Rita Frances Dove is an American poet and essayist. From 1993 to 1995, she served as Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress, she is the first African American to have been appointed since the position was created by an act of Congress in 1986 from the previous "consultant in poetry" position. Dove received an appointment as "special consultant in poetry" for the Library of Congress's bicentennial year from 1999 to 2000. Dove is the second African American to receive the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry, in 1987, she served as the Poet Laureate of Virginia from 2004 to 2006. Rita Dove was born in Akron, Ohio, to Ray Dove, one of the first African-American chemists to work in the U. S. tire industry, Elvira Hord, who achieved honors in high school and would share her passion for reading with her daughter. In 1970, Dove graduated from Buchtel High School as a Presidential Scholar. Dove graduated summa cum laude with a B. A. from Miami University in 1973. In 1974, she held a Fulbright Scholarship from Germany.
She received her MFA from the Iowa Writers' Workshop at the University of Iowa in 1977. Dove taught creative writing at Arizona State University from 1981 to 1989, she received the 1987 Pulitzer Prize for Poetry. In 1992, she was named United States Poet Laureate by the Librarian of Congress, an office she held from 1993 to 1995. At the age of 40, Dove was the youngest person to hold the position and is the first African American to hold the position since the title was changed to Poet Laureate. Early in her tenure as poet laureate, Dove was featured by Bill Moyers in a one-hour interview on his PBS prime-time program Bill Moyers Journal. Since 1989, she has been teaching at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, where she holds the chair of Commonwealth Professor of English. Rita Dove served as a Special Bicentennial Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress in 1999/2000, along with Louise Glück and W. S. Merwin. In 2004, then-governor Mark Warner of Virginia appointed her to a two-year position as Poet Laureate of Virginia.
In her public posts, Dove concentrated on spreading the word about poetry and increasing public awareness of the benefits of literature. As United States Poet Laureate, for example, she brought together writers to explore the African diaspora through the eyes of its artists. Dove was on the board of the Associated Writing Programs from 1985 to 1988, she led the organization as its president from 1986 to 1987. From 1994 to 2000, she was a senator of the national academic honor society Phi Beta Kappa. From 2006 to 2012, she served as a chancellor of the Academy of American Poets. Since 1991, she has been on the jury of the annual Anisfield-Wolf Book Awards—from 1991 to 1996 serving together with Ashley Montagu and Henry Louis Gates. In the spring of 2018, Dove was named poetry editor of The New York Times Magazine. Dove's work can not be confined to a specific school in contemporary literature, her most famous work to date is Thomas and Beulah, published by Carnegie-Mellon University Press in 1986, a collection of poems loosely based on the lives of her maternal grandparents, for which she received the Pulitzer Prize in 1987.
Dove has published ten volumes of poetry, a book of short stories, a collection of essays, a novel, Through the Ivory Gate. Her Collected Poems 1974–2004 was released by W. W. Norton in 2016. In 1994, she published the play The Darker Face of the Earth, which premiered at the Oregon Shakespeare Festival in Ashland, Oregon in 1996, she collaborated with composer John Williams on the song cycle Seven for Luck. For "America's Millennium", the White House's 1999/2000 New Year's celebration, Ms. Dove contributed — in a live reading at the Lincoln Memorial, accompanied by John Williams' music — a poem to Steven Spielberg's documentary The Unfinished Journey. Dove's most ambitious collection of poetry, Sonata Mulattica, was published in 2009. Over its more than 200 pages, it "has the sweep and vivid characters of a novel", as Mark Doty wrote in O, The Oprah Magazine. Dove edited The Penguin Anthology of 20th-Century American Poetry, published in 2011; the collection provoked heated controversy as some critics complained that she valued an inclusive, populist agenda over quality.
