Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall. Irrigation has other uses in crop production, including frost protection, suppressing weed growth in grain fields and preventing soil consolidation. In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming. Irrigation systems are used for cooling livestock, dust suppression, disposal of sewage, in mining. Irrigation is studied together with drainage, the removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. Irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5,000 years and is the product of many cultures, it was the basis for economies and societies across the globe, from Asia to the Southwestern United States. Archaeological investigation has found evidence of irrigation in areas lacking sufficient natural rainfall to support crops for rainfed agriculture.
The earliest known use of the technology dates to the 6th millennium BCE in Khuzistan in the south-west of present-day Iran. Irrigation was used as a means of manipulation of water in the alluvial plains of the Indus valley civilization, the application of it is estimated to have begun around 4500 BC and drastically increased the size and prosperity of their agricultural settlements; the Indus Valley Civilization developed sophisticated irrigation and water-storage systems, including artificial reservoirs at Girnar dated to 3000 BCE, an early canal irrigation system from c. 2600 BCE. Large-scale agriculture was practiced, with an extensive network of canals used for the purpose of irrigation. Farmers in the Mesopotamian plain used irrigation from at least the third millennium BCE, they developed perennial irrigation watering crops throughout the growing season by coaxing water through a matrix of small channels formed in the field. Ancient Egyptians practiced basin irrigation using the flooding of the Nile to inundate land plots, surrounded by dykes.
The flood water remained until the fertile sediment had settled before the engineers returned the surplus to the watercourse. There is evidence of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Amenemhet III in the twelfth dynasty using the natural lake of the Faiyum Oasis as a reservoir to store surpluses of water for use during dry seasons; the lake swelled annually from the flooding of the Nile. The Ancient Nubians developed a form of irrigation by using a waterwheel-like device called a sakia. Irrigation began in Nubia some time between the third and second millennia BCE, it depended upon the flood waters that would flow through the Nile River and other rivers in what is now the Sudan. In sub-Saharan Africa irrigation reached the Niger River region cultures and civilizations by the first or second millennium BCE and was based on wet-season flooding and water harvesting. Evidence of terrace irrigation occurs in pre-Columbian America, early Syria and China. In the Zana Valley of the Andes Mountains in Peru, archaeologists have found remains of three irrigation canals radiocarbon-dated from the 4th millennium BCE, the 3rd millennium BCE and the 9th century CE.
These canals provide the earliest record of irrigation in the New World. Traces of a canal dating from the 5th millennium BCE were found under the 4th-millennium canal. Ancient Persia used irrigation as far back as the 6th millennium BCE to grow barley in areas with insufficient natural rainfall; the Qanats, developed in ancient Persia about 800 BCE, are among the oldest known irrigation methods still in use today. They are now found in the Middle East and North Africa; the system comprises a network of vertical wells and sloping tunnels driven into the sides of cliffs and of steep hills to tap groundwater. The noria, a water wheel with clay pots around the rim powered by the flow of the stream, first came into use at about this time among Roman settlers in North Africa. By 150 BCE the pots were fitted with valves to allow smoother filling as they were forced into the water; the irrigation works of ancient Sri Lanka, the earliest dating from about 300 BCE in the reign of King Pandukabhaya, under continuous development for the next thousand years, were one of the most complex irrigation systems of the ancient world.
In addition to underground canals, the Sinhalese were the first to build artificial reservoirs to store water. These reservoirs and canal systems were used to irrigate paddy fields, which require a lot of water to cultivate. Most of these irrigation systems still exist undamaged up to now, in Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa, because of the advanced and precise engineering; the system was further extended during the reign of King Parakrama Bahu. The oldest known hydraulic engineers of China were Sunshu Ao of the Spring and Autumn period and Ximen Bao of the Warring States period, both of whom worked on large irrigation projects. In the Sichuan region belonging to the state of Qin of ancient China, the Dujiangyan Irrigation System devised by the Qin Chinese hydrologist and irrigation engineer Li Bing was built in 256 BCE to irrigate a vast area of farmland that today still supplies water. By the 2nd century AD, during the Han Dynasty, the Chinese used chain pumps which lifted water from a lower elevation to a higher one.
