The Patent Rolls are a series of administrative records compiled in the English and United Kingdom Chancery, running from 1201 to the present day. The patent rolls comprise a register of the letters patent issued by the Crown, sealed "open" with the Great Seal pendent, expressing the sovereign's will on a wide range of matters of public interest, including – but not restricted to – grants of official positions, commissions and pardons, issued both to individuals and to corporations; the rolls were started under the Chancellorship of Hubert Walter. The texts of letters patent were copied onto sheets of parchment, which were stitched together into long rolls to form a roll for each year; as the volume of business grew, it became necessary to compile more than one roll for each year. The most solemn grants of lands and privileges were issued, not as letters patent, but as charters, were entered on the separate series of Charter Rolls; this series was discontinued in 1516, all charters issued thereafter for grants of titles, were entered on the patent rolls.
The patent rolls run in an unbroken series from 1201 to the present day, with a small number of gaps, notably during the English Civil War and Interregnum. They are written exclusively in Latin in the early period. English was used in the 16th century, but only during the Commonwealth and after 1733 are all the entries in English; the medieval rolls were stored in the Tower of London, the principal repository for Chancery archives. From the end of the 14th century, it became customary for the Master of the Rolls to house the more recent rolls, for convenience of access, in the Rolls Chapel, prior to their permanent transfer to the Tower; these transfers ceased at the end of the 15th century, so the Rolls Chapel became the permanent place of deposit for all rolls from the reign of Richard III onwards. The rolls from both sites were reunited at the newly built Public Record Office in the 1850s, they are now held at the National Archives, London, where their class reference is C 66; as of 2016, there are 5,790 rolls in the series, dating from 1201 to 2012.
Letters patent were issued to grant monopolies over particular industries to individuals with new techniques, these grants were copied onto the patent rolls. The system became subject to abuse in the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I, was regulated by the Statute of Monopolies of 1624, the first statutory expression of English patent law. In 1853, responsibility for patents of invention was transferred to the newly established Patent Office, they ceased to be registered on the patent rolls. All the medieval and early modern rolls to 1625 have been published in some form, although editorial policies and formats have varied. 1201–1216. The rolls for these years were published as abbreviated Latin texts by the Record Commission in 1835, in a large folio volume entitled Rotuli Litterarum Patentium in Turri Londinensi asservati, edited by Thomas Duffus Hardy, abbreviated as Pat. Roll. T. L; the publication employed a special "record type" font to produce a near-facsimile of the manuscripts.1216–1232.
The rolls for these years were published as full Latin texts in two volumes published in 1901 and 1903 entitled Patent Rolls.1232–1509. The post-1232 rolls have not been in calendar form. Between 1891 and 1916, 53 volumes of calendars were published, under the title Calendar of Patent Rolls, covering the years 1232 to 1509.1509–1547. The rolls for the reign of Henry VIII have not been published in a stand-alone form, their contents were, incorporated into the series Letters and Papers of the Reign of Henry VIII, published between 1862 and 1932.1547–1582. The rolls for the years 1547–1582 were published in calendar form in 19 volumes, under the title Calendar of Patent Rolls, between 1924 and 1986.1582–1603. In the late 1980s the Public Record Office suspended its programme of scholarly publication, the initiative passed to the List and Index Society. Between 1990 and 1994 the Society published five volumes of "draft" calendars covering the years 1584–1589. Calendars and indexes of the rolls for the reign of James VI and I were published by the List and Index Society in 14 volumes between 1974 and 1989.
