Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are citizens and nationals of the Commonwealth of Australia, although some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim Australian nationality. Home to people of many different ethnic origins and national origins, the Australian culture and law does not correspond nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and loyalty to the country. Despite the fact that over half of the citizens descend from the peoples of the British Isles, Australia is a multicultural society and has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Many early settlements were penal colonies and transported convicts made up a significant proportion of the population in most colonies. Large-scale immigration did not occur. Further waves of immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Europe, the Middle East, Pacific Islands, Latin America and Africa.
Prior to British settlement, Australia was inhabited by various indigenous peoples – Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal Tasmanians and Torres Strait Islanders, a Melanesian people. A small percentage of present-day Australians descend from these peoples; the development of a separate Australian identity and national character is most linked with the period surrounding the First World War, which gave rise to the concept of the Anzac spirit. The Eureka Rebellion of 1854 and various events of the Second World War, most notably the Kokoda Track campaign, are frequently mentioned in association with Australian identity. However, Australian culture predates the federation of the Australian colonies by several decades – Australian literature, most notably the work of the bush poets, dates from colonial times. Modern Australian identity draws on a multicultural and British cultural heritage; the majority of Australians or their ancestors immigrated within the past four centuries, with the exception of the Indigenous population and other outer lying islands who became Australian through expansion of the country.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of Australia held in common by most Australians can be referred to as mainstream Australian culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of British and Irish colonists and immigrants. The Colony of New South Wales was established by the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1788, with the arrival of the First Fleet, five other colonies were established in the early 19th century, now forming the six present-day Australian states. Large-scale immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Southern and Eastern Europe introducing a variety of elements. Immigration from the Middle East and east Asia, Pacific Islands and Latin America has been having an impact; the predominance of the English language, the existence of a democratic system of government drawing upon the British traditions of Westminster Government, Parliamentarianism and constitutional monarchy, American constitutionalist and federalist traditions, Christianity as the dominant religion, the popularity of sports originating in the British Isles, are all evidence of a significant Anglo-Celtic heritage.
Australian culture has diverged since British settlement. Sporting teams representing the whole of Australia have been in existence since the 1870s. Australians are referred to as "Aussie" and "Antipodean". Australians were referred to as "Colonials", "British" and "British subjects"; as a result of many shared linguistic, historical and geographic characteristics, Australians have identified with New Zealanders in particular. Furthermore, elements of Indigenous, American and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the modern Australian culture. Today, Australians of English and other European descent are the majority in Australia, estimated at around 70% of the total population. European immigrants had great influence over Australian history and society, which resulted in the perception of Australia as a Western country. Since soon after the beginning of British settlement in 1788, people of European descent have formed the majority of the population in Australia; the majority of Australians are of British – English, Welsh, Cornish, or Manx – and Irish ancestral origin.
Although some observers stress Australia's convict history, the vast majority of early settlers came of their own free will. Far more Australians are descended from assisted immigrants than from convicts, the majority being British and Irish. About 20% of Australians are descendants of convicts. Most of the first Australian settlers came from London, the Midlands and the North of England, Ireland. Settlers that arrived throughout the 19th century were from all parts of the United Kingdom and Ireland, a significant proportion of settlers came from the Southwest and Southeast of England, from Ireland and from Scotland. Anglo-Celtic Australians have been influential in shaping the nation's character. By the mid-1840s, the numbers of freeborn settlers had overtaken the convict population. In 1888, 60 percent of the Australian population had been born in Australia, all had British ancestral origins. Out of the remaining 40 percent, 34 percent had been born in the British Isles, 6 percent were of European origin from Germany and Scandinavia.
In the 1840s, Scots-born immigrants constituted 12 percent of
A Little Princess
A Little Princess is a children's novel by Frances Hodgson Burnett, first published as a book in 1905. It is an expanded version of the short story "Sara Crewe: or, What Happened at Miss Minchin's", serialized in St. Nicholas Magazine from December 1887, published in book form in 1888. According to Burnett, after she composed the 1902 play A Little Un-fairy Princess based on that story, her publisher asked that she expand the story as a novel with "the things and people, left out before"; the novel was published by Charles Scribner's Sons with illustrations by Ethel Franklin Betts and the full title A Little Princess: Being the Whole Story of Sara Crewe Now Being Told for the First Time. Based on a 2007 online poll, the U. S. National Education Association named the book one of its "Teachers' Top 100 Books for Children". In 2012 it was ranked number 56 among all-time children's novels in a survey published by School Library Journal, a monthly with U. S. audience. It was the second of two Burnett novels among the Top 100, with The Secret Garden number 15.
