The Eurasian jay is a species of bird occurring over a vast region from Western Europe and north-west Africa to the Indian Subcontinent and further to the eastern seaboard of Asia and down into south-east Asia. Across its vast range, several distinct racial forms have evolved to look different from each other when forms at the extremes of its range are compared; the bird is called jay, by English speakers in Great Britain and Ireland. It is the original ` jay'; the Eurasian jay was one of the many species described by Linnaeus in his 18th century work Systema Naturae. He recognised its affinity with other corvids; the current scientific name is from Latin. Eight racial groups are recognised by Madge & Burn: Jena Phyletic Museum, in Germany, features an excellent display of plumage variations across these races, used as a striking example of the variation that can be found within species; the nominate group, with a streaked crown. The cervicalis group, with a rufous nape, grey mantle pale head sides, a streaked or black crown.
The atricapillus group, with a uniform mantle & nape, black crown and pale face. The race small with black forecrown and broadly streaked hindcrown; the brandtii group, with a streaked crown, reddish dark iris and grey mantle. The leucotis group, with no white in the wing, a white forecrown, black hindcrown and much white on the sides of the head; the bispecularis group, with an unstreaked rufous crown, no white wing-patch. The japonicus group, with a large white wing-patch, scaled crown. A member of the widespread jay group, about the size of the jackdaw, it inhabits mixed woodland with oaks, is a habitual acorn hoarder. In recent years, the bird has begun to migrate into urban areas as a result of continued erosion of its woodland habitat. Before humans began planting the trees commercially on a wide scale, Eurasian jays were the main source of movement and propagation for the English oak, each bird having the ability to spread more than a thousand acorns each year. Eurasian jays will bury the acorns of other oak species, have been cited by the National Trust as a major propagator of the largest population of Holm oak in Northern Europe, situated in Ventnor on the Isle of Wight.
Jays have been recorded carrying single acorns as far as 20 km, are credited with the rapid northward spread of oaks following the last ice age. Its usual call is the alarm call, a harsh, rasping screech and is used upon sighting various predatory animals, but the jay is well known for its mimicry sounding so like a different species that it is impossible to distinguish its true identity unless the jay is seen, it will imitate the sound of the bird it is attacking, such as a tawny owl, which it does mercilessly if attacking during the day. However, the jay is a potential prey item for owls at night and other birds of prey such as goshawks and peregrines during the day. Feeding in both trees and on the ground, it takes a wide range of invertebrates including many pest insects, acorns and other seeds, fruits such as blackberries and rowan berries, young birds and eggs and small rodents. Like most species, the jay's diet changes with the seasons but is noteworthy for its prolific caching of food—especially oak acorns and beechnuts—for winter and spring.
While caching occurs throughout the year, it is most intense in the autumn. It nests in trees or large shrubs laying 4–6 eggs that hatch after 16–19 days and are fledged after 21–23 days. Both sexes feed the young. For more information, see Anting In order to keep its plumage free from parasites, it lies on top of anthills with spread wings and lets its feathers be sprayed with formic acid. Similar to other corvids, Eurasian jays have been reported to plan for future needs. Male Eurasian Jays take into account the desires of their partner when sharing food with her as a courtship ritual and when protecting food items from stealing conspecifics. Akimova, A.. "First insights into a DNA sequence based phylogeny of the Eurasian Jay Garrulus glandarius". Русский орнитологический журнал: 567–575. ISSN 0869-4362. Retrieved 10 October 2012. Cheke, Lucy G.. "Tool-use and instrumental learning in the Eurasian jay". Animal Cognition. 14: 441–455. Doi:10.1007/s10071-011-0379-4. PMID 21249510.. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds - Birds & Wildlife - Jay Ageing and sexing by Javier Blasco-Zumeta & Gerd-Michael Heinze Feathers of Eurasian jay Jay photos and information BirdLife species factsheet for Garrulus glandarius "Eurasian jay media".