Poet John Olson commented that "her exclusions are breathtaking". Well-known poets left out include Sylvia Plath, Allen Ginsberg, Sterling Brown, Louis Zukofsky, George Oppen, Charles Reznikoff and Lorine Niedecker; as Dove explained in her foreword and in media interviews, she had selected works by Plath and Brown but these as well as some other poets were left out against her editorial wishes. Critic Helen Vendler condemned Dove's choices, asking "why are we b
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe was an American writer and literary critic. Poe is best known for his poetry and short stories his tales of mystery and the macabre, he is regarded as a central figure of Romanticism in the United States and of American literature as a whole, he was one of the country's earliest practitioners of the short story. He is considered the inventor of the detective fiction genre and is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction, he was the first well-known American writer to earn a living through writing alone, resulting in a financially difficult life and career. Poe was born in the second child of actors David and Elizabeth "Eliza" Arnold Hopkins Poe, his father abandoned the family in 1810, his mother died the following year. Thus orphaned, the child was taken in by Frances Allan of Richmond, Virginia, they never formally adopted him. Tension developed as John Allan and Poe clashed over debts, including those incurred by gambling, the cost of Poe's secondary education.
He left after a year due to lack of money. Poe quarreled with Allan over the funds for his education and enlisted in the Army in 1827 under an assumed name, it was at this time that his publishing career began with the anonymous collection Tamerlane and Other Poems, credited only to "a Bostonian". Poe and Allan reached a temporary rapprochement after the death of Frances Allan in 1829. Poe failed as an officer cadet at West Point, declaring a firm wish to be a poet and writer, he parted ways with John Allan. Poe switched his focus to prose and spent the next several years working for literary journals and periodicals, becoming known for his own style of literary criticism, his work forced him to move among several cities, including Baltimore and New York City. He married Virginia Clemm in his 13-year-old cousin. In January 1845, Poe published his poem "The Raven" to instant success, but Virginia died of tuberculosis two years after its publication. Poe planned for years to produce his own journal The Penn.
He died in Baltimore on October 7, 1849, at age 40. Poe and his works influenced literature around the world, as well as specialized fields such as cosmology and cryptography, he and his work appear throughout popular culture in literature, music and television. A number of his homes are dedicated museums today; the Mystery Writers of America present an annual award known as the Edgar Award for distinguished work in the mystery genre. He was born Edgar Poe in Boston on January 19, 1809, the second child of English-born actress Elizabeth Arnold Hopkins Poe and actor David Poe Jr, he had a younger sister Rosalie Poe. Their grandfather David Poe Sr. had immigrated from County Cavan, Ireland around 1750. Edgar may have been named after a character in William Shakespeare's King Lear which the couple were performing in 1809, his father abandoned the family in 1810, his mother died a year from consumption. Poe was taken into the home of John Allan, a successful merchant in Richmond, Virginia who dealt in a variety of goods, including tobacco, wheat and slaves.
The Allans served as a foster family and gave him the name "Edgar Allan Poe", though they never formally adopted him. The Allan family had Poe baptized in the Episcopal Church in 1812. John Allan alternately spoiled and aggressively disciplined his foster son; the family sailed to Britain in 1815, Poe attended the grammar school for a short period in Irvine, Scotland before rejoining the family in London in 1816. There he studied at a boarding school in Chelsea until summer 1817, he was subsequently entered at the Reverend John Bransby's Manor House School at Stoke Newington a suburb 4 miles north of London. Poe moved with the Allans back to Richmond, Virginia in 1820. In 1824, he served as the lieutenant of the Richmond youth honor guard as Richmond celebrated the visit of the Marquis de Lafayette. In March 1825, John Allan's uncle and business benefactor William Galt died, said to be one of the wealthiest men in Richmond, leaving Allan several acres of real estate; the inheritance was estimated at $750,000.