These are facsimiles of contemporary 17th-century finding aids. Although of value, they do not meet modern scholarly standards of accuracy. Commissions of gaol delivery and assize were entered on the backs of the rolls: these entries have not been included in the published editions. Hardy's 1835 edition of the rolls for 1201–1216 is available online in a non-searchable form; the published texts and calendars from 1216 to 1452 have been made available online in a searchable form by the University of Iowa. "Calendar of Patent Rolls". University of Iowa Libraries. 2003. Retrieved 19 June 2015. "Royal grants in letters patent and charters from 1199". Research Guides; the National Archives. Retrieved 19 June 2015. Crump, J. J. "The Itinerary of King John & the Rotuli Litterarum Patentium". Itinerary of King John Project. Retrieved 19 June 2015. Timeline and Map interface to the scanned full text of the earliest patent rolls the Rotuli Litterarum Patentium and the Itinerary of King John, edited
Cooling Castle is a 14th-century quadrangular castle in the village of Cooling, Kent on the Hoo Peninsula about 6 miles north of Rochester. It was built in the 1380s by the Cobham family, the local lords of the manor, to guard the area against French raids into the Thames Estuary; the castle has an unusual layout, comprising two walled wards of unequal size next to each other, surrounded by moats and ditches. It was the earliest English castle designed for the use of gunpowder weapons by its defenders. Despite this distinction, the use of gunpowder weapons against the castle proved devastating, it was captured after only eight hours when Sir Thomas Wyatt besieged it in January 1554 during his unsuccessful rebellion against Queen Mary. His attack badly damaged the castle, it was subsequently abandoned and allowed to fall into disrepair. A farmhouse and outbuildings were constructed among the ruins a century later. Today the farmhouse is the home of the musician Jools Holland, while the nearby barn is used as a wedding venue.
The castle was built on the south bank of the Thames, although the shoreline has since receded as a result of land reclamation. It was constructed by John Cobham, whose family had acquired the manor of Cooling in the mid-13th century. In 1379, during the second phase of the Hundred Years' War, a French raid devastated towns and villages along the Thames Estuary. Cobham appealed to the Crown for licence to fortify his manor and received permission in February 1380; the building work was completed by 1385. Surviving records indicate that the prominent gatehouse was built by local labour under several master masons, including Thomas Crompe, William Sharnall and Thomas Wrek, with the king's master mason Henry Yevele taking a supervisory role; the castle is of particular importance as the earliest English castle designed for the use of gunpowder weapons. Lord Cobham's instructions to his masons include his requirement for "x arket holes de iii peez longour et tout saunz croys."Cobham fell out of the king's favour shortly after the castle was completed and he was exiled for a while, but was able to return and died at Cooling in 1408.
His granddaughter Joan married four times. Her last husband, Sir John Oldcastle, was executed in 1417 for his role in the Lollard heresy; the Cobham title remained intact but the castle passed to other families down the female line. Cooling Castle saw action only once, in 1554, when it was attacked by the forces of the Kentish landowner Sir Thomas Wyatt during his rebellion against Queen Mary's engagement to King Philip II of Spain. In an unsuccessful bid to overthrow the unpopular queen and place Princess Elizabeth on the throne, he raised an army of some 4,000 men and captured two cannons from the army of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, in an encounter at Strood, a few miles south of Cooling, it is unclear why, while ostensibly marching on London, he attacked Cooling as the detour gave Mary more time to prepare her own defences. There may have been a personal motive for Wyatt; the defenders were forced to surrender on 30 January 1554 after only eight hours of siege and bombardment which badly damaged the castle.
According to contemporary reports, Cobham had just eight men armed with "only four or five handguns, four pikes and some blakbylls" to defend the castle. Wyatt was defeated and executed for his treason. Cobham and his son were imprisoned in the Tower of London on suspicion of having deliberately failed to defend the castle, but were soon released and allowed to return to their estates; the castle was never rebuilt after being ruined by Wyatt's bombardment. The castle remained in the Cobhams' ownership until the 18th century. Between 1650 and 1670, Sir Thomas Whitmore built a farmhouse within the castle's outer ward, which has undergone many alterations over the years, its facade was reworked in the 20th century. An L-shaped range of outbuildings was constructed in the outer ward, including a timber-framed barn, built in the 17th century. At some point in the 18th or 19th centuries, part of the inner ward was landscaped to create a garden incorporating the ruins; the ownership of the castle is split three ways.