Internet Bird Collection. Eurasian jay photo gallery at VIREO Interactive range map of Garrulus glandarius at IUCN Red List maps Garrulus glandarius in the Flickr: Field Guide Birds of the World Eurasian jay media from ARKive
The egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an embryo develops until it can survive on its own. An egg results from fertilization of an egg cell. Most arthropods and mollusks lay eggs, although some, such as scorpions do not. Reptile eggs, bird eggs, monotreme eggs are laid out of water, are surrounded by a protective shell, either flexible or inflexible. Eggs laid on land or in nests are kept within a warm and favorable temperature range while the embryo grows; when the embryo is adequately developed it hatches, i.e. breaks out of the egg's shell. Some embryos have a temporary egg tooth they use to pip, or break the eggshell or covering; the largest recorded egg is from a whale shark, was 30 cm × 14 cm × 9 cm in size. Whale shark eggs hatch within the mother. At 1.5 kg and up to 17.8 cm × 14 cm, the ostrich egg is the largest egg of any living bird, though the extinct elephant bird and some dinosaurs laid larger eggs. The bee hummingbird produces the smallest known bird egg; some eggs laid by reptiles and most fish, amphibians and other invertebrates can be smaller.
Reproductive structures similar to the egg in other kingdoms are termed "spores," or in spermatophytes "seeds," or in gametophytes "egg cells". Several major groups of animals have distinguishable eggs; the most common reproductive strategy for fish is known as oviparity, in which the female lays undeveloped eggs that are externally fertilized by a male. Large numbers of eggs are laid at one time and the eggs are left to develop without parental care; when the larvae hatch from the egg, they carry the remains of the yolk in a yolk sac which continues to nourish the larvae for a few days as they learn how to swim. Once the yolk is consumed, there is a critical point after which they must learn how to hunt and feed or they will die. A few fish, notably the rays and most sharks use ovoviviparity in which the eggs are fertilized and develop internally; however the larvae still grow inside the egg consuming the egg's yolk and without any direct nourishment from the mother. The mother gives birth to mature young.
In certain instances, the physically most developed offspring will devour its smaller siblings for further nutrition while still within the mother's body. This is known as intrauterine cannibalism. In certain scenarios, some fish such as the hammerhead shark and reef shark are viviparous, with the egg being fertilized and developed internally, but with the mother providing direct nourishment; the eggs of fish and amphibians are jellylike. Cartilagenous fish eggs are fertilized internally and exhibit a wide variety of both internal and external embryonic development. Most fish species spawn eggs that are fertilized externally with the male inseminating the eggs after the female lays them; these eggs would dry out in the air. Air-breathing amphibians lay their eggs in water, or in protective foam as with the Coast foam-nest treefrog, Chiromantis xerampelina. Bird eggs are incubated for a time that varies according to the species. Average clutch sizes range from one to about 17; some birds lay eggs when not fertilized.
The default color of vertebrate eggs is the white of the calcium carbonate from which the shells are made, but some birds passerines, produce colored eggs. The pigment biliverdin and its zinc chelate give a green or blue ground color, protoporphyrin produces reds and browns as a ground color or as spotting. Non-passerines have white eggs, except in some ground-nesting groups such as the Charadriiformes and nightjars, where camouflage is necessary, some parasitic cuckoos which have to match the passerine host's egg. Most passerines, in contrast, lay colored eggs if there is no need of cryptic colors; however some have suggested that the protoporphyrin markings on passerine eggs act to reduce brittleness by acting as a solid state lubricant. If there is insufficient calcium available in the local soil, the egg shell may be thin in a circle around the broad end. Protoporphyrin speckling compensates for this, increases inversely to the amount of calcium in the soil. For the same reason eggs in a clutch are more spotted than early ones as the female's store of calcium is depleted.
