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Libya

Libya the State of Libya, is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad to the south, Niger to the southwest, Algeria to the west, Tunisia to the northwest. The sovereign state is made of three historical regions: Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. With an area of 1.8 million square kilometres, Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, is the 16th largest country in the world. Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world; the largest city and capital, Tripoli, is located in western Libya and contains over one million of Libya's six million people. The second-largest city is Benghazi, located in eastern Libya; the Latin name Libya is based on the name the region west of the Nile used by the Ancient Greeks and Romans for all of North Africa, was first adopted during the Italian colonization since 1911. Libya has been inhabited by Berbers since the late Bronze Age as descendants from Iberomaurusian and Capsian cultures.

The Phoenicians established trading posts in western Libya, ancient Greek colonists established city-states in eastern Libya. Libya was variously ruled by Carthaginians, Persians and Greeks before becoming a part of the Roman Empire. Libya was an early centre of Christianity. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area of Libya was occupied by the Vandals until the 7th century, when invasions brought Islam to the region. In the 16th century, the Spanish Empire and the Knights of St John occupied Tripoli, until Ottoman rule began in 1551. Libya was involved in the Barbary Wars of the 19th centuries. Ottoman rule continued until the Italian occupation of Libya resulted in the establishment of two colonies, Italian Tripolitania and Italian Cyrenaica, until they were unified in the Italian Libya colony from 1934 to 1947. During the Second World War, Libya was an important area of warfare in the North African Campaign; the Italian population went into decline. Libya became independent as a kingdom in 1951.

A military coup in 1969 overthrew King Idris I. The "bloodless" coup leader Muammar Gaddafi ruled the country from 1969 and the Libyan Cultural Revolution in 1973 until he was overthrown and killed in the 2011 Libyan Civil War. Two authorities claimed to govern Libya: the Council of Deputies in Tobruk and the 2014 General National Congress in Tripoli, which considered itself the continuation of the General National Congress, elected in 2012. After UN-led peace talks between the Tobruk and Tripoli governments, a unified interim UN-backed Government of National Accord was established in 2015, the GNC disbanded to support it. Since a second civil war has broken out, with parts of Libya split between the Tobruk and Tripoli-based governments, as well as various tribal and Islamist militias; as of July 2017, talks are still ongoing between the GNA and the Tobruk-based authorities to end the strife and unify the divided establishments of the state, including the Libyan National Army and the Central Bank of Libya.

Libya is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Arab League, the OIC and OPEC. The country's official religion is Islam, with 96.6% of the Libyan population being Sunni Muslims. The Latin name Libya referred to the region west of the Nile corresponding to its central location in North Africa visited by many Mediterranean cultures which referred to its original inhabitants as the "Libúē." It came to be used, for the continent of Africa in general. The name was revived in 1934 for Italian Libya, from the ancient Greek Λιβύη, it was intended to supplant terms applied to Ottoman Tripolitania, the coastal region of what is today Libya having been ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911, as the Eyalet of Tripolitania. The name "Libya" was brought back into use in 1903 by Italian geographer Federico Minutilli. Libya gained independence in 1951 as the United Libyan Kingdom, changing its name to the Kingdom of Libya "Libyan Kingdom" in 1963. Following a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi in 1969, the name of the state was changed to the Libyan Arab Republic.

The official name was "Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" from 1977 to 1986, "Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" from 1986 to 2011. The National Transitional Council, established in 2011, referred to the state as "Libya"; the UN formally recognized the country as "Libya" in September 2011, based on a request from the Permanent Mission of Libya citing the Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration of 3 August 2011. In November 2011, the ISO 3166-1 was altered to reflect the new country name "Libya" in English, "Libye" in French. In December 2017 the Permanent Mission of Libya to the United Nations informed the United Nations that the country's official name was henceforth the "State of Libya"; the coastal plain of Libya was inhabited by Neolithic peoples from as early as 8000 BC. The Afroasiatic ancestors of the Berber people are assumed to have spread into the area by the Late Bronze Age; the earliest known name of such

Internet censorship and surveillance in the Americas

This list of Internet censorship and surveillance in the Americas provides information on the types and levels of Internet censorship and surveillance, occurring in countries in the Americas. Detailed country by country information on Internet censorship and surveillance is provided in the Freedom on the Net reports from Freedom House, by the OpenNet Initiative, by Reporters Without Borders, in the Country Reports on Human Rights Practices from the U. S. State Department Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, Labor; the ratings produced by several of these organizations are summarized below as well as in the Censorship by country article. The level of Internet censorship and surveillance in a country is classified in one of the four categories: pervasive, substantial and little or no censorship or surveillance; the classifications are based on the classifications and ratings from the Freedom on the Net reports by Freedom House supplemented with information from the OpenNet Initiative, Reporters Without Borders, the Country Reports on Human Rights Practices by the U.