The castle and its setting was listed as a Scheduled monument in 1946, the Gatehouse and the Inner Ward were separately listed as Grade I in 1966, while the barn was Grade II listed in 1986. Cooling Castle is listed on English Heritage's "Heritage at Risk" register due to the poor condition of its fabric; the castle can be viewed from the road, but is not open to the public. Cooling Castle has an unusual layout, dictated by the marshy ground on which it was constructed. Most quadrangular castles were constructed on a single moated island within, a system of inner wards or courtyards. Cooling Castle differed in that within its 8 acre perimeter it had two wards of different sizes arranged side by side; each stood on a mound within a figure of eight-shaped system of ditches. The inner ward, in the western part of the castle, appears to have been surrounded by a moat that may have been up to 20 metres wide; the larger outer ward, in the eastern part of the castle
Wales in the Middle Ages
Wales in the Middle Ages covers the history of the region, now called Wales, from the departure of the Romans in the early fifth century, until the annexation of Wales into the Kingdom of England in the early sixteenth century. When the Roman garrison of Britain was withdrawn in 410, the various British states were left self-governing. Evidence for a continuing Roman influence after the departure of the Roman legions is provided by an inscribed stone from Gwynedd dated between the late 5th and mid-6th centuries commemorating a certain Cantiorix, described as a citizen of Gwynedd and a cousin of Maglos the magistrate. There was considerable Irish colonisation in Dyfed, where there are many stones with ogham inscriptions. Wales had become Christian under the Romans, the'age of the saints' was marked by the establishment of monastic settlements throughout the country, by religious leaders such as Saint David and Saint Teilo. One of the reasons for the Roman withdrawal was the pressure put upon the empire's military resources by the incursion of barbarian tribes from the east.
These tribes, including the Angles and Saxons, who became the English, were unable to make inroads into Wales except along the Severn Valley as far as Llanidloes. However they conquered eastern and southern Britain. At the Battle of Chester in 616, the forces of Powys and other British kingdoms were defeated by the Northumbrians under Æthelfrith, with king Selyf ap Cynan among the dead, it has been suggested that this battle severed the land connection between Wales and the kingdoms of the Hen Ogledd, the Brittonic-speaking regions of what is now southern Scotland and northern England, including Rheged, Strathclyde and Gododdin, where Old Welsh was spoken. From the 8th century on, Wales was by far the largest of the three remnant Brittonic areas in Britain, the other two being the Hen Ogledd and Cornwall. Wales was divided into a number of separate kingdoms, the largest of these being Gwynedd in northwest Wales and Powys in the east. Gwynedd was the most powerful of these kingdoms in the 6th and 7th centuries, under rulers such as Maelgwn Gwynedd and Cadwallon ap Cadfan who in alliance with Penda of Mercia was able to lead his armies as far as the Kingdom of Northumbria and control it for a period.
Following Cadwallon's death in battle the following year, his successor Cadafael Cadomedd ap Cynfeddw allied himself with Penda against Northumbria but thereafter Gwynedd, like the other Welsh kingdoms, was engaged in defensive warfare against the growing power of Mercia. Powys as the easternmost of the major kingdoms of Wales came under the most pressure from the English in Cheshire and Herefordshire; this kingdom extended east into areas now in England, its ancient capital, has been variously identified as modern Shrewsbury or a site north of Baschurch. These areas were lost to the kingdom of Mercia; the construction of the earthwork known as Offa's Dyke may have marked an agreed border. For a single man to rule the whole country during this period was rare; this is ascribed to the inheritance system practised in Wales. All sons received an equal share of their father's property, resulting in the division of territories. However, the Welsh laws prescribe this system of division for land in general, not for kingdoms, where there is provision for an edling to the kingdom to be chosen by the king.
Any son, legitimate or illegitimate, could be chosen as edling and there were disappointed candidates prepared to challenge the chosen heir. The first to rule a considerable part of Wales was Rhodri the Great king of Gwynedd during the 9th century, able to extend his rule to Powys and Ceredigion. On his death his realms were divided between his sons. Rhodri's grandson, Hywel Dda, formed the kingdom of Deheubarth by joining smaller kingdoms in the southwest and had extended his rule to most of Wales by 942, he is traditionally associated with the codification of Welsh law at a council which he called at Whitland, the laws from on being called the "Laws of Hywel". Hywel followed a policy of peace with the English. On his death in 949 his sons were able to keep control of Deheubarth but lost Gwynedd to the traditional dynasty of this kingdom. Wales was now coming under increasing attack by Vikings Danish raids in the period between 950 and 1000. According to the chronicle Brut y Tywysogion, Godfrey Haroldson carried off two thousand captives from Anglesey in 987, the king of Gwynedd, Maredudd ab Owain is reported to have redeemed many of his subjects from slavery by paying the Danes a large ransom.
