Lidingö is an island in the inner Stockholm archipelago, northeast of Stockholm, Sweden. In 2010, the population of the Lidingö urban area on the island was 31,561, it is the seat of government of Stockholm County. Lidingö's qualities have attracted affluent residents such as Björn Ulvaeus and Agnetha Fältskog of ABBA. Exclusive regions include the coastal region between Mölna and the east tip of the island, Gåshaga, as well as the east tip of the northern part of the horse shoe, called Elfvik. Notwithstanding the fact that many middle-class Swedes have moved to the island, the municipality remains the third wealthiest in Sweden after Danderyd and Täby; the seascape at Lidingö shares similarities with that of Seattle, USA and Sydney, with clear blue skies and waterways. The landscape is one of open farm land; the Lidingö summer is limited to the period between the end of May and August, when the air temperature exceeds 25 °C. Sea water temperatures peak around 20 °C, in mid July, in the inner parts of the archipelago.
September and October are the months of the short autumn. The first snow fall is expected in the first two weeks of November. During winter, thick ice covers the waters around Stockholm and up to 15 to 20 nautical miles into the Baltic Sea; the coldest period is from January until the end of February. Springtime is from mid April to May. Two runic inscriptions have been found on Lidingö; the latest, listed in Rundata as the Uppland Runic Inscription Fv1986 84, was found in 1984 under a 10 cm thick layer of soil and moss in an uninhabited region. The inscription is from the Viking age, around 800–1050 AD; the inscription has been translated as: "Åsmund carved runes in memory of his grandfather Sten, father of Sibbe and Gerbjörn...a great monument over a good man."The figures show large snakes and on top, a Maltese cross, a typical motif for the late Viking age rune stones. 300 to 400 years after the carving of the runes, the inhabitants of Lidingö had established small farms. Lidingö is first mentioned in writing in 1328, in the will of Jedvard Filipsson, in the sentence curiam in Lydhingø meaning a "Lidingö farm".
Bo Jonsson bought the entire island between 1376 and 1381. In 1480, the island was taken over by the Banér family from Djursholm. On 29 August 1774, Johan Gabriel Banér from Djursholm, sold the entire island and the land was divided into 25 farms. In the east part of Lidingö, the Långängen-Elfvik national park, which includes 125 acres of open farmland and most of the forest land on Elfvik, preserved within its boundaries, one of the largest old farms, the Elfviks farm. Most of the original houses, built from the end of the 18th century to mid‑19th century, have been saved and restored; the farm is still active with beef cattle and horses and is run by Lidingö Municipality. The first church was built in 1623; the IBM educational center for northern Europe, was built close to the Elfvik farm in the early 1960s. The centre was converted to a hotel; the following sports clubs are located in Lidingö: IFK Lidingö - IFK Lidingö FK IFK Lidingö - IFK Lidingö SOK IFK Lidingö - IFK Lidingö FRI Lidingöloppet, cross-country running event Hersbyholm
AB Stockholms Spårvägar
AB Stockholms Spårvägar is a name used by two different Swedish limited companies operating public transport in Stockholm, the capital city of Sweden. The first company was founded in 1915 and owned by the City of Stockholm to coordinate and operate public transport within the City. In 1967 the public transport in the entire Stockholm County was coordinated and the company changed its name to Storstockholms Lokaltrafik and its ownership was transferred to the Stockholm County Council. Traffic with horse-drawn trams began in 1877 with the owned Stockholms Nya Spårvägsaktiebolag and it gained a concession to operate trams on the streets of Stockholm for 40 years. Due to geographic factors, its traffic never extended south of Slussen, although they had the option to do so. Another company, Stockholms Södra Spårvägsaktiebolag was started to provide tramway traffic on Södermalm; the city-owned AB Stockholms Spårvägar was created in 1915 with the aim to coordinate and making the two separate networks more efficient.
The SNS network was taken over in 1917 and SSB would follow in 1918. Although the two networks had merged they would not be connected until 1922; the opening of Västerbron in 1935 caused a major rework of the tram and bus lines when passage through Gamla Stan no longer was mandatory when travelling from Södermalm to Kungsholmen. The first underground parts of the Stockholm Metro opened in 1933 on the stretch from Skanstull to Slussen, although it would be trafficked by suburban trams gaining electricity from overhead wires until special metro vehicles was introduced in 1950 which collected its power from a third rail. In addition to trams and the metro, SS once operated a large trolleybus system from 1941 until 1964; the Stockholm City Council decided in 1957 to suspend the tramway and the last five lines that remained in the City Centre were closed in conjunction with the switch to right-hand side traffic in September 1967. The company changed its name from January 1, 1967, to AB Storstockholms Lokaltrafik and is today responsible for public transport in Stockholm County.