The color of individual eggs is genetically influenced, appears to be inherited through the mother only, suggesting that the gene responsible for pigmentation is on the sex determining W chromosome. It used to be thought that color was applied to the shell before laying, but this research shows that coloration is an integral part of the development of the shell, with the same protein responsible for depositing calcium carbonate, or protoporphyrins when there is a lack of that mineral. In species such as the common guillemot, which nest in large groups, each female's eggs have different markings, making it easier for females to identify their own eggs on the crowded cliff ledges on which they breed. Bird eggshells are diverse. For example: cormorant eggs are rough and chalky tinamou eggs are shiny duck eggs are oily and waterproof cassowary eggs are pittedTiny pores in bird eggshells allow the embryo to breathe; the domestic
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
The grey treepie known as the Himalayan treepie, is an Asian treepie, a medium-sized and long-tailed member of the crow family. They are distributed along the foothills of the Himalayas in the Indian Subcontinent and extending into Indochina, southern mainland China and Taiwan; the populations vary in plumage and several are named as subspecies. Grey treepies are omnivorous birds thriving among dense foliage and in forests, they sometimes take part in mixed species flocks with laughingthrushes the white-throated laughingthrush. They systematically work together through the hill forests, rhododendrons and other broad-leaved trees in the mornings; the grey treepie weighs 89 -- 121 g. It is the same size as other Dendrocitta species and is separated from them by the overall grey colour of the body; the races in the western part of the distribution have a greyish rump and some grey in tail while the eastern forms have a white rump and a black tail. The face and throat are black with a diffuse mask.
The body is grey on the underside becoming whiter towards the vent. The back and scapulars are brownish; the crown and nape are greyish and the black wing has a prominent white carpal patch. The vent is rufous and the outer tail feathers and tips of the central feathers are black; the beak is black, the legs are blackish-brown and the eyes are red or reddish-brown. The two sexes are similar; the juvenile bird is duller, with a browner nape, all of its feathers have rufous tips. The species occupies a large geographical range and has several recognised regional forms that differ from one another for instance in colour and tail length; these include occidentalis of the western Himalayan foothills, himalayana from the central Himalayas east into Thailand and Vietnam. A disjunct population, said to have a smaller or narrower bill, is found in the Eastern Ghats of peninsular India, sometimes subsumed into himalayana; the Southeast Asian races include assimilis, sinica and insulae. It has been suggested that this species forms a superspecies along with Dendrocitta occipitalis and Dendrocitta cinerascens.
The grey treepie is arboreal and is found in a wide range of habitats including forest and human habitation. The distribution range includes the foothills of the Himalayas, the Eastern Ghats, Burma, China, Hainan and northern Indochina. In the Himalayas, it is found up to 2,400 m above sea level, in southeastern China, it is found between 400 m and 1,200 m; this treepie is an arboreal feeder but will take some food from the ground in cultivated regions. It eats a wide range of insects and other invertebrates, nectar and other seeds, small reptiles and nestlings, it sometimes joins mixed-species foraging flocks. In the foothills of the Himalayas in India, they are known to breed from 2000 to 6000 feet high during the months of May to July; the nest is a shallow cup lined with hair and is built in trees and bushes or clumps of bamboo with 3-4 eggs per clutch. The eggs can be buffish or pale green, with brown or grey spots. Both the male and female feed the young birds; the voice is described as harsh and grating, but like other species is quite varied and includes a grating k-r-r-r-r sound as well as more melodious notes not unlike those of the rufous treepie.
These include a tiddly-aye-kok, ko-ku-la and barking braap...braap...braap calls. The global population size is not known. In China, there are an estimated 10,000 to 100,000 breeding pairs, the population size in Taiwan is estimated at 10,000 to 100,000 breeding pairs; the population in Hainan may be endangered by habitat destruction. The species has a large range, the population decline does not appear to be rapid, so the IUCN Red List has assessed the species to be of least concern. Grey treepie
Common green magpie
The common green magpie is a member of the crow family about the size of the Eurasian jay or smaller. It is a vivid green in colour lighter on the underside and has a thick black stripe from the bill to the nape. Compared to the other members of its genus, the white-tipped tail is quite long; this all contrasts vividly with the red fleshy eye rims and legs. The wings are reddish maroon; when dead, the colour of the bird changes into blue. It is found from the lower Himalayas in north eastern India in a broad south easterly band down into central Thailand, Malaysia and northwestern Borneo in evergreen forest and scrub; this bird seeks food both on the ground and in trees, takes a high percentage of animal prey from countless invertebrates, small reptiles and young birds and eggs. It will take flesh from a killed carcass; the nest is built in trees, large shrubs and in tangles of various climbing vines. There are 4–6 eggs laid; the voice is quite varied but a harsh peep-peep. It frequently whistles and chatters
Amami Ōshima is one of the Satsunan Islands, is the largest island within the Amami archipelago between Kyūshū and Okinawa. The island, 712.35 km2 in area, has a population of 73,000 people. Administratively it is divided into the city of Amami, the towns of Tatsugō, the villages of Uken and Yamato in Kagoshima Prefecture. Much of the island is within the borders of the Amami Guntō Quasi-National Park. Amami Ōshima is the seventh-largest island in the Japanese archipelago after the four main islands, Okinawa Island and Sado Island, it is located 380 kilometres south of the southern tip of Kyūshū and 250 kilometres north of Okinawa. The island is of volcanic origin, with Mount Yuwanda at 605 metres above sea level at its highest peak; the coast of the island is surrounded by a coral reef. It is surrounded by the East China Sea on the Pacific Ocean on the east; the climate of Amami Ōshima is classified as has a humid subtropical climate with warm summers and mild winters. The rainy season lasts from May through September.