Gruffydd ap Llywelyn was the only ruler to be able to unite the Welsh kingdoms under his rule. King of Gwynedd, by 1055 he was ruler of all of Wales and had annexed parts of England around the border. However, he was killed by his own men, his territories were again divided into the traditional kingdoms. At the time of the Norman conquest of England in 1066, the dominant ruler in Wales was Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, king of Gwynedd and Powys; the initial Norman successes were in the south, where William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford overran the Kingdom of Gwent before 1070. By 1074 the forces of the Earl of Shrewsbury were ravaging Deheubarth; the killing of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn in 1075 led to civil war and gave the Normans an opportunity to seize lands in northern Wales. In 1081, Gruffudd ap Cynan, who had just won the throne of Gwynedd from Trahaearn ap Caradog at the Battle of Mynydd Carn, was en
In England, a county palatine or palatinate was an area ruled by a hereditary nobleman enjoying special authority and autonomy from the rest of a kingdom or empire. The name derives from the Latin adjective palātīnus, "relating to the palace", from the noun palātium, "palace", it thus implies the exercise of a quasi-royal prerogative within a county, to say a jurisdiction ruled by an earl, the English equivalent of a count. A duchy palatine is similar but is ruled over by a duke, a nobleman of higher precedence than an earl or count; the nobleman swore allegiance to the king yet had the power to rule the county independently of the king. It should therefore be distinguished from the feudal barony, held from the king, which possessed no such independent authority. Rulers of counties palatine did however create their own feudal baronies, to be held directly from them in capite, such as the Barony of Halton. County palatine jurisdictions were created in England under the rule of the Norman dynasty.
On continental Europe, they have an earlier date. In general, when a palatine-type autonomy was granted to a lord by the sovereign, it was in a district on the periphery of the kingdom, at a time when the district was at risk from disloyal armed insurgents who could retreat beyond the borders and re-enter. For the English sovereign in Norman times this applied to northern England and Ireland; as the authority granted was hereditary, some counties palatine survived well past the end of the feudal period. Palatinates emerged in England in the decades following the Norman conquest, as various earls or bishops were granted palatine powers, i.e. powers of a sort elsewhere exercised by the king. In some places this may have been in part a defensive measure, enabling local authorities to organise the defence of vulnerable frontier areas at their own discretion, avoiding the delays involved in seeking decisions from court and removing obstructions to the coordinated direction of local resources at the discretion of a single official.
However, palatine powers were granted over areas such as the Isle of Ely which were not near any frontier. Palatine powers over Cheshire were acquired by the Earls of Chester, a title which has since 1254 been reserved for the heir apparent to the throne. Chester had its own parliament, consisting of barons of the county, was not represented in Parliament until 1543, while it retained some of its special privileges until 1830. Exceptional powers were granted to the Bishops of Durham, who during the aftermath of the Norman conquest had been put in charge of secular administration in what became County Durham; the autonomous power exercised by these "prince-bishops" over the County Palatine of Durham was enduring: Durham did not gain parliamentary representation until 1654, while the bishops of Durham retained their temporal jurisdiction until 1836. The bishop's mitre which crowns the bishop of Durham's coat of arms is encircled with a gold coronet, otherwise used only by dukes, reflecting his historic dignity as a palatine earl.
Palatine powers over Lancashire were conferred on the first Duke of Lancaster in 1351, at the same time as his promotion from the status of earl. This was only the second dukedom created in England, following that of Cornwall in 1337, which became associated with palatine powers; the dukedom was united with the Crown on the accession of Henry IV in 1399, but the vast estates of the Duchy of Lancaster were never assimilated into the Crown Estate, continuing today to be separately administered for the monarch as Duke of Lancaster. The rights exercised through the Duchy rather than the Crown included its palatine powers over Lancashire, the last of which were revoked only in 1873. In the county palatine of Lancaster, the loyal toast is to "the Queen, Duke of Lancaster"; the king's writs did not run in these three palatine counties until the nineteenth century and, until the 1970s, Lancashire and Durham had their own courts of chancery. The appeal against a decision of the county court of a county palatine had, in the first instance, to be to the court of common of that county palatine.