Captain Crewe, a wealthy English widower, has been raising his only child, Sara, in India where he is stationed with the British Army. Because the Indian climate is considered too harsh for children, British families living there traditionally send their children to boarding school back home in England; the captain enrolls his young daughter at Miss Minchin's boarding school for girls in London, dotes on his daughter so much that he orders and pays the headmistress for special treatment and exceptional luxuries for Sara, such as a private room for her with a personal maid and a separate sitting room, along with Sara's own private carriage and a pony. Miss Minchin fawns over Sara for her money, but secretly and jealously despises her for her wealth. Despite her privilege, Sara is neither arrogant nor snobbish, but rather kind and clever, she extends her friendship to the school dunce. When Sara acquires the epithet of a princess, she embraces its favorable elements in her natural goodheartedness.
After some time, Sara's birthday is celebrated at Miss Minchin's with a lavish party, attended by all her friends and classmates. Just as it ends, Miss Minchin learns of Captain Crewe's unfortunate demise. Furthermore, prior to his death, the wealthy captain had lost his entire fortune; the scheme fails, Sara is left an orphan and a pauper, with no other family and nowhere to go. Miss Minchin is left with a sizable unpaid bill for Sara's school fees and luxuries, including her birthday party. Infuriated and pitiless, she takes away all of Sara's possessions, makes her live in a cold and poorly furnished attic, forces her to earn her keep by working as an errand girl, she forces Sarah to wear frocks much too short for her, with her thin legs peeking out of the brief skirt. For the next several years, Sara is abused except for Becky. Miss Minchin's kind-hearted sister, deplores how Sara is treated, but is too weak-willed to speak up about it. Sara is starved, worked for long hours, sent out in all weathers, poorly dressed in outgrown and worn-out clothes, deprived of warmth or a comfortable bed in the attic.
Despite her hardships, Sara is consoled by her friends and uses her imagination to cope, pretending she is a prisoner in the Bastille or a princess disguised as a servant. Sara continues to be kind and polite to everyone, including those who treat her badly. One day, she finds a coin in the street and uses it to buy buns at a bakery, but despite being hungry, she gives most of the buns away to a beggar girl dressed in rags, hungrier than herself; the bakery shop owner sees this and wants to reward Sara, but she has disappeared, so the shop owner instead gives the beggar girl bread and warm shelter for Sara's sake. Meanwhile, Mr. Carrisford and his Indian assistant Ram Dass have moved into the house next door to Miss Minchin's school. Carrisford had been Captain Crewe's partner in the diamond mines. After the diamond mine venture failed, both Crewe and Carrisford became ill, Carrisford in his delirium abandoned his friend Crewe, who died of his "brain fever." As it turned out, the diamond mines did not fail, but instead were a great success, making Carrisford rich.
Although Carrisford survived, he suffers from several ailments and is guilt-ridden over abandoning his friend. He is determined to find Crewe's daughter and heir, although he does not know where she is and thinks she is attending school in France. Ram Dass befriends Sara. After climbing over the roof to Sara's room to get the monkey, Ram Dass tells Carrisford about Sara's poor living conditions; as a pleasant distraction and Ram Dass buy warm blankets, comfortable furniture and other gifts, secretly leave them in Sara's room when she is asleep or out. Sara's spirits and health improve due to the gifts she receives from her mysterious benefactor, whose identity she does not know; when Carrisford anonymously sends Sara a package of new, well-made, expensive clothing in her proper size, Miss Minchin becomes alarmed, thinking Sara might have a wealthy relative secretly looking out for her, begins to treat Sara better and allows her to attend classes rather than doing menial work. One night, the monkey again runs away
To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird is a novel by Harper Lee published in 1960. Successful read in high schools and middle schools in the United States, it has become a classic of modern American literature winning the Pulitzer Prize; the plot and characters are loosely based on Lee's observations of her family, her neighbors and an event that occurred near her hometown of Monroeville, Alabama, in 1936, when she was 10 years old. The novel is renowned for its warmth and humor, despite dealing with the serious issues of rape and racial inequality; the narrator's father, Atticus Finch, has served as a moral hero for many readers and as a model of integrity for lawyers. Historian, J Crespino explains, "In the twentieth century, To Kill a Mockingbird is the most read book dealing with race in America, its protagonist, Atticus Finch, the most enduring fictional image of racial heroism."As a Southern Gothic and Bildungsroman novel, the primary themes of To Kill a Mockingbird involve racial injustice and the destruction of innocence.