The island is subject to frequent typhoons. Amami Ōshima is home to several rare or endangered endemic animals, including the Amami rabbit and the Lidth's jay, both of which are now found only in Amami Ōshima and Tokunoshima; the Amami rabbit is sometimes called a living fossil because it represents an ancient Asian lineage that has elsewhere disappeared. The island is home to the habu, a venomous snake that can be found throughout the Ryūkyū Islands. Mongooses were introduced to kill the habu, but have become another problem, as an increase in the mongoose population has been linked to the decline of the Amami rabbit and other endemic species. Whale watching to see humpback whales has become a featured attraction in winter in recent years, it is notable that North Pacific right whale, the most endangered of all whale species, have appeared around the island and as of 2014, Amami is the only location in East China Sea where this species has been confirmed in the past 110 years. It is one of two locations in the world along with the Bonin Islands where constant appearance in winter has been confirmed since the 20th century.
Discovery of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins in Seto strait made it the first confirmation in the nation. Other species include whales, smaller whales or dolphins, so on. Before being wiped out, many large whales such as blue and fin were seasonal migrants; the island marks the northernmost limit of dugong distribution, with occasional sightings throughout the 20th and into the 21st century. Amami Oshima is the only place, it is uncertain. Stone tools indicate settlement in the Japanese Paleolithic period, other artifacts, including pottery, indicate a constant contact with Jōmon and Kofun period Japan; the island is mentioned in the ancient Japanese chronicle Nihon Shoki in an entry for the year 657 AD. During the Nara period and early Heian period it was a stopping place for envoys from Japan to the court of Tang dynasty China. Mother of pearl was an important export item to Japan; until 1611, Amami Ōshima was part of the Ryukyu Kingdom. The island was invaded by samurai from Shimazu clan in 1609 and its incorporation into the official holdings of that domain was recognized by the Tokugawa shogunate in 1624.
Shimazu rule was harsh, with the inhabitants of the island reduced to serfdom and forced to raise sugar cane to meet high taxation, which resulted in famine. Saigō Takamori was exiled to Amami Ōshima in 1859, staying for two years, his house has been preserved as a memorial museum. After the Meiji Restoration Amami Ōshima was incorporated into Ōsumi Province and became part of Kagoshima Prefecture. Following World War II, along with the other Amami Islands, it was occupied by the United States until 1953, at which time it reverted to the control of Japan. Since February 1974, a 7,861-hectare area that includes portions of the island and surrounding sea has been protected as Amami Gunto Quasi-national Park; the area has a large mangrove forest. IN 2001 there was a naval battle between a North Korean trawler and Japanese Coast Guard ships near the island, in which the North Korean ship was sunk; the economy of Amami Ōshima is based on agriculture, commercial fishing, the distillation of shōchū.