There are two kings in England, the lord king of England wearing a crown and the lord bishop of Durham wearing a mitre in place of a crown… At various times in history the following areas had palatinate status: Shropshire, the Isle of Ely, Hexhamshire in Northumberland, and, in Wales, the Earldom of Pembroke. Although not formally categorised as a palatinate, in Cornwall many of the rights associated with palatinates were conferred on the Duke of Cornwall, a title created in 1337 and always held by the heir apparent to the throne. In the history of Wales in the Norman era, the term most used is Marcher Lord, similar to, but not the same as, a Palatine Lord. A number of Palatine jurisdictions were created in Wales. There were several palatine districts in Ireland of which the most notable were those of the Earls of Desmond and the Earls of Ormond in County Tipperary; the latter continued in legal existence until the County Palatine of Tipperary Act 1715. In Scotland, the earldom of Strathearn was identified as a county palatine in the fourteenth century, although the title of Earl of Strathearn has been merged with the crown in subsequent centuries and there is little indication that the status of Strathearn differed in practice from other Scottish earldoms.
In the colonies, the historic Province of Avalon in Newfoundland was gr
England in the Middle Ages
England in the Middle Ages concerns the history of England during the medieval period, from the end of the 5th century through to the start of the Early Modern period in 1485. When England emerged from the collapse of the Roman Empire, the economy was in tatters and many of the towns abandoned. After several centuries of Germanic immigration, new identities and cultures began to emerge, developing into kingdoms that competed for power. A rich artistic culture flourished under the Anglo-Saxons, producing epic poems such as Beowulf and sophisticated metalwork; the Anglo-Saxons converted to Christianity in the 7th century and a network of monasteries and convents was built across England. In the 8th and 9th centuries England faced fierce Viking attacks, the fighting lasted for many decades establishing Wessex as the most powerful kingdom and promoting the growth of an English identity. Despite repeated crises of succession and a Danish seizure of power at the start of the 11th century it can be argued that by the 1060s England was a powerful, centralised state with a strong military and successful economy.
The Norman invasion of England in 1066 led to the defeat and replacement of the Anglo-Saxon elite with Norman and French nobles and their supporters. William the Conqueror and his successors took over the existing state system, repressing local revolts and controlling the population through a network of castles; the new rulers introduced a feudal approach to governing England, eradicating the practice of slavery but creating a much wider body of unfree labourers called serfs. The position of women in society changed as laws regarding lordship shifted. England's population more than doubled during the 12th and 13th centuries, fuelling an expansion of the towns and trade, helped by warmer temperatures across Northern Europe. A new wave of monasteries and friaries were established, while ecclesiastical reforms led to tensions between successive kings and archbishops. Despite developments in England's governance and legal system, infighting between the Anglo-Norman elite resulted in multiple civil wars and the loss of Normandy.
The 14th century in England saw the Great Famine and the Black Death, catastrophic events that killed around half of England's population, throwing the economy into chaos and undermining the old political order. Social unrest followed, resulting in the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, while the changes in the economy resulted in the emergence of a new class of gentry, the nobility began to exercise power through a system termed bastard feudalism. Nearly 1,500 villages were deserted by their inhabitants and many men and women sought new opportunities in the towns and cities. New technologies were introduced, England produced some of the great medieval philosophers and natural scientists. English kings in the 14th and 15th centuries laid claim to the French throne, resulting in the Hundred Years' War. At times England enjoyed huge military success, with the economy buoyed by profits from the international wool and cloth trade, but by 1450 the country was in crisis, facing military failure in France and an ongoing recession.
More social unrest broke out, followed by the Wars of the Roses, fought between rival factions of the English nobility. Henry VII's victory in 1485 conventionally marks the end of the Middle Ages in England and the start of the Early Modern period. At the start of the Middle Ages, England was a part of Britannia, a former province of the Roman Empire; the local economy had once been dominated by imperial Roman spending on a large military establishment, which in turn helped to support a complex network of towns and villas. At the end of the 4th century, Roman forces had been withdrawn, this economy collapsed. Germanic immigrants began to arrive in increasing numbers during the 5th century, establishing small farms and settlements, their language, Old English, swiftly spread as people switched from British Celtic and British Latin to the language of this new elite. New political and social identities emerged, including an Anglian culture in the east of England and a Saxon culture in the south, with local groups establishing regiones, small polities ruled over by powerful families and individuals.