These were powered by manual foot-pedal, hydraulic waterwheels, or rotating mechanical wheels pulled by oxen. The water was used for public works, providing water for urban residential quarters and palace gardens, bu
The Lidder Valley or Liddar Valley in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India, is a Himalayan sub-valley that forms the southeastern corner of the Kashmir Valley. The Lidder River flows down the valley; the entrance to the valley lies 7 km northeast from Anantnag town and 62 km southeast from Srinagar, the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir. It is a 40-km-long gorge valley with an average width of 3 km; the Lidder Valley is situated within the jurisdiction of Anantnag district. It is bordered by Kashmir Valley to the west, Sind Valley to the north, covers a length of 40 km, it has a maximum width of 5 km. The Lidder basin is surrounded on the south and southeast by the Pir Panjal Range, on the north by the Sind Valley and on the northeast by the Zaskar Range; the Lidder drainage basin has an area of 1134 km2. It is formed by the flow of the Lidder River which flows within a Y-shaped valley, upstream of Pahagam the river diverges into the East Lidder and the West Lidder; the East Lidder of which reaches eastwards from Pahalgam up past Chandanwari and flows from east to west starting in the area of Sheshnag Lake and the Shisram Glacier.
The West Lidder originates from the Kolhoi Glacier and runs through green coniferous forests through many alpine meadows. The Lidder Valley provides irrigation for agriculture; the Lidder River flows through the entire valley passing several natural landmarks and tourist spots, including Aru, Betab Valley, Akad. The main towns in the Lidder Valley are Mandlan, Phraslun and Seer Hamdan; the Lidder Valley formed over millions of years as the Lidder River cut into the Himalayan Mountains. Today, the river continues to deposit sheets of sand in the lower areas of Anantnag. Gradual erosive processes have created deep gorges at many places; the Lidder Valley has many glacier-fed streams, the tributaries of the Lidder River are home to different types of trout. The valley is the natural habitat of the Himalayan black bear; the Himalayan brown bear, musk deer, snow leopard and hangul have been spotted in the Aru and Lidderwat areas, which are close to Dachigam National Park
Qazigund, is a town and a notified area committee in Anantnag district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. Qazigund is located at 33.59°N 75.16°E / 33.59. It has an average elevation of 1670 m above mean sea level; as of 2011 India census, Qazigund had a population of 9871. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. Qazigund has an average literacy rate of 70.21%, higher than the national average of 67.16%, male literacy is 79.82%, female literacy is 58.27%. In Qazigund, 20.67% of the population is under 6 years of age. Qazigund has always been known for religious intolerance. Qazigund is surrounded by springs known as Nags in local language. Verinag source of river Jehlum is only 10 km from Qazigund. Panzath Nag is just 3 km from Qazigund and famous Kound Nag is around 7–10 km from Qazigund. Qazigund is connected to Srinagar by road and railway. There is a train service from Qazigund to Srinagar ten times a day, is connected to Kulgam by road. Qazigund is connected to Jammu and rest of India through NH 44 that passes through Jawahar Tunnel of Pir Panjal mountain.