Scholars have noted that Lee addresses issues of class, courage and gender roles in the American Deep South. The book is taught in schools in the United States with lessons that emphasize tolerance and decry prejudice. Despite its themes, To Kill a Mockingbird has been subject to campaigns for removal from public classrooms challenged for its use of racial epithets. Reaction to the novel varied upon publication. Despite the number of copies sold and its widespread use in education, literary analysis of it is sparse. Author Mary McDonough Murphy, who collected individual impressions of To Kill a Mockingbird by several authors and public figures, calls the book "an astonishing phenomenon". In 2006, British librarians ranked the book ahead of the Bible as one "every adult should read before they die", it was adapted into an Academy Award-winning film in 1962 by director Robert Mulligan, with a screenplay by Horton Foote. Since 1990, a play based on the novel has been performed annually in Harper Lee's hometown.
To Kill a Mockingbird was Lee's only published book until Go Set a Watchman, an earlier draft of To Kill a Mockingbird, was published on July 14, 2015. Lee continued to respond to her work's impact until her death in February 2016, although she had refused any personal publicity for herself or the novel since 1964. Born in 1926, Harper Lee grew up in the Southern town of Monroeville, where she became close friends with soon-to-be famous writer Truman Capote, she attended Huntingdon College in Montgomery, studied law at the University of Alabama. While attending college, she wrote for campus literary magazines: Huntress at Huntingdon and the humor magazine Rammer Jammer at the University of Alabama. At both colleges, she wrote short stories and other works about racial injustice, a mentioned topic on such campuses at the time. In 1950, Lee moved to New York City, where she worked as a reservation clerk for British Overseas Airways Corporation. Hoping to be published, Lee presented her writing in 1957 to a literary agent recommended by Capote.
An editor at J. B. Lippincott, who bought the manuscript, advised her to concentrate on writing. Donations from friends allowed her to write uninterruptedly for a year. After finishing the first draft and returning it to Lippincott, the manuscript, at that point titled "Go Set a Watchman", fell into the hands of Therese von Hohoff Torrey, known professionally as Tay Hohoff. Hohoff was impressed, "he spark of the true writer flashed in every line," she would recount in a corporate history of Lippincott, but as Hohoff saw it, the manuscript was by no means fit for publication, it was, as she described it, "more a series of anecdotes than a conceived novel." During the following two and a half years, she led Lee from one draft to the next until the book achieved its finished form. After the "Watchman" title was rejected, it was re-titled Atticus but Lee renamed it To Kill a Mockingbird to reflect that the story went beyond a character portrait; the book was published on July 11, 1960. The editorial team at Lippincott warned Lee that she would sell only several thousand copies.
In 1964, Lee recalled her hopes for the book when she said, I never expected any sort of success with'Mockingbird.'... I was hoping for a quick and merciful death at the hands of the reviewers but, at the same time, I sort of hoped someone would like it enough to give me encouragement. Public encouragement. I hoped for a little, as I said, but I got rather a whole lot, in some ways this was just about as frightening as the quick, merciful death I'd expected. Instead of a "quick and merciful death", Reader's Digest Condensed Books chose the book for reprinting in part, which gave it a wide readership immediately. Since the original publication, the book has never been out of print; the story, told by the six-year-old Jean Louise Finch, takes place during three years of the Great Depression in the fictional "tired old town" of Maycomb, the seat of Maycomb County. Jean Louise Finch, nicknamed Scout, lives with her older brother Jeremy, nicknamed Jem, their widowed father Atticus, a middle-aged lawyer.
