Lidar is a surveying method that measures distance to a target by illuminating the target with laser light and measuring the reflected light with a sensor. Differences in laser return times and wavelengths can be used to make digital 3-D representations of the target; the name lidar, now used as an acronym of light detection and ranging, was a portmanteau of light and radar. Lidar sometimes is called 3D laser scanning, a special combination of a 3D scanning and laser scanning, it has terrestrial and mobile applications. Lidar is used to make high-resolution maps, with applications in geodesy, archaeology, geology, seismology, atmospheric physics, laser guidance, airborne laser swath mapping, laser altimetry; the technology is used in control and navigation for some autonomous cars. Under the direction of Malcolm Stitch, the Hughes Aircraft Company introduced the first lidar-like system in 1961, shortly after the invention of the laser. Intended for satellite tracking, this system combining laser-focused imaging with the ability to calculate distances by measuring the time for a signal to return using appropriate sensors and data acquisition electronics.
It was called "Colidar" an acronym for "COherent Light Detecting And Ranging," derived from the term "radar", itself an acronym for "Radio Detection And Ranging". From the early colidar systems all laser rangefinders, laser altimeters and lidar units are derived; the first practical terrestrial application of a colidar system was the "Colidar Mark II", a large rifle-like laser rangefinder produced in 1963 which had a range of 7 miles and an accuracy of 15 feet, to be used for military targeting. The first mention of lidar as a stand-alone word in 1963 suggests it originated as a portmanteau of "light" and "radar": "Eventually the laser may provide an sensitive detector of particular wavelengths from distant objects. Meanwhile, it is being used to study the moon by'lidar'..." The Oxford English Dictionary supports this etymology. Lidar's first applications came in meteorology, where the National Center for Atmospheric Research used it to measure clouds and pollution; the general public became aware of the accuracy and usefulness of lidar systems in 1971 during the Apollo 15 mission, when astronauts used a laser altimeter to map the surface of the moon.
Although the English language no longer treats "radar" as an acronym, printed texts universally present the word uncapitalized, the word "lidar" became capitalized as "LIDAR" or "LiDAR" in some publications beginning in the 1980s. No consensus exists on capitalization, reflecting uncertainty about whether or not "lidar" is an acronym, if it is an acronym, whether it should appear in lower case, like "radar" and "sonar". Various publications refer to lidar as "LIDAR", "LiDAR", "LIDaR", or "Lidar"; the USGS uses both "LIDAR" and "lidar", sometimes in the same document. Lidar uses ultraviolet, near infrared light to image objects, it can target a wide range of materials, including non-metallic objects, rain, chemical compounds, aerosols and single molecules. A narrow laser beam can map physical features with high resolutions; the essential concept of lidar was originated by EH Synge in 1930, who envisaged the use of powerful searchlights to probe the atmosphere. Indeed, lidar has since been used extensively for atmospheric meteorology.
Lidar instruments fitted to aircraft and satellites carry out surveying and mapping – a recent example being the U. S. Geological Survey Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar. NASA has identified lidar as a key technology for enabling autonomous precision safe landing of future robotic and crewed lunar-landing vehicles. Wavelengths vary to suit the target: from about 10 micrometers to 250 nm. Light is reflected via backscattering, as opposed to pure reflection one might find with a mirror. Different types of scattering are used for different lidar applications: most Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering, Raman scattering, fluorescence. Suitable combinations of wavelengths can allow for remote mapping of atmospheric contents by identifying wavelength-dependent changes in the intensity of the returned signal; the two kinds of lidar detection schemes are "incoherent" or direct energy detection and coherent detection. Coherent systems use optical heterodyne detection; this is more sensitive than direct detection and allows them to operate at much lower power, but requires more complex transceivers.