The favorable climate allows for two rice crops a year. Seasonal tourism is an important part of the economy; the traditional crafts include the production of high quality hand-crafted silk, which has, suffered from the abandonment of traditional Japanese clothing and competition from overseas. The port of Naze, located in the city of Amami is a major regional ferry hub. Amami Airport, located at the northern end of the island, is connected to Tokyo, Naha and Kagoshima as well as local flights to the other Amami islands. Two dialects of the Amami language are spoken in Amami Ōshima: the Northern Ōshima dialect and the Southern Ōshima dialect; these dialects are part of the Ryukyuan languages group. According to Ethnologue, as of 2005 there were about 10,000 speakers of the Northern Ōshima dialect and about 1,800 speakers of the Southern Ōshima dialect; these dialects are now spoken by older residents of the island, while most of the younger generations are monolingual in Japanese. The Amami language, including the Ōshima dialects, is classified as e
Birds known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds range in size from the 5 cm bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m ostrich. They rank as the world's most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have wings which are less developed depending on the species. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites and diverse endemic island species of birds; the digestive and respiratory systems of birds are uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments seabirds and some waterbirds, have further evolved for swimming; the fossil record demonstrates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier feathered dinosaurs within the theropod group, which are traditionally placed within the saurischian dinosaurs.
The closest living relatives of birds are the crocodilians. Primitive bird-like dinosaurs that lie outside class Aves proper, in the broader group Avialae, have been found dating back to the mid-Jurassic period, around 170 million years ago. Many of these early "stem-birds", such as Archaeopteryx, were not yet capable of powered flight, many retained primitive characteristics like toothy jaws in place of beaks, long bony tails. DNA-based evidence finds that birds diversified around the time of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event 66 million years ago, which killed off the pterosaurs and all the non-avian dinosaur lineages, but birds those in the southern continents, survived this event and migrated to other parts of the world while diversifying during periods of global cooling. This makes them the sole surviving dinosaurs according to cladistics; some birds corvids and parrots, are among the most intelligent animals. Many species annually migrate great distances. Birds are social, communicating with visual signals and bird songs, participating in such social behaviours as cooperative breeding and hunting and mobbing of predators.
The vast majority of bird species are monogamous for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years, but for life. Other species have breeding systems that are polygynous or polyandrous. Birds produce offspring by laying eggs, they are laid in a nest and incubated by the parents. Most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching; some birds, such as hens, lay eggs when not fertilised, though unfertilised eggs do not produce offspring. Many species of birds are economically important as food for human consumption and raw material in manufacturing, with domesticated and undomesticated birds being important sources of eggs and feathers. Songbirds and other species are popular as pets. Guano is harvested for use as a fertiliser. Birds prominently figure throughout human culture. About 120–130 species have become extinct due to human activity since the 17th century, hundreds more before then. Human activity threatens about 1,200 bird species with extinction, though efforts are underway to protect them.
Recreational birdwatching is an important part of the ecotourism industry. The first classification of birds was developed by Francis Willughby and John Ray in their 1676 volume Ornithologiae. Carl Linnaeus modified that work in 1758 to devise the taxonomic classification system in use. Birds are categorised as the biological class Aves in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylogenetic taxonomy places Aves in the dinosaur clade Theropoda. Aves and a sister group, the clade Crocodilia, contain the only living representatives of the reptile clade Archosauria. During the late 1990s, Aves was most defined phylogenetically as all descendants of the most recent common ancestor of modern birds and Archaeopteryx lithographica. However, an earlier definition proposed by Jacques Gauthier gained wide currency in the 21st century, is used by many scientists including adherents of the Phylocode system. Gauthier defined Aves to include only the crown group of the set of modern birds; this was done by excluding most groups known only from fossils, assigning them, instead, to the Avialae, in part to avoid the uncertainties about the placement of Archaeopteryx in relation to animals traditionally thought of as theropod dinosaurs.
Gauthier identified four different definitions for the same biological name "Aves", a problem. Gauthier proposed to reserve the term Aves only for the crown group consisting of the last common ancestor of all living birds and all of its descendants, which corresponds to meaning number 4 below, he assigned other names to the other groups. Aves can mean all archosaurs closer to birds than to crocodiles Aves can mean those advanced archosaurs with feathers Aves can mean those feathered dinosaurs that fly Aves can mean the last common ancestor of all the living birds and all of its descendants (a "c