Jem and Scout befriend. The three children are terrified, yet fascinated by their neighbor, the reclusive Arthur "Boo" Radley; the adults of Maycomb are hesitant to talk about Boo, few of them have seen him for many years. The children feed one another's imagination with rumors about his appearance and reasons for remaining hidden, they fantasize about how to get him out of his house. After two sum
A Little Princess (1995 film)
A Little Princess is a 1995 American family drama film directed by Alfonso Cuarón and starring Eleanor Bron, Liam Cunningham, introducing Liesel Matthews as Sara Crewe with supporting roles by Vanessa Lee Chester, Rusty Schwimmer, Arthur Malet, Errol Sitahal. Set during World War I, it focuses on a young girl, relegated to a life of servitude in a New York City boarding school by the headmistress after receiving news that her father was killed in combat. Loosely based upon the novel A Little Princess by Frances Hodgson Burnett, this adaptation was influenced by the 1939 cinematic version and takes creative liberties with the original story; the film was critically acclaimed and given various awards, such as two Academy Award nominations for its significant achievements in art direction and cinematography, among other aspects of its production. Sara Crewe is the kind and caring daughter of Captain Richard Crewe, a wealthy aristocrat living in India. Sara's mother died along with her unborn daughter when she was young, she has to leave her beloved childhood home and friends when her father volunteers to fight for the British as an officer in World War I.
Captain Crewe enrolls Sara at a girls' boarding school in New York, instructs the headmistress Miss Maria Minchin to spare no expense making sure his daughter will be comfortable while he is away. He has reserved her the school's largest suite, gives Sara a special locket of her mother's picture, a French doll named Emily, telling her that if she wants to talk to him, just speak to Emily and he will hear it. Though she finds the strict rules and Miss Minchin's harsh attitude stifling, Sara becomes popular among the girls, including the scullery maid Becky, for her kindness and strong sense of imagination, she writes constant letters to her father, which are a great source of happiness for him on the battlefield. Due to a body being misidentified, Captain Crewe is declared dead when he is seriously injured and suffering from amnesia, the British government seizes his company and assets; when Miss Minchin hears the news, she is in the middle of throwing a lavish birthday party for Sara, hoping to extort more money from her father.
When Crewe's solicitor arrives and tells her there will be no more money, Miss Minchin is furious. Since Sara is now penniless and has no known relatives, Miss Minchin decides to move her to the attic with Becky to work as a servant where she will report to Mabel at 5 a.m. Miss Minchin confiscates most of Sara's personal belongings, including her locket, as compensation for her financial losses. Meanwhile, the elderly neighbor Charles Randolph has received word that his son John, fighting in Europe, is missing in action, he is asked to identify a soldier suffering from amnesia, but he is discouraged to discover it is not John. His Indian assistant Ram Dass encourages him to take in the man anyway, reminding him that he may know what happened to his son. Though her life is bleak, Sara remains kind to others and continues to hold onto her belief that all girls are princesses. Sara and Becky play a chimney prank on Miss Minchin after she scolds a young chimney sweep boy. Sara shows sympathy toward Miss Minchin's sister Amelia.
Ram Dass, who lives in the attic of the Randolph house, is brought to notice Sara and Becky by the household's monkey, hears Sara telling imaginative stories to Becky. He mentions the girls to his employer, saying he would like to make some of their imaginings come true; when the girls sneak up to visit Sara and are caught by Miss Minchin, Sara protects her friends by saying she invited them. As punishment, Miss Minchin locks Becky in her room and assigns Sara to perform both Becky's and her own chores for the next day without anything to eat for both of them, she taunts Sara over believing she is still a princess. But when Sara stands up to Miss Minchin, saying that all girls are princesses despite their miserable lives, she angrily threatens to throw her out into the street if she's seen with the girls again. After Miss Minchin storms out, to distract them from their hunger and Becky imagine a huge banquet, with themselves warmly and attractively dressed, a pleasant fire burning in the grate.
The next day, they wake to find the dream has come true, having secretly been brought over by Ram Dass. That night, Amelia sneaks out of the school and runs off with the milkman; when Miss Minchin notices Sara's locket is missing, she goes to Sara's room and confronts her in a rage. After she discovers all the finery left by Ram Dass, Miss Minchin accuses Sara of stealing everything and summons the police. With Becky's help, Sara narrowly avoids arrest by perilously climbing over to the Randolph house. Having failed to catch Sara, Miss Minchin insists the police arrest Becky for interfering with them. While hiding from the police, Sara realizes he is her father. Captain Crewe, though sympathetic to the girl, does not recognize her at all; as she tries to make him remember, Miss Minchin and the police arrive with Ram Dass and Mr. Randolph. Though Miss Minchin recognizes Crewe, she falsely claims that Sara has no father and commands the police officers to seize her; as the police are about to take Sara away along with Becky, Crewe regains his memory with help from Ram Dass, rescues his daughter.