By summer 1825, Allan celebrated his expansive wealth by purchasing a two-story brick home named Moldavia. Poe may have become engaged to Sarah Elmira Royster before he registered at the University of Virginia in February 1826 to study ancient and modern languages; the university was in its infancy, established on the ideals of its founder Thomas Jefferson. It had strict rules against gambling, guns and alcohol, but these rules were ignored. Jefferson had enacted a system of student self-government, allowing students to choose their own studies, make their own arrangements for boarding, report all wrongdoing to the faculty; the unique system was still in chaos, there was a high dropout rate. During his time there, Poe lost touch with Royster and became estranged from his foster father over gambling debts, he claimed that Allan had not given him sufficient money to register for classes, purchase texts, procure and furnish a dormitory. Allan did send additional money and clothes, he gave up on the university after a year but did not feel welco
Virginia Women in History
Virginia Women in History is an annual program sponsored by the Library of Virginia that honors eight Virginia women and dead, for their contributions to their community, region and nation. The program began in 2000 under the aegis of the Virginia Foundation for Women and Delta Kappa Gamma Society International. Mary Willing Byrd, Charles City County, planter Maybelle Addington Carter, Scott County, singer Laura Lu Scherer Copenhaver, Smyth County, founder of Rosemont Industries and Lutheran lay leader Mary Alice Franklin Hatwood Futrell, educator Mary Jeffery Galt, preservationist Sheila Crump Johnson, Loudoun County, founder of Black Entertainment Television and sports franchise owner Opossunoquonuske, Chesterfield County, Appamattuck leader Camilla Williams, opera singer Frances Culpeper Berkeley, James City County, leader of the Green Spring faction Lucy Goode Brooks, founder of the Friends' Asylum for Colored Orphans Providencia Velazquez Gonzalez, Dale City, community activist Elizabeth Bermingham Lacy, judge of the Supreme Court of Virginia Sharyn McCrumb, Roanoke County, writer Patricia Buckley Moss, Waynesboro and philanthropist Isabel Wood Rogers, moderator, General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church Edith Turner, Southampton County, chief of the Nottoway Pauline Adams, suffragist Caroline Bradby Cook, King William County, Pamunkey leader and Unionist Claudia Emerson, poet Drew Gilpin Faust, Clarke County and president of Harvard University Joann Hess Grayson, Harrisonburg and advocate for abused children Mary Randolph, Chesterfield County and Richmond, writer Virginia Estelle Randolph, Henrico County, educator Mary Sue Terry, Patrick County, attorney general Mollie Holmes Adams, King William County, Upper Mattaponi leader Ethel Bailey Furman, architect Edythe C.
Harrison, civic leader Janis Martin, Danville and composer Kate Mason Rowland, writer Jean Miller Skipwith, Mecklenburg County, book collector Queena Stovall and Amherst County, artist Marian A. Van Landingham, civic leader Lucy Addison, educator Eleanor Bontecou, Arlington County, attorney Emily White Fleming, preservationist Pearl Fu, civic leader Lillian Lincoln Lambert, Mechanicsville and author Bessie Niemeyer Marshall, botanical illustrator Felicia Warburg Rogan, Albemarle County, vintner Elizabeth Henry Campbell Russell, Methodist lay leader Susie May Ames, Accomack County, historian Monica Beltran, army Bronze Star Medal recipient Christiana Burdett Campbell, innkeeper Betty Sams Christian, business executive and philanthropist Elizabeth Peet McIntosh, intelligence agent Orleana Hawks Puckett and Carroll Counties, midwife Judith Shatin, composer Alice Jackson Stuart, principal in a 1935 civil rights turning point Mary C. Alexander, aviator Louise A. Reeves Archer, educator Elizabeth Ambler Brent Carrington, civic leader Ann Compton, news correspondent JoAnn Falleta, musician Cleo Powell, Brunswick County, judge Inez Pruitt, Tangier Island, physician assistant Eva Mae Fleming Scott, Amelia County, recipient of the VABPW Foundation Business Leadership Award Mary Berkeley Minor Blackford, antislavery activist Naomi Silverman Cohn, civic activist Elizabeth Ashburn Duke, Virginia Beach, recipient of the VABPW Foundation Business Leadership Award Rachel Findlay, Wythe County, principal in a freedom suit Christine Herter Kendall, Bath County and patron of the arts Mildred Delores Jeter Loving, Caroline County, principal in a 1967 civil rights turning point Deborah A.