New NH444 connects Qazigund to Srinagar via Shupiyan. Banihal railway tunnel or Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel, is an 11 km long railway tunnel under the Pir Panjal mountains to connect Qazigund railway station to Banihal railway station, it was bored in late 2011, became operational by 26 Dec 2012 and was commissioned in June 2013. It is India's longest and Asia's third longest railway tunnel and reduced the distance between Quazigund and Banihal to only 11 km. Akingam Anantnag Banihal Qazigund Road Tunnel Doru Shahabad Fatehpora NH 44 Pulwama
Uri, Jammu and Kashmir
Uri is a town and a tehsil in the Baramulla district, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. Uri is located on the left bank of the Jhelum River, about 10 kilometres east of the Line of Control with Pakistan. Uri is located at the entrance to the Kashmir Valley from the west. Prior to the partition of Kashmir, the road linked Uri to Srinagar. Another important road linked Uri to Poonch via the Haji Pir pass. Uri is at a distance of 76 miles 42 miles from Muzaffarabad and 49 miles from Poonch. Hari Singh Nalwa, the Sikh commander-administrator of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, built the fort of Uri. Following the First Anglo-Sikh War and the Treaty of Amritsar, Raja Gulab Singh was proclaimed the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, acquiring all the lands between the Ravi River and the Indus. Uri became a tehsil in the Muzaffarabad district of the Kashmir province. On 22 October 1947, the tribal invasion led to the fall of Muzaffarabad and Uri to the Pashtun tribes from Pakistan; the raiders halted at Baramulla.
Following the accession of the Maharaja to India on 26 October, India air lifted troops to the Kashmir Valley, who retook Baramulla and Uri by mid-November. The Indian government attached utmost importance to the defence of Uri. Muzaffarabad, on the other hand, came under Pakistani control and became the capital of Azad Kashmir; the tehsil of Uri was subsequently merged into the Baramulla district. At around 5:30 a.m. on 18 September, four terrorists attacked an Indian Army Brigade headquarters at Uri near the Line of Control. They are said to have lobbed 17 grenades in 3 minutes. A rear administrative base camp with tents caught. A six-hour gun battle ensued. An additional 19-30 soldiers were reported to have been injured in the attack; as of 2011, the town of Uri has a population of 9,366 of which 6,674 are males and 2,692 are females according to the report published by Census India in 2011. Uri has an average literacy rate of 88.46%, higher than the national average of 76%. Male literacy is 95.27%, female literacy is 70.02%.
Child sex ratio is 851 as compared to state average of 862 and the population of children under 6 years of age is 879, 9.39% of the total population. Dasgupta, C. War and Diplomacy in Kashmir, 1947-48, SAGE Publications, ISBN 978-81-321-1795-7 Raghavan, Srinath and Peace in Modern India: A Strategic History of the Nehru Years, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-1-137-00737-7 Snedden, Kashmir: The Unwritten History, HarperCollins India, ISBN 9350298988 A town called Uri — How the September 18 attack may now change it, The Indian Express, 25 September 2016
Downtown, popularly known as Shehr-e-Khaas, is the largest and the most densely populated area of the city of Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir. The area is located on the banks of Jhelum river about 5 km from city center; the area is considered as the core point in the city as the first inhabitants of the Srinagar lived there. The historical buildings and monuments found in the area reflect the design of old times; the residential homes are depicted to be constructed from late-19th century to early-20th century. Many key monuments like Jamia Masjid, Khanqah-e-Moula, Maharaj Gangh and shrines have been built famous rulers of Kashmir; the area was settled more than 2000 years ago in 3rd century BC by Raja Pravarsena. The area is the hub of the historical monuments made by the famous rulers of Kashmir; the historical monuments include Jamia Masjid in Nowhatta, Khanqah-e- Moula in Zana Kadal Aali Masjid in Eidgah, Maharaj Ganj tomb in Maharaj Ganj, Pathar Masjid in Nawabazar, Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jeelani's shrine in Khanyar.
Moreover, the Roza Bal shrine is situated in the area. The area is located at 34.0833°N 74.7833°E / 34.0833. Kashmiri is the main language of the area. People use Urdu and English as secondary languages, it is estimated that the downtown has the population of half a million, about 47% of the total population of Srinagar district. In September 2014 the state of Jammu and Kashmir was hit by floods caused by torrential rainfall; the area of Downtown was least affected as compared to the rest of Srinagar, though close to the river, the people from other parts of Srinagar shifted to downtown for safety. Commercial buildings and residential homes and Government offices were shattered to nothing in the adjoining areas. People lost the whole area was set on the economic back-foot. Schools and other places of significant importance were damaged by the floods. There are number of school and colleges in downtown Srinagar, including Islamia College of Science and Commerce, Women's College and Gandhi Memorial College.