Miss Minchin angrily walks away in defeat. Some time Captain Crewe has cleared things up with Miss Minchin's superiors and the bank; the boarding school is given to Mr. Randolph, his efforts make
American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, whether by religion, ethnicity or nationality. The current Jewish community in the United States consists of Ashkenazi Jews, who descend from diaspora Jewish populations of Central and Eastern Europe and comprise about 90-95% of the American Jewish population. Most American Ashkenazim are US-born, with a dwindling number of now elderly earlier immigrants, as well as some more recent foreign-born immigrants. During the colonial era, prior to the mass immigration of Ashkenazim and Portuguese Jews represented the bulk of America's small Jewish population, while their descendants are a minority today, they along with an array of other Jewish communities represented the remainder of American Jews, including other more recent Sephardic Jews, Mizrahi Jews, various other ethnically Jewish communities, as well as a smaller number of converts to Judaism; the American Jewish community manifests a wide range of Jewish cultural traditions, encompassing the full spectrum of Jewish religious observance.
Depending on religious definitions and varying population data, the United States has the largest or second largest Jewish community in the world, after Israel. In 2012, the American Jewish population was estimated at between 5.5 and 8 million, depending on the definition of the term, which constitutes between 1.7% and 2.6% of the total U. S. population. Jews have been present in the Thirteen Colonies since the mid-17th century. However, they were small in number, with at most 200 to 300 having arrived by 1700; those early arrivers were Sephardic Jewish immigrants, of Western Sephardic ancestry, but by 1720 Ashkenazi Jews from Central and Eastern Europe predominated. The English Plantation Act 1740 for the first time permitted Jews to become British citizens and emigrate to the colonies. Despite some being denied the ability to vote or hold office in local jurisdictions, Sephardic Jews became active in community affairs in the 1790s, after achieving political equality in the five states where they were most numerous.
Until about 1830, South Carolina had more Jews than anywhere else in North America. Large-scale Jewish immigration commenced in the 19th century, when, by mid-century, many German Jews had arrived, migrating to the United States in large numbers due to antisemitic laws and restrictions in their countries of birth, they became merchants and shop-owners. There were 250,000 Jews in the United States by 1880, many of them being the educated, secular, German Jews, although a minority population of the older Sephardic Jewish families remained influential. Jewish migration to the United States increased in the early 1880s, as a result of persecution and economic difficulties in parts of Eastern Europe. Most of these new immigrants were Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazi Jews, most of whom arrived from the poor diaspora communities of the Russian Empire and the Pale of Settlement, located in modern-day Poland, Belarus and Moldova. During the same period, great numbers of Ashkenazi Jews arrived from Galicia, at that time the most impoverished region of the Austro-Hungarian empire with a heavy Jewish urban population, driven out by economic reasons.
Many Jews emigrated from Romania. Over 2,000,000 Jews landed between the late 19th century and 1924, when the Immigration Act of 1924 restricted immigration. Most settled in the New York metropolitan area, establishing the world's major concentrations of Jewish population. In 1915 the circulation of the daily Yiddish newspapers was half a million in New York City alone, 600,000 nationally. In addition thousands more subscribed to the numerous weekly papers and the many magazines. At the beginning of the 20th century, these newly arrived Jews built support networks consisting of many small synagogues and Landsmanshaften for Jews from the same town or village. American Jewish writers of the time urged assimilation and integration into the wider American culture, Jews became part of American life. 500,000 American Jews fought in World War II, after the war younger families joined the new trend of suburbanization. There, Jews became assimilated and demonstrated rising intermarriage; the suburbs facilitated the formation of new centers, as Jewish school enrollment more than doubled between the end of World War II and the mid-1950s, while synagogue affiliation jumped from 20% in 1930 to 60% in 1960.
More recent waves of Jewish emigration from Russia and other regions have joined the mainstream American Jewish community. Americans of Jewish descent have been disproportionately successful in many fields and aspects over the years; the Jewish community in America has gone from a lower class minority, with most studies putting upwards of 80% as manual factory laborers prior to World War I and with the majority of fields barred to them, to the consistent richest or second richest ethnicity in America for the past 40 years in terms of average annual salary, with high concentrations in academia and other fields, today have the highest per capita income of any ethnic group in the United States, at around double the average income of non-Jewish Americans. In 2016, Modern Orthodox Jews had a median household income of $158,000, while Open Orthodox Jews had a median household income at $185,000. Scholars debate whether the favorable historical experience for Jews in the United States has been such a unique experience as to validate American exceptionalism.