In 1987 a new company with the name AB Stockholms Spårvägar was created by the Swedish Tramway Society to take care of the traffic on the forthcoming Djurgårdslinjen. Storstockholms Lokaltrafik accepted the re-use of its old logotype. Starting in 1991 the company runs the heritage tram line to the island of Djurgården in central Stockholm; when regular tram service was started on Spårväg City in 2010 the company got the contract to run this service for the SL. In April 2014 the Stockholm County Council's Traffic department announced that the company was granted the contract for the period 2015-2022 for both Spårväg City and Lidingöbanan. During this period the two tramways will be connected. Stockholm Metro Public transport in Stockholm Official website
In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new
Light rail, light rail transit, or fast tram is a form of urban rail transit using rolling stock similar to a tramway, but operating at a higher capacity, on an exclusive right-of-way. There is no standard definition, but in the United States, light rail operates along exclusive rights-of-way and uses either individual tramcars or multiple units coupled to form a train, lower capacity and lower speed than a long heavy-rail passenger train or metro system. A few light rail networks tend to have characteristics closer to rapid transit or commuter rail. Other light rail networks are tram-like in nature and operate on streets. Light rail systems are found on all inhabited continents, they have been popular in recent years due to their lower capital costs and increased reliability compared with heavy rail systems. Many original tram and streetcar systems in the United Kingdom, United States, elsewhere were decommissioned starting in the 1950s as the popularity of the automobile increased. Britain abandoned its last tram system, except for Blackpool, by 1962.
Although some traditional trolley or tram systems exist to this day, the term "light rail" has come to mean a different type of rail system. Modern light rail technology has West German origins, since an attempt by Boeing Vertol to introduce a new American light rail vehicle was a technical failure. After World War II, the Germans retained many of their streetcar networks and evolved them into model light rail systems. Except for Hamburg, all large and most medium-sized German cities maintain light rail networks; the basic concepts of light rail were put forward by H. Dean Quinby in 1962 in an article in Traffic Quarterly called "Major Urban Corridor Facilities: A New Concept". Quinby distinguished this new concept in rail transportation from historic streetcar or tram systems as: having the capacity to carry more passengers appearing like a train, with more than one car connected together having more doors to facilitate full utilization of the space faster and quieter in operationThe term light rail transit was introduced in North America in 1972 to describe this new concept of rail transportation.
The first of the new light rail systems in North America began operation in 1978 when the Canadian city of Edmonton, adopted the German Siemens-Duewag U2 system, followed three years by Calgary and San Diego, California. The concept proved popular, although Canada has few cities big enough for light rail, there are now at least 30 light rail systems in the United States. Britain began replacing its run-down local railways with light rail in the 1980s, starting with the Tyne and Wear Metro and followed by the Docklands Light Railway in London; the historic term light railway was used because it dated from the British Light Railways Act 1896, although the technology used in the DLR system was at the high end of what Americans considered to be light rail. The trend to light rail in the United Kingdom was established with the success of the Manchester Metrolink system in 1992; the term light rail was coined in 1972 by the U. S. Urban Mass Transportation Administration to describe new streetcar transformations that were taking place in Europe and the United States.
In Germany the term Stadtbahn was used to describe the concept, many in UMTA wanted to adopt the direct translation, city rail. However, UMTA adopted the term light rail instead. Light in this context is used in the sense of "intended for light loads and fast movement", rather than referring to physical weight; the infrastructure investment is usually lighter than would be found for a heavy rail system. The Transportation Research Board defined "light rail" in 1977 as "a mode of urban transportation utilizing predominantly reserved but not grade-separated rights-of-way. Electrically propelled. LRT provides a wide range of passenger capabilities and performance characteristics at moderate costs." The American Public Transportation Association, in its Glossary of Transit Terminology, defines light rail as:...a mode of transit service operating passenger rail cars singly on fixed rails in right-of-way, separated from other traffic for part or much of the way. Light rail vehicles are driven electrically with power being drawn from an overhead electric line via a trolley or a pantograph.
However, some diesel-powered transit is designated light rail, such as the O-Train Trillium Line in Ottawa, Canada, the River Line in New Jersey, United States, the Sprinter in California, United States, which use diesel multiple unit cars. Light rail is similar to the British English term light railway, long-used to distinguish railway operations carried out under a less rigorous set of regulation using lighter equipment at lower speeds from mainline railways. Light rail is a generic international English phrase for these types of rail systems, which means more or less the same thing throughout the English-speaking world; the use of the generic term light rail avoids some serious incompatibilities between British and American English. T
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails known as tracks. It is commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks consist of steel rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a rail transport system encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars can be coupled into longer trains; the operation is carried out by a railway company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway electrification system or produce their own power by diesel engines.
Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system. Railways are a safe land transport system. Railway transport is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization and energy efficiency, but is less flexible and more capital-intensive than road transport, when lower traffic levels are considered; the oldest known, man/animal-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC in Greece. Rail transport commenced in mid 16th century in Germany in the form of horse-powered funiculars and wagonways. Modern rail transport commenced with the British development of the steam locomotives in the early 19th century, thus the railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world. Built by George Stephenson and his son Robert's company Robert Stephenson and Company, the Locomotion No. 1 is the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825. George Stephenson built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use only the steam locomotives all the time, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution. Railways reduced the costs of shipping, allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships; the change from canals to railways allowed for "national markets" in which prices varied little from city to city. The spread of the railway network and the use of railway timetables, led to the standardisation of time in Britain based on Greenwich Mean Time. Prior to this, major towns and cities varied their local time relative to GMT; the invention and development of the railway in the United Kingdom was one of the most important technological inventions of the 19th century. The world's first underground railway, the Metropolitan Railway, opened in 1863. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, leading to electrification of tramways and rapid transit systems. Starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being complete by the 2000s.
During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan and in some other countries. Many countries are in the process of replacing diesel locomotives with electric locomotives due to environmental concerns, a notable example being Switzerland, which has electrified its network. Other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. Following a decline after World War II due to competition from cars, rail transport has had a revival in recent decades due to road congestion and rising fuel prices, as well as governments investing in rail as a means of reducing CO2 emissions in the context of concerns about global warming; the history of rail transport began in the 6th century BC in Ancient Greece. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of track material and motive power used. Evidence indicates that there was 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos paved trackway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece from around 600 BC.
Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. The Diolkos was in use for over 650 years, until at least the 1st century AD; the paved trackways were later built in Roman Egypt. In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Fortress in Austria; the line used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel. The line still exists and is operational, although in updated form and is the oldest operational railway. Wagonways using wooden rails, hauled by horses, started appearing in the 1550s to facilitate the transport of ore tubs to and from mines, soon became popular in Europe; such an operation was illustrated in Germany in 1556 by Georgius Agricola in his work De re metallica. This line used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks to keep it going the right way.
The miners called the wagons Hunde from the noise. There are many references to their use in central Europe in the 16th century; such a transport system was used by German miners at Cal
Lidingöbron is the name of two existing and two historical bridges across the strait of Lilla Värtan between the mainland Norra Djurgården at Ropsten, at the eastern part of Stockholm, the island of Lidingö. At a parish meeting in 1802, the inhabitants of Lidingö, at the time a agricultural district, decided to open a venture to realize a pontoon bridge connecting the island to Stockholm; the 50 shares of the company had to be redeemed by contributing to the project with timber, work, or money and the bridge was completed in 1803. It was one of the longest bridges in Europe, it was located around 2 kilometres south of the present bridges, it had a hard time surviving the annual ice break-up, a third of it was demolished in 1811, most of it in 1858 — each time raising the price for milk in the capital, as most of it was produced on Lidingö at the time. With the creation of the harbour of Värtahamnen, the original bridge obstructed shipping in the strait, it was therefore bought by the city of Stockholm in 1883 who replaced it 1884 with a new pontoon bridge, 12 metres wide and with two moveable sections at each end for the passage of ships.
This bridge was located near the present bridge. The level of the roadway was only 10–15 centimetres over the water surface however, so moderate winds made crossing the bridge a tough experience; the lateral stability of the bridge was ensured by means of logs attached to the bridge every 24 metres and anchored to the bottom. The use of logs instead of chains increased the bridge's general buoyancy at the cost of its stability during low tide - the bridge serpentined its way across the water while the inclination of the roadway at the two ends made use of extra horses necessary. Heavy trucks started to use the bridge. Ice break-up destroyed a third of the bridge in 1918. By the end of World War I, the increasing number of motor cars made a more able bridge necessary, by 1925 a steel truss bridge, 9.1 metres wide with a 6.7-metre long roadway replaced the second pontoon bridge. It had two railway tracks in the same carriageway as the road. To avoid foundation work at the maximum depth a 140-metre long truss arch was used, the bridge was provided with a simple 20-metre long bascule leaf in order to allow a vertical navigation clearance of 5.3 metres.
After the new bridge was built, cars were no longer allowed on the old bridge. It has one rail track, now considered a tramway, the Lidingöbanan; the other half of the bridge is used for pedestrians. The population of Lidingö as well as the traffic continued to grow however, by the 1950s the old bridge had become insufficient; the two municipalities met in 1961, the following year it was settled a new bridge should be located south of the old. The new bridge, inaugurated in 1971, is 997 metres long, 24 metres wide, offers a navigation clearance of 12.5 metres while the roadway passes 75 metres above the bottom of the strait. The part of the bridge passing over water, 724 metres long, is made of double box girders with a maximum span of 73.5 metres, the entire construction resting on steel poles filled with concrete. Lidingöbron in Swedish. List of bridges in Stockholm
Värtabanan is a railway just north of urban Stockholm, from Tomteboda via Norra Djurgården to Värtahamnen