"Debbie" Ryan, Albemarle County, basketball coach and cancer treatment advocate Stoner Winslett, artistic director and choreographer Nancy Melvina Caldwell, Carroll County, legislator Nikki Giovanni, poet Ruth Coles Harris, business professor Dorothy Shoemaker McDiarmid, Fairfax County, legislator Rebekah Dulaney Peterkin, philanthropist Vivian W. Pinn, Lynchburg and women's health advocate Elizabeth Bray Allen Smith Stith, Isle of Wight County and philanthropist Karenne Wood, Fluvanna County, Virginia Indian scholar and advocate Flora D. Crittenden, Newport News and legislator Mary Elizabeth Nottingham Day, artist Sarah A. Gray, educator Edwilda Gustava Allen Isaac, civil rights pioneer Katherine Coleman Goble Johnson, mathematician Ana Ines Barragan King, Richmond and Artistic Director of the Latin Ballet of Virginia Betty Masters, pho
Booker T. Washington
Booker Taliaferro Washington was an American educator, author and advisor to presidents of the United States. Between 1890 and 1915, Washington was the dominant leader in the African-American community. Washington was from the last generation of black American leaders born into slavery and became the leading voice of the former slaves and their descendants, they were newly oppressed in the South by disenfranchisement and the Jim Crow discriminatory laws enacted in the post-Reconstruction Southern states in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Washington was a key proponent of African-American businesses and one of the founders of the National Negro Business League, his base was the Tuskegee Institute, a black college in Tuskegee, Alabama. As lynchings in the South reached a peak in 1895, Washington gave a speech, known as the "Atlanta compromise", which brought him national fame, he called for black progress through education and entrepreneurship, rather than trying to challenge directly the Jim Crow segregation and the disenfranchisement of black voters in the South.
Washington mobilized a nationwide coalition of middle-class blacks, church leaders, white philanthropists and politicians, with a long-term goal of building the community's economic strength and pride by a focus on self-help and schooling. But, secretly, he supported court challenges to segregation and restrictions on voter registration. Black militants in the North, led by W. E. B. Du Bois, at first supported the Atlanta compromise, but disagreed and opted to set up the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to work for political change, they tried with limited success to challenge Washington's political machine for leadership in the black community, but built wider networks among white allies in the North. Decades after Washington's death in 1915, the civil rights movement of the 1950s took a more active and militant approach, based on new grassroots organizations based in the South, such as Congress of Racial Equality, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
Washington mastered the nuances of the political arena in the late 19th century, which enabled him to manipulate the media, raise money, develop strategy, push, reward friends, distribute funds, while punishing those who opposed his plans for uplifting blacks. His long-term goal was to end the disenfranchisement of the vast majority of African Americans, who still lived in the South. In 1856, Washington was born into slavery in Virginia as the son of an African-American slave. After emancipation, she moved the family to West Virginia to join her husband Washington Ferguson; as a young man, Washington worked his way through Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute and attended college at Wayland Seminary. In 1881, Washington was named as the first leader of the new Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, founded for the higher education of blacks. Washington attained national prominence for his Atlanta Address of 1895, which attracted the attention of politicians and the public, he became a popular spokesperson for African-American citizens.
He built a nationwide network of supporters in many black communities, with black ministers and businessmen composing his core supporters. Washington played a dominant role in black politics, winning wide support in the black community of the South and among more liberal whites, he gained access to top national leaders in politics and education. Washington's efforts included cooperating with white people and enlisting the support of wealthy philanthropists. Beginning in 1912, he built a relationship with philanthropist Julius Rosenwald, who served on the board of trustees for the rest of his life and made substantial donations to Tuskegee. In addition, they collaborated on a pilot program for Tuskegee architects to design six model schools that could be built for African-American students in rural areas of the South. Given their success in 1913 and 1914, through the Rosenwald Foundation, established in 1917, Rosenwald expanded the program to encourage school construction through giving matching funds to communities who committed to operate the schools.
Thousands of new, small rural schools to improve education for blacks throughout the South were built, most after Washington's death in 1915. Washington had asserted that the surest way for blacks to gain equal social rights was to demonstrate "industry, thrift and property." Northern critics called Washington's widespread organization the "Tuskegee Machine". After 1909, Washington was criticized by the leaders of the new NAACP W. E. B. Du Bois, who demanded a stronger tone of protest in order to advance the civil rights agenda. Washington replied that confrontation would lead to disaster for the outnumbered blacks in society, that cooperation with supportive whites was the only way to overcome pervasive racism in the long run. At the same time, he secretly funded litigation for civil rights cases, such as challenges to southern constitutions and laws that had disenfranchised blacks across the South since the turn of the century. African Americans were still affiliated with the Republican Party, Washington was on close terms with national Republican Party leaders.
