A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi species in a mutualistic relationship. Lichens have different properties from those of its component organisms. Lichens come in many colors and forms and are sometimes plant-like, but lichens are not plants. Lichens may have tiny, leafless branches, flat leaf-like structures, flakes that lie on the surface like peeling paint, a powder-like appearance, or other growth forms. A macrolichen is a lichen, either bush-like or leafy. Here, "macro" and "micro" do not refer to the growth form. Common names for lichens may contain the word moss, lichens may superficially look like and grow with mosses, but lichens are not related to mosses or any plant. Lichens do not have roots that absorb water and nutrients as plants do, but like plants, they produce their own nutrition by photosynthesis; when they grow on plants, they do not live as parasites, but instead use the plants as a substrate. Lichens occur from sea level to high alpine elevations, in many environmental conditions, can grow on any surface.
Lichens are abundant growing on bark, mosses, on other lichens, hanging from branches "living on thin air" in rain forests and in temperate woodland. They grow on rock, gravestones, exposed soil surfaces, in the soil as part of a biological soil crust. Different kinds of lichens have adapted to survive in some of the most extreme environments on Earth: arctic tundra, hot dry deserts, rocky coasts, toxic slag heaps, they can live inside solid rock, growing between the grains. It is estimated. There are about 20,000 known species of lichens; some lichens continue to speciate. Lichens can be seen as being self-contained miniature ecosystems, where the fungi, algae, or cyanobacteria have the potential to engage with other microorganisms in a functioning system that may evolve as an more complex composite organism. Lichens may be long-lived, with some considered to be among the oldest living things, they are among the first living things to grow on fresh rock exposed after an event such as a landslide.
The long life-span and slow and regular growth rate of some lichens can be used to date events. In American English, "lichen" is pronounced the same as the verb "liken". In British English, both this pronunciation and one rhyming with "kitchen" ) are used. English lichen derives from Greek λειχήν leichēn via Latin lichen; the Greek noun, which means "licker", derives from the verb λείχειν leichein, "to lick". Like the word moss, the word lichen is used as an uncountable noun, as in, "Lichen grows on rocks". Lichens grow in a wide range of forms; the shape of a lichen is determined by the organization of the fungal filaments. The nonreproductive tissues, or vegetative body parts, are called the thallus. Lichens are grouped by thallus type, since the thallus is the most visually prominent part of the lichen. Thallus growth forms correspond to a few basic internal structure types. Common names for lichens come from a growth form or color, typical of a lichen genus. Common groupings of lichen thallus growth forms are: fruticose – growing like a tuft or multiple-branched leafless mini-shrub, upright or hanging down, 3-dimensional branches with nearly round cross section or flattened foliose – growing in 2-dimensional, leaf-like lobes crustose – crust-like, adhering to a surface like a thick coat of paint squamulose – formed of small leaf-like scales crustose below but free at the tips leprose – powdery gelatinous – jelly-like filamentous – stringy or like matted hair byssoid – wispy, like teased wool structurelessThere are variations in growth types in a single lichen species, grey areas between the growth type descriptions, overlapping between growth types, so some authors might describe lichens using different growth type descriptions.
When a crustose lichen gets old, the center may start to crack up like old-dried paint, old-broken asphalt paving, or like the polygonal "islands" of cracked-up mud in a dried lakebed. This is called being rimose or areolate, the "island" pieces separated by the cracks are called areolas; the areolas appear separated, but are connected by an underlying "prothallus" or "hypothallus". When a crustose lichen grows from a center and appears to radiate out, it is called crustose placodioid; when the edges of the areolas lift up from the substrate, it is called squamulose. These growth form groups are not defined. Foliose lichens may sometimes appear to be fruticose. Fruticose lichens may appear leafy. Squamulose lichens may appear. Gelatinous lichens may appear leafy. Means of telling them apart in these cases are in the sections below. Structures involved in reproduction appear as discs, bumps, or squiggly lines on the surface of the thallus; the thallus is not always the part of the lichen, most visually noticeable.
Some lichens can grow inside solid rock between the grains, with only the sexual fruiting part visible growing outside the rock. These may be dramatic in appearance. Forms of these sexual parts are not in the above growth form categories; the most visually noticeable reproductive parts are circular, plate-like or disc-like outgrowths, with c
"Eye of the Needle" is a song recorded by Australian recording artist Sia for her sixth studio album, 1000 Forms of Fear. The song was released on 3 June 2014 as a promotional single by Inertia in Australia and Monkey Puzzle and RCA Records globally, it appeared on record charts of Australia and the United Kingdom. "Eye of the Needle" was released as streamed audio as a promotional tool for Sia's album 1000 Forms of Fear on 2 June 2014. The song was written by Chris Sia, while production was handled by Greg Kurstin. In 2015, Adult Swim released a remix of the song featuring Big Freedia as part of the Adult Swim Singles Program. Digital download"Eye of the Needle" – 4:09 Credits adapted from liner notes of 1000 Forms of Fear and Tidal. Sia Furler – composer, lyricist Christopher Braide – composer, lyricist Greg Kurstin – producer, drums, mellotron, engineer Jesse Shatkin – engineer Alex Pasco – additional engineering Julian Burg – additional engineering Manny Marroquin – mixer Emily Lazar – masterer Audio on YouTube
A phosphoramidite 2PNR2 is a monoamide of a phosphite diester. The key feature of phosphoramidites is their markedly high reactivity towards nucleophiles catalyzed by weak acids e.c. triethylammonium chloride or 1H-tetrazole. In these reactions, the incoming nucleophile replaces the NR2 moiety. Phosphoramidites derived from protected nucleosides are referred to as nucleoside phosphoramidites and are used in chemical synthesis of DNA, RNA, other nucleic acids and their analogs. Certain phosphoramidites are used as monodentate chiral ligands in asymmetric synthesis. A large group of such ligands is derived from the chiral diol BINOL and can be synthesis by reaction of BINOL with phosphorus trichloride to the chlorophosphite and reaction with simple secondary amines; this type of ligand was first used in 1996 in an asymmetric copper-catalysed addition of dialkylzincs to enones Phosphoramidate