By the 7th century, some rulers, including those of Wessex, East Anglia and Kent, had begun to term themselves kings, living in villae regales, royal centres, collecting tribute from the surrounding regiones. In the 7th century, the Kingdom of Mercia rose to prominence under the leadership of King Penda. Mercia invaded neighbouring lands until it loosely controlled around 50 regiones covering much of England. Mercia and the remaining kingdoms, led by their warrior elites, continued to compete for territory throughout the 8th century. Massive earthworks, such as the defensive dyke built by Offa of Mercia, helped to defend key frontiers and towns. In 789, the first Scandinavian raids on England began. Mercia and Northumbria fell in 875 and 876, Alfred of Wessex was driven into internal exile in 878. However, in the same year Alfred won a decisive victory against the Danes at the Battle of Edington, he exploited the fear of the Viking threat to raise large numbers of men and using a network of defended towns called burhs to defend his territory and mobilise royal resources.
Suppressing internal opposition to his rule, Alfred contained the invaders within a region known as the Danelaw. Under his son, Edward the Elder, his grandson, Æthelstan, Wessex expanded further north into Mercia and the Danelaw, by the 950s and the reigns of Eadred a
The Channel Islands are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. They include two Crown dependencies: the Bailiwick of Jersey, the largest of the islands, they are considered the remnants of the Duchy of Normandy and, although they are not part of the United Kingdom, the UK is responsible for the defence and international relations of the islands. The Crown dependencies are not members of the European Union, they have a total population of about 164,541, the bailiwicks' capitals, Saint Helier and Saint Peter Port, have populations of 33,500 and 18,207, respectively. The total area of the islands is 198 km2. "Channel Islands" is a geographical term, not a political unit. The two bailiwicks have been administered separately since the late 13th century; each has its own independent laws and representative bodies. Any institution common to both is the exception rather than the rule; the Bailiwick of Guernsey is divided into three jurisdictions – Guernsey and Sark – each with its own legislature.
Although there are a few pan-island institutions, these tend to be established structurally as equal projects between Guernsey and Jersey. Otherwise, entities proclaiming membership of both Guernsey and Jersey might in fact be from one bailiwick only, for instance the Channel Islands Securities Exchange is in Saint Peter Port; the term "Channel Islands" began to be used around 1830 first by the Royal Navy as a collective name for the islands. The term refers only the archipelago to the west of the Cotentin Peninsula; the Isle of Wight, for example, is not a "Channel Island". The two major islands are Guernsey, they make up 92 % of the area. The permanently inhabited islands of the Channel Islands and their population and area are: Jersey 100,080 Guernsey 63,026 Alderney 2,000 Sark 600 Herm 60 Jethou 3 Brecqhou There are several uninhabited islets. Four are part of the Bailiwick of Jersey: The Minquiers Écréhous Les Dirouilles Les Pierres de Lecq These lie off Alderney: Burhou Casquets Ortac RenonquetThese lie off Guernsey: Caquorobert Crevichon Grande Amfroque Les Houmets Lihou The names of the larger islands in the archipelago in general have the -ey suffix, whilst those of the smaller ones have the -hou suffix.
These are believed to be from holmr. The Chausey Islands south of Jersey are not included in the geographical definition of the Channel Islands but are described in English as'French Channel Islands' in view of their French jurisdiction, they were linked to the Duchy of Normandy, but they are part of the French territory along with continental Normandy, not part of the British Isles or of the Channel Islands in a political sense. They are an incorporated part of the commune of Granville. While they are popular with visitors from France, Channel Islanders visit them as there are no direct transport links from the other islands. In official Jersey French, the islands are called'Îles de la Manche', while in France, the term'Îles Anglo-normandes' is used to refer to the British'Channel Islands' in contrast to other islands in the Channel. Chausey is referred to as an'Île normande'.'Îles Normandes' and'Archipel Normand' have historically, been used in Channel Island French to refer to the islands as a whole.