He was asked for political advice by presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft. In addition to his contributions in education, Washington wrote 14 books. During a difficult period of transition, he did much to improve the working rel
The Smithsonian Institution, founded on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. The institution is named after British scientist James Smithson. Organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967. Termed "the nation's attic" for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items, the Institution's nineteen museums, nine research centers, zoo include historical and architectural landmarks located in the District of Columbia. Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Massachusetts, New York City, Texas and Panama. More than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states, Puerto Rico, Panama are Smithsonian Affiliates; the Institution's thirty million annual visitors are admitted without charge. Its annual budget is around $1.2 billion with two-thirds coming from annual federal appropriations. Other funding comes from the Institution's endowment and corporate contributions, membership dues, earned retail and licensing revenue.
Institution publications include Air & Space magazines. The British scientist James Smithson left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford; when Hungerford died childless in 1835, the estate passed "to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase & diffusion of knowledge among men", in accordance with Smithson's will. Congress accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation, pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1, 1836; the American diplomat Richard Rush was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson to collect the bequest. Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns. Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithson's rather vague mandate "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge." The money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas, which soon defaulted.
After heated debate, Massachusetts Representative John Quincy Adams persuaded Congress to restore the lost funds with interest and, despite designs on the money for other purposes, convinced his colleagues to preserve it for an institution of science and learning. On August 10, 1846, President James K. Polk signed the legislation that established the Smithsonian Institution as a trust instrumentality of the United States, to be administered by a Board of Regents and a Secretary of the Smithsonian. Though the Smithsonian's first Secretary, Joseph Henry, wanted the Institution to be a center for scientific research, it became the depository for various Washington and U. S. government collections. The United States Exploring Expedition by the U. S. Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842; the voyage amassed thousands of animal specimens, an herbarium of 50,000 plant specimens, diverse shells and minerals, tropical birds, jars of seawater, ethnographic artifacts from the South Pacific Ocean.
These specimens and artifacts became part of the Smithsonian collections, as did those collected by several military and civilian surveys of the American West, including the Mexican Boundary Survey and Pacific Railroad Surveys, which assembled many Native American artifacts and natural history specimens. In 1846, the regents developed a plan for weather observation; the Institution became a magnet for young scientists from 1857 to 1866, who formed a group called the Megatherium Club. The Smithsonian played a critical role as the U. S. partner institution in early bilateral scientific exchanges with the Academy of Sciences of Cuba. Construction began on the Smithsonian Institution Building in 1849. Designed by architect James Renwick Jr. its interiors were completed by general contractor Gilbert Cameron. The building opened in 1855; the Smithsonian's first expansion came with construction of the Arts and Industries Building in 1881. Congress had promised to build a new structure for the museum if the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition generated enough income.
It did, the building was designed by architects Adolf Cluss and Paul Schulze, based on original plans developed by Major General Montgomery C. Meigs of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, it opened in 1881. The National Zoological Park opened in 1889 to accommodate the Smithsonian's Department of Living Animals; the park was designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. The National Museum of Natural History opened in June 1911 to accommodate the Smithsonian's United States National Museum, housed in the Castle and the Arts and Industries Building; this structure was designed by the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall. When Detroit philanthropist Charles Lang Freer donated his private collection to the Smithsonian and funds to build the museum to hold it, it was among the Smithsonian's first major donations from a private individual; the gallery opened in 1923. More than 40 years would pass before the next museum, the Museum of History and Technology, opened in 1964.
It was designed by the world-renowned firm of Mead & White. The Anacostia Community Museum, an "experimental store-front" museum created at the initiative of Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley, opened in the Anacostia neighborhood of
Virginia General Assembly
The Virginia General Assembly is the legislative body of the Commonwealth of Virginia, the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World, established on July 30, 1619. The General Assembly is a bicameral body consisting of a lower house, the Virginia House of Delegates, with 100 members, an upper house, the Senate of Virginia, with 40 members. Combined together, the General Assembly consists of 140 elected representatives from an equal number of constituent districts across the commonwealth; the House of Delegates is presided over by the Speaker of the House, while the Senate is presided over by the Lieutenant Governor of Virginia. The House and Senate each elect sergeant-at-arms; the Senate of Virginia's clerk is known as the "Clerk of the Senate". The Republican Party holds a one-seat majority in the Senate and a two-seat majority in the House following gains by Democrats in the 2017 House election; the General Assembly meets in Virginia's capital of Richmond. When sitting in Richmond, the General Assembly holds sessions in the Virginia State Capitol, designed by Thomas Jefferson in 1788 and expanded in 1904.