The areas which comprising Downtown Srinagar include:- Soura Buchpora
The Lolab Valley is a Himalayan valley located in Jammu and Kashmir, India. The entrance to the valley lies 9 km north of Kupwara town, the centre of the valley lies 114 km northwest of Srinagar, the capital of Jammu and Kashmir, it is an oval-shaped valley 15 miles long with an average width of 2 miles. The Lolab Valley is situated within the jurisdiction of a block of Kupwara, it is bordered by the Kashmir Valley to the south and the Neelum Valley to the north, is separated by Nagmarg meadows from Bandipore to the east. It is formed by the flow of Lahwal River; the Lolab Valley is home to many ancient springs, is covered with dense forests of pine and fir. Fruit trees such as apple, peach and walnut are common in the valley, known as "the fruit bowl of Jammu and Kashmir"; the valley has tourist spots, such as the caves of Kalaroos. The main villages in the Lolab Valley are Putushai, Sogam, Warnow, Diver Anderbugh, Takipora,Goose; the Lolab Valley has two divisions: Brunai. The areas included in POUTNAI are, etc.
In Brunai are Kuligam, Varnow, etc. Like other valleys in the region, Lolab Valley is home to many Himalayan wild animals, which include Himalayan black bear, Himalayan brown bear, snow leopard, markhor and musk deer. Lolab Vally is adjacent to Neelum Valley, separated by the Line of Control; the Valley has seen many armed combats. The Lolab Valley is well connected by road to Srinagar, the capital of Jammu and Kashmir, Srinagar Airport. A bus takes three hours to cover a distance of 114 km and leads through the towns of Sopore and Kupwara. An under-construction road from Bandipora to Lolab via Nagmarg Meadows will cut short the Srinagar-to-Lolab distance by 30 kilometers. In Lolab Valley, there are many camping sites, it has the potential to become one of the best tourist destinations in Kashmir. Travelers visiting Lolab sometimes visit the resting place of the saint Kashyap reshi, located at a distance of 1 km from village Lalpora. A spring called; the spring has crystal clear water. Gauri spring is another major spring in the area.
Due lack of intervention by government the place has poor flow of tourists which keeps it potential for tourism still unexplored. This place still manages to be one of the top most camping sites in Kashmir; some tourist attractions in the valley include Satbaran Kalaroos, Nagmarg Camping Site Diver Anderbugh and Machil. Lolab Valley was once visited by one of the greatest Urdu poets of all time, Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal and wrote a poem, O Valley of Lolab! in the honour of Lolab's natural environment which starts with the stanza: پانی ترے چشموں کا تڑپتا ہوا سیماب مرغانِ سحَرتیری فضاؤں میں ہیں بیتاب ￼اے وادیِ لولاب Your springs and lakes with water pulsating and quivering like quicksilver, the morning birds fluttering about the sky, agitated and in turmoil, O Valley of Lolab! ￼گر صاحبِ ہنگامہ نہ ہو منبر ومحراب ￼دیں بندہٌ مومن کے لیے موت ہے یا خواب ￼اےوادیِ لولاب When the pulpit and the niche cease to re‐create Resurrections, faith is dead or a mere dream, for thee, me and for all. O Valley of Lolab!