S. State Department Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, Labor. Pervasive censorship or surveillance: A country is classified as engaged in pervasive censorship or surveillance when it censors political and other content, is engaged in mass surveillance of the Internet, retaliates against citizens who circumvent censorship or surveillance with imprisonment or other sanctions. A country is included in the "pervasive" category when it: is rated as "not free" with a total score of 71 to 100 in the Freedom on the Net report from Freedom House, is rated "not free" in FOTN or is not rated in FOTN and is included on the "Internet enemies" list from Reporters Without Borders, or when the OpenNet Initiative categorizes the level of Internet filtering as pervasive in any of the four areas for which they test. Substantial censorship or surveillance: Countries included in this classification are engaged in substantial Internet censorship and surveillance; this includes countries where a number of categories are subject to a medium level of filtering or many categories are subject to a low level of filtering.

A country is included in the "substantial" category when it: is not included in the "pervasive" category, is rated as "not free" in the Freedom on the Net report from Freedom House, or is rated "partly free" or is not rated in FOTN, is included on the "Internet enemies" list from Reporters Without Borders, or when the OpenNet Initiative categorizes the level of Internet filtering as pervasive or substantial in any of the four areas for which they test. Selective censorship or surveillance: Countries included in this classification were found to practice selective Internet censorship and surveillance; this includes countries where a small number of specific sites are blocked or censorship targets a small number of categories or issues. A country is included in the "selective" category when it: is not included in the "pervasive" or "substantial" categories, is rated as "partly free" in the Freedom on the Net report from Freedom House, or is included on the "Internet enemies" list from Reporters Without Borders, or is not rated in FOTN and the OpenNet Initiative categorizes the level of Internet filtering as selective in any of the four areas for which they test.

Little or no censorship or surveillance: A country is included in the "little or no censorship or surveillance" category when it is not included in the "pervasive", "substantial" or "selective" categories. This classification includes countries that are listed as "free" on the Freedom on the Net list from Freedom House, are not listed as "Enemies of the Internet" by Reporters Without Borders, for which no evidence of Internet filtering was found by the OpenNet Initiative in any of the four areas for which they test. Other controls such as voluntary filtering, self-censorship, other types of public or private action to limit child pornography, hate speech, defamation, or theft of intellectual property exist; the various nation sections, include ratings by ONI, RWB, etc. Rated "not free" in Freedom on the Net by Freedom House in 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018. Listed as an Internet enemy by RWB in 2011. Not categorized by ONI due to lack of data. Cuba has the lowest ratio of computers per inhabitant in Latin America, the lowest internet access ratio of all the Western hemisphere.

Citizens have to use government controlled "access points", where their activity is monitored through IP blocking, keyword filtering and browsing history checking. The government cites its citizens' access to internet services are limited due to high costs and the American embargo, but there are reports concerning the will of the government to control access to uncensored information both from and to the outer world; the Cuban government continues to imprison independent journalists for contributing reports through the Internet to web sites outside of Cuba. With the lack of precise figures due to the secretive nature of the regime, testimonials from independent bloggers and international watchers support the view that it is difficult for most people to access the web and that harsh punishments for individuals that do not follow government policies are the norm; the Committee to Protect Journalists has pointed to Cuba as one of the ten most censored countries around the world. Rated "partly free" by Freedom House

A Study in Scarlet (1914 British film)

A Study in Scarlet is a 1914 British silent drama film directed by George Pearson and starring James Bragington making him the first English actor to portray Holmes on film. It is considered to be lost. An American film of the same name was released in the U. S. on the following day, 29 December 1914. As of 2014, the film is missing from the BFI National Archive, is listed as one of the British Film Institute's "75 Most Wanted" lost films. Ward Lock & Co, original publishers of A Study in Scarlet in the November 1887 edition of Beeton's Christmas Annual, had the comprehensive rights to the book; the company sold the film rights to G. B. Samuelson and his film company. Samuelson's plans for the film were ambitious with outdoor scenes filmed at Cheddar Gorge in Cheddar, England doubling for Utah in the United States. James Bragington was an employee of Samuelson's company and was cast purely due to his resemblance to Sidney Paget's famous illustrations of Holmes. Author Alan Barnes theorizes that Bragington may have been the first actor to wear a deerstalker on screen.

The success of the film led Samuelson to make another Sherlock Holmes film two years The Valley of Fear. James Bragington as Sherlock Holmes Fred Paul as Jefferson Hope Agnes Glynne as Lucy Ferrier Henry Paulo as John Ferrier James Le Fre as Father Winifred Pearson as Lucy, a Child List of lost films A Study in Scarlet on IMDb British Film Institute entry, including extensive notes