During the American Civil War, the building was used as the capitol of the Confederate States of America, housing the Congress of the Confederate States. The building was renovated between 2005 and 2006. Senators and Delegates have their offices in the General Assembly Building across the street directly north of the Capitol; the Governor of Virginia lives across the street directly east of the Capitol in the Virginia Executive Mansion. The Virginia General Assembly is described as "the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World", its existence dates to its establishment at Jamestown on July 30, 1619 by instructions from the Virginia Company of London to the new Governor Sir George Yeardley. It was a unicameral body composed of the Company-appointed Governor and Council of State, plus 22 burgesses elected by the settlements and Jamestown; the Assembly became bicameral in 1642 upon the formation of the House of Burgesses. At various times it may have been referred to as the Grand Assembly of Virginia.
The General Assembly met in Jamestown from 1619 until 1699, when it first moved to the College of William & Mary near Williamsburg and met in the colonial Capitol building. It became the General Assembly in 1776 with the ratification of the Virginia Constitution; the government was moved to Richmond in 1780 during the administration of Governor Thomas Jefferson. The annual salary for senators is $18,000; the annual salary for delegates is $17,640. Under the Constitution of Virginia and Delegates must be 21 years of age at the time of the election, residents of the district they represent, qualified to vote for members of the General Assembly. Under the Constitution, "a senator or delegate who moves his residence from the district for which he is elected shall thereby vacate his office"; the state constitution specifies that the General Assembly shall meet annually, its regular session is a maximum of 60 days long in even-numbered years and 30 days long in odd-numbered years, unless extended by a two-thirds vote of both houses.
The governor of Virginia may convene a special session of the General Assembly "when, in his opinion, the interest of the Commonwealth may require" and must convene a special session "upon the application of two-thirds of the members elected to each house". Article II, section 6 on apportionment states, "Members of the... Senate and of the House of Delegates of the General Assembly shall be elected from electoral districts established by the General Assembly; every electoral district shall be composed of contiguous and compact territory and shall be so constituted as to give, as nearly as is practicable, representation in proportion to the population of the district." The Redistricting Coalition of Virginia proposes either an independent commission or a bipartisan commission, not polarized. Member organizations include the League of Women Voters of Virginia, AARP of Virginia, OneVirginia2021, the Virginia Chamber of Commerce and Virginia Organizing. Governor Bob McDonnell's Independent Bipartisan Advisory Commission on Redistricting for the Commonwealth of Virginia made its report on April 1, 2011.
It made two recommendations for each state legislative house that showed maps of districts more compact and contiguous than those adopted by the General Assembly. In 2011, the Virginia College and University Redistricting Competition was organized by Professors Michael McDonald of George Mason University and Quentin Kidd of Christopher Newport University. About 150 students on sixteen teams from thirteen schools submitted plans for legislative and U. S. Congressional Districts, they created districts more compact than the General Assembly's efforts. The "Division 1" maps conformed with the Governor's Executive Order, did not address electoral competition or representational fairness. In addition to the criteria of contiguity, the federal Voting Rights Act and communities of interest in the existing city and county boundaries, "Division 2" maps in the competition did incorporate considerations of electoral competition and representational fairness. Judges for the cash award prizes were Thomas Mann of the Brookings Institution and Norman Ornstein of the American Enterprise Institute.
In January 2015, Republican State Senator Jill Holtzman Vogel of Winchester and Democratic State Senator Louise Lucas of Portsmouth sponsored a Senate Joint Resolution to establish additional criteria for the Virginia Redistricting Commission of four identified members of political parties, three other independent public officials. The criteria began with respecting existing political boundaries
Ellen Anderson Gholson Glasgow was an American novelist who won the Pulitzer Prize for the Novel in 1942. A lifelong Virginian who published 20 books including seven novels which sold well as well as gained critical acclaim, Glasgow portrayed the changing world of the contemporary South. Born in Richmond, Virginia on April 22, 1874 to Anne Jane Gholson, her husband Francis Thomas Glasgow, the young Glasgow developed differently from other women of her aristocratic class. Due to poor health, Glasgow was educated at home in Richmond, receiving the equivalent of a high school degree, although she read in philosophy and political theory, as well as European and British literature, her parents married on July 14, 1853, survived the American Civil War, would have ten children together, of whom Ellen would be the next to youngest. Her mother, Anne Gholson, was inclined to what was called "nervous invalidism". Glasgow dealt with "nervous invalidism" throughout her life. Ellen Glasgow thought her father unfeeling.
