out sense of light due to his long exposures, a wide view that suggested space and ambiance more than surface detail, an intentionally limited range of scenes avoiding the bustling modern Paris, around the corner from the nostalgia-steeped nooks he preferred.
The emptiness of most of his streets and the sometimes blurred figures in those with people are due to his antiquated technique, including extended exposure times which required that many of his images be made in the early morning hours before pedestrians and traffic appeared. The mechanical vignetting seen at some corners of his photographs is due to his having repositioned the lens relative to the plate on the camera—exploiting one of the features of bellows view cameras as a way to correct perspective and control the image, he said, "I have done little justice to the Great City of Paris", as a comment on his career. Atget's photographs attracted the attention of artists such as Man Ray, André Derain, Henri Matisse and Picasso in the 1920s. Man Ray not only purchased a number of Atget's photographs but used During the Eclipse for the cover of his surrealist magazine la Révolution surréaliste; when he asked Atget if he could use his photo, Atget said: "Don't put my name on it. These are documents I make."
Man Ray said that Atget's pictures of staircases, doorways and those with window reflections and mannequins, had a Dada or Surrealist quality about them. Man Ray was a neighbor of Atget—they lived on the same