Anwar Shah Kashmiri Shah Faesal Ghulam Nabi Wani Nasir Aslam Wani Abdul Haq Khan Lolab Valley
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir is a state in northern India denoted by its acronym, J&K. It is located in the Himalayan mountains, shares borders with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south; the Line of Control separates it from the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan in the west and north and a Line of Actual Control separates it from the Chinese-administered territory of Aksai Chin in the east. The state has special autonomy under Article 370 of the Constitution of India. A part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, the region is the subject of a territorial conflict among India and China; the western districts of the former princely state known as Azad Kashmir and the northern territories known as Gilgit-Baltistan have been under Pakistani control since 1947. The Aksai Chin region in the east, bordering Tibet, has been under Chinese control since 1962. Jammu and Kashmir consists of three regions: the Kashmir Valley and Ladakh. Srinagar is the summer capital, Jammu is the winter capital.
Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India with a Muslim-majority population. The Kashmir valley is famous for its beautiful mountainous landscape, Jammu's numerous shrines attract tens of thousands of Hindu pilgrims every year, while Ladakh is renowned for its remote mountain beauty and Buddhist culture. Maharaja Hari Singh became the ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir in 1925, he was the reigning monarch at the conclusion of the British rule in the subcontinent in 1947. With the impending independence of India, the British announced that the British Paramountcy over the princely states would end, the states were free to choose between the new Dominions of India and Pakistan or to remain independent, it was emphasized that independence was only a ‘theoretical possibility’ because, during the long rule of the British in India, the states had come to depend on British Indian government for a variety of their needs including their internal and external security. Jammu and Kashmir had a Muslim majority.
Following the logic of Partition, many people in Pakistan expected. However, the predominant political movement in the Valley of Kashmir was secular and was allied with the Indian National Congress since the 1930s. So many in India too had expectations; the Maharaja was faced with indecision. On 22 October 1947, rebellious citizens from the western districts of the State and Pushtoon tribesmen from the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan invaded the State, backed by Pakistan; the Maharaja fought back but appealed for assistance to India, who agreed on the condition that the ruler accede to India. Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession on 26 October 1947 in return for military aid and assistance, accepted by the Governor General the next day. While the Government of India accepted the accession, it added the proviso that it would be submitted to a "reference to the people" after the state is cleared of the invaders, since "only the people, not the Maharaja, could decide where the people of J&K wanted to live."
It was a provisional accession. Once the Instrument of Accession was signed, Indian soldiers entered Kashmir with orders to evict the raiders; the resulting Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 lasted till the end of 1948. At the beginning of 1948, India took the matter to the United Nations Security Council; the Security Council passed a resolution asking Pakistan to withdraw its forces as well as the Pakistani nationals from the territory of Jammu and Kashmir, India to withdraw the majority of its forces leaving only a sufficient number to maintain law and order, following which a plebiscite would be held. A ceasefire was agreed on 1 January supervised by UN observers. A special United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan was set up to negotiate the withdrawal arrangements as per the Security Council resolution; the UNCIP made three visits to the subcontinent between 1948 and 1949, trying to find a solution agreeable to both India and Pakistan. It passed a resolution in August 1948 proposing a three-part process.
It was accepted by India but rejected by Pakistan. In the end, no withdrawal was carried out, India insisting that Pakistan had to withdraw first, Pakistan contending that there was no guarantee that India would withdraw afterward. No agreement could be reached between the two countries on the process of demilitarization. India and Pakistan fought two further wars in 1965 and 1971. Following the latter war, the countries reached the Simla Agreement, agreeing on a Line of Control between their respective regions and committing to a peaceful resolution of the dispute through bilateral negotiations; the primary argument for the continuing debate over the ownership of Kashmir is that India did not hold the promised plebiscite. In fact, neither side has adhered to the UN resolution of 13 August 1948. India gives the following reasons for not holding the plebiscite: United Nations Security Council Resolution 47 on Kashmir was passed by UNSC under chapter VI of UN Charter, which are non-binding and have no mandatory enforceability.
In March 2001, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan during his visit to India and Pakistan, remarked that Kashmir resolutions are only advisory recommendations and comparing with those on East Timor and Iraq was like comparing apples and oranges, since those resolutions were passed under chapter VII, which make it enforceable by UNSC. In 2003 Paki