However, some of her more admirable characters reflect a Scots-Calvinist background like his and a similar "iron vein of Presbyterianism." Ellen Glasgow spent many summers at her family's Louisa County, Virginia estate, the historic Jerdone Castle plantation, which her father bought in 1879, would use that setting in her writings. Her paternal great-grandfather, Arthur Glasgow, had emigrated with his brothers in 1776 from Scotland to the then-large and frontier Augusta County, Virginia, her father, Francis Thomas Glasgow, was raised in what had become Rockbridge County, graduated from Washington College in 1847, would manage the Tredegar Iron Works. Those had been bought in 1848 by Glasgow's maternal uncle, Joseph Reid Anderson, who had graduated fourth in his class of 49 from West Point in 1836 and would introduce the use of enslaved labor at the ironworks to accompany skilled white workers. Anderson was a major business and political figure in Richmond, who supported the Confederate States of America, joined the Army of Northern Virginia, attained the rank of general.
However, because the Tredegar Ironworks produced munitions crucial to the Confederate cause, General Robert E. Lee asked General Anderson to return and manage the Tredegar Ironworks rather than lead armies in the field, her mother was Anne Jane Gholson, born to William Yates Gholson and Martha Anne Jane Taylor at Needham plantation in Cumberland County, Virginia. Her grandparents were Congressman Thomas Gholson, Jr. and Anne Yates, who descended from Rev. William Yates, the College of William & Mary's fifth president. Gholson was descended from William Randolph, a prominent colonist and land owner in the Commonwealth of Virginia, he and his wife, Mary Isham, were sometimes referred to as the "Eve" of Virginia. During more than four decades of literary work, Glasgow published 20 novels, a collection of poems, a book of short stories, a book of literary criticism, her first novel, The Descendant was written in secret and published anonymously when she was 24 years old. She destroyed part of the manuscript after her mother died in 1893.
Publication was further delayed because her brother-in-law and intellectual mentor, George McCormack, died the following year. Thus Glasgow completed her novel in 1895, it features an emancipated heroine. Although it was published anonymously, her authorship became well known the following year, when her second novel, Phases of an Inferior Planet, announced on its title page, "by Ellen Glasgow, author of The Descendant." By the time The Descendant was in print, Glasgow had finished Phases of an Inferior Planet. The novel portrays the demise of a marriage and focuses on "the spirituality of female friendship." Critics found the story to be "sodden with hopelessness all the way though," but "excellently told." Glasgow stated that her third novel, The Voice of People was an objective view of the poor-white farmer in politics. The hero is a young Southerner who, having a genius for politics, rises above the masses and falls in love with a higher class girl, her next novel, The Battle-Ground, sold over 21,000 copies in the first two weeks after publication.
It depicts the South before and during the Civil War and was hailed as "the first and best realistic treatment of the war from the southern point of view."The Deliverance and her previous novel, The Battle-Ground, were written during her affair with Gerald B. They "are the only early books in which Glasgow's hero are united" by the novels' ends. Glasgow's next four novels were written in what she considered her "earlier manner" and received mixed reviews; the Wheel of Life sold moderately well based on the success of The Descendant. Despite its commercial success, reviewers found the book disappointing. Set in New York, the story tells of domestic unhappiness and tangled love affairs, it was unfavorably compared to Edith Wharton's House of Mirth, published that same year. Most critics recommended that Glasgow "stick to the South." Glasgow regarded the novel as a failure. The Ancient Law portrayed white factory workers in the Virginia textile industry, analyzes the rise of industrial capitalism and its corresponding social ills.
Critics considered the book overly melodramatic. With The Romance of a Plain Man and The Miller of Old Church Glasgow began concentrating on gender traditions.