Both types employ pulse models: either high energy. Micropulse systems utilize intermittent bursts of energy, they developed as a result of ever-increasing computer power, combined with advances in laser technology. They use less energy in the laser on the order of one microjoule, are "eye-safe", meaning they can be used without safety precautions. High-power systems are common in atmospheric research, where they are used for measuring atmospheric parameters: the height and densities of clouds, cloud particle properties, pressure, wind and trace gas concentration
This article lists political parties in Solomon Islands. Solomon Islands has a multi-party system with numerous political parties. In most elections, no one party has won an absolute majority of seats and so parties must work with each other to form coalition governments; the one exception is the 1989 election, when the People's Alliance Party led by Solomon Mamaloni did win an absolute majority. However, in late 1990, Mamaloni broke away from the PAP and continued ruling in a coalition government until the 1993 election. Many parties are established prior to an election and most are short-lived; some will dissolve within a year. Others will achieve parliamentary representation but, having served their purpose, are discarded; the most enduring political parties in Solomon Islands are the PAP and the Solomon Islands United Party, founded in 1979 and 1980, respectively. The PAP has been in coalition in at least three more; the United Party led two governments in the 1980s however its representation has waned in recent years and after the 2006, it no longer had any parliamentary representatives.
Democratic Party National Party People's Alliance Party Solomon Islands Party for Rural Advancement Solomon Islands Liberal Party Association of Independent Members Solomon Islands United Party Direct Development Party New Nations Solomon Islands Party Solomon Islands People’s Congress Party Reform Democratic Party of Solomon Islands Rural Congress People's Party Ownership and Responsibility Party People's Federation Party Autonomous Solomon Islanders Party Twelve Pillars to Peace and Prosperity Party People's Power Action Party Rural and Urban Political Party Christian Progressive Party Christian Alliance Party Lafari Party Solomon Islands Social Credit Party Solomon One Nation Solomon First People's Progressive Party New Solomons Party Christian Alliance Party of Solomon Islands Christian Leadership and Fellowship Group Solomon Islands National Unity and Reconciliation Party National Action Party of Solomon Islands Solomon Islands Labour Party National Front for Progress Solomone Ago Sagefanua Solomon Islands Rural Party Rural Alliance Party National Democratic Party United Solomon Islands Party Alliance People’s Progress Party Labour Party Solomon Islands United Nation Party Democratic Party United Democratic Party Elections in Solomon Islands Politics of Solomon Islands
WDBO — branded ESPN 580 — is a radio station broadcasting a sports radio format. Licensed to Orlando, United States, the station is owned by Cox Media Group, its studios are located in Orlando and the transmitter tower is in Lockhart. WDBO was part of a cluster of AM, FM and TV stations all with the same callsign. In 1982, the company that owned all three at the time, The Outlet Company, sold the radio stations to Katz Broadcasting; the TV station became WKMG-TV. When the stations were sold, WDBO-FM was re-formatted as a country music station, K92FM, with the callsign WWKA. WDBO, at the time 58 WDBO, strayed from its original middle-of-the-road music format, joining ABC News Radio, adding more and more talk radio programs. By the 1990s, it had become NewsTalk 580 WDBO, which for years has been Greater Orlando's highest-rated AM news/talk station. In August 2011, Cox Communications took down its rock station, WHTQ, gave it the callsign WDBO-FM, became a simulcast of WDBO. WDBO was simulcast on that station's HD2 channel beginning in late February 2008.
The news/talk station re-branded with the FM frequency, NewsTalk 96-5 WDBO. On November 12, 2012, WDBO ceased airing what had become the WDBO-FM feed, re-launched as a sports talk radio station affiliated with ESPN Radio; that network had been dropped by WHOO, which chose to affiliate with NBC Sports Radio. It carries the full ESPN Radio schedule, save for a local program weekday afternoons hosted by Scott Anez. WDBO remained the radio home of the Orlando Magic with the format change until WYGM became the flagship home of the Orlando Magic at the start of the 2018-2019 season. ESPN Orlando WDBO history Query the FCC's AM station database for WDBO Radio-Locator Information on WDBO Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for WDBOFCC History Cards for WDBO