The large tidal variation provides an environmentally rich inter-tidal zone around the islands, some islands such as Burhou, the Écréhous, the Minquiers have been designated Ramsar sites. The waters around the islands include the following: The Swinge The Little Swinge La Déroute Le Raz Blanchard, or Race of Alderney The Great Russel The Little Russel Souachehouais Le Gouliot La Percée The highest point in the islands is Les Platons in Jersey at 143 metres above sea level; the lowest point is the English Channel. The earliest evidence of human occupation of the Channel Islands has been dated to 250,000 years ago when they were attached to the landmass of continental Europe; the islands became detached by rising sea levels in the Neolithic period. The numerous dolmens and other archaeological sites extant and recorded in history demonstrate the existence of a population large enough and organised enough to undertake constructions of considerable size and sophistication, such as the burial mound at La Hougue Bie in Jersey or the statue menhirs of Guernsey.
Hoards of Armorican coins have been excavated, providing evidence of trade and contact in the Iron Age period. Evidence for Roman settlement is sparse, although evidently the islands were visited by Roman officials and traders; the Roman name for the Channel Islands was I. Lenuri and is included in the Peutinger Table The traditional Latin na
The mark was a currency or unit of account in many nations. It is named for the mark unit of weight; the word mark comes from a merging of three Teutonic/Germanic words, Latinised in 9th-century post-classical Latin as marca, marha or marcus. It was a measure of weight for gold and silver used throughout Western Europe and equivalent to eight ounces. Considerable variations, occurred throughout the Middle Ages; as of 2018, the only circulating currency named "mark" is the Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark. "Mark" can refer to one of the following historical German currencies: Since the 11th century: the Kölner Mark, used in the Electorate of Cologne. In England the "mark" was only a unit of account, it was introduced in the 10th century by the Danes. According to 19th-century sources, it was equivalent to 100 pence, but after the Norman Conquest, it was worth 160 pence, two-thirds of a pound sterling. In Scotland, the merk Scots was a silver coin of that value, issued first in 1570 and afterwards in 1663.
In northern Germany and Scandinavia, the mark was a unit of account, a coin, worth 16 schillings or skillings. In an attempt to prevent debasement of the currency, the Bank of Hamburg was founded in 1619, after the example of the Bank of Amsterdam. Both these banks established a stable money of account; the Hamburg unit of account was the mark banco. It was credited by way of credit against collateral. No coins or banknotes were issued; the account holders could use their credit balances by remittances to other accounts or by drawing bills of exchange against them. These bills circulated and could be transferred by endorsement, were accepted as payment, they could be redeemed. This currency proved to be stable. Following German unification in 1871, the country adopted the German gold mark as its currency in 1873; the name was taken from the mark banco. The coins and banknotes of the various predecessor currencies, such as the thaler, the kreuzer, the guilder, continued to circulate, were treated as fixed multiples of the new unit of account to the introduction period of the euro between 1999 and 2002.
Coins denominated in gold marks were first issued in 1871, replaced the old coins. The mark banco was converted into the new gold mark at par; the Bank of Hamburg was incorporated as the Hamburg subsidiary into the newly founded Reichsbank, issuing banknotes denominated in gold marks. In 1914, the Reichsbank stopped demanding first-class collateral; the gold mark became a weak currency, colloquially referred to as the paper mark, in order to finance the war effort. In 1918, the pre-war sound money policy was not re-established, the continuing loose money policy resulted in inflation, in 1923, in hyperinflation. In late 1923, when the paper mark had become worthless, it was replaced by a new currency, the Rentenmark; the new currency was issued by the newly established Rentenbank as credit to borrowers, but requiring collateral in the form of first-class claims to real estate. In 1924, the Reichsbank stopped providing unrestricted credit against worthless financial bills, pegged its new currency, the Reichsmark, to the stable Rentenmark.
The Reichsbank rationed its lending, so that the Reichsmark remained at par with the stable Rentenmark. The currencies continued to exist in parallel, were both abbreviated RM; the original intention was to withdraw the Rentenmark by 1934, but the Nazi government decided to continue to use the Rentenmark, which enjoyed a considerable trust due to its stability. The Nazis deliberately overissued both currencies to finance infrastructure investments by the state, expanded government employment and expenditure on items such as armaments. By 1935, laws limiting increases of prices and rents were needed to suppress inflation. Enormous extra taxes, charged on real estate owners, on the occasion of the anti-Semitic November Pogrom, on J