Jennifer Natalya Pritzker is an American investor and member of the Pritzker family. Pritzker retired as a Lieutenant Colonel from the United States Army in 2001, was made an honorary Colonel in the Illinois Army National Guard. Founder of the Tawani Foundation in 1995, Tawani Enterprises in 1996, the Pritzker Military Library in 2003, Pritzker has been devoted to civic applications of inherited and accrued wealth, including significant donations to broaden understanding and support for "citizen soldiers." In August 2013, Pritzker released a statement to individuals associated with two business and philanthropic organizations that subsequently received wide media coverage, indicating the change from "J. N." to "Jennifer Natalya" to reflect her status as a transgender woman, making her the first and only transgender billionaire. Born as James Nicholas Pritzker to Robert Pritzker and Audrey Pritzker in Chicago, Illinois, she grew up as a member of the Jewish Pritzker family as the granddaughter of family patriarch A.
N. Pritzker, she has Linda Pritzker and Karen Pritzker Vlock. Her parents divorced in 1979, she has two half-siblings, Matthew Pritzker and Liesel Pritzker Simmons, from the remarriage of her father, Robert, to Irene Dryburgh in 1980.. Pritzker says her most memorable experiences in life were in Israel in October 1973 when she witnessed events of the Yom Kippur War. Pritzker enlisted in the U. S. Army on February 8, 1974, served with the HQ Troop, with the B Troop, 1st Squadron, 17th Cavalry Regiment, both in the 82nd Airborne Division based at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, rising to the rank of Sergeant. Pritzker's roles while enlisted included aviation repair parts clerk and fire team leader. After completing military service in February 1977, Pritzker enrolled at Loyola University of Chicago, majoring in history, entered its Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps program. Pritzker graduated with a BA in History in May 1979, received commission as an Army officer that same month. Pritzker first served with the 1st Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division based at Fort Campbell, with duty assignments that included leading rifle and TOW platoons, time in the Commandant Division, the Anti-Armor School.
Pritzker served as a staff officer with the VII Corps at Kelley Barracks, in Germany, from 1984–1985. Her active duty ended in 1985. After 16 years in the Army Reserves and Illinois Army National Guard, Pritzker retired from the United States Army as a lieutenant colonel, in 2001. After retiring, Pritzker was promoted to the honorary rank of Colonel in the Illinois Army National Guard. While serving, Pritzker was awarded the Meritorious Service Medal, the Army Commendation Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster, the Army Achievement Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster, the Good Conduct Medal, the Army Reserve Components Achievement Medal with 3 Oak Leaf Clusters, the National Defense Service Medal with Star, the Antarctic Service Medal, the Outstanding Military Volunteer Service Medal, the Armed Forces Reserve Medal with 20 year Device, the NCO Professional Development Ribbon, the Army Service Ribbon, the Army Reserve Component Overseas Training Ribbon, the State of Louisiana Legion of Merit, the State of Illinois Long and Honorable Service Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster, the State of Illinois Military Attendance Ribbon with Numeral 7, the U.
S. Army Parachute Badge and the Air Assault Badge. Pritzker earned airborne badges from Israel, Canada, the Netherlands, Great Britain, as well as from Poland. In 1996, she incorporated Tawani Enterprises, where she served as President and CEO, a business entity with current stated purpose as a "private wealth management company established to manage the personal wealth, philanthropic endeavors, military interests of Colonel J. N. Pritzker." Interests of the company include significant Chicago real estate holdings. In 1995, Pritzker created the Tawani Foundation, in 2003, she founded the Pritzker Military Library, both dedicated to the understanding and support of the "citizen soldier." In addition, Pritzker serves as Chairwoman of the Board of the Connecticut-based private equity firm Squadron Capital LLC, in which she has been identified a principle investor. Pritzker has served as Special Projects Director for the National Strategy Forum, as Chairman of the Board and co-owner of National Security Ltd. and is active in number of further philanthropic enterprises.
In 2016, Jennifer Pritzker was presented the Bonham Centre Award from The Mark S. Bonham Centre for Sexual Diversity Studies, University of Toronto, for her contributions to the advancement and education of issues around sexual identification. Jennifer Pritzker's father Robert, his brothers Jay and Donald and diversified a Chicago-based family business, the Marmon Group, into a holding company of more than 60 diverse industrial corporations; the family began divesting of many of these assets. In 2006, the family sold Conwood, a smokeless tobacco company, for $3.5 billion to cigarette company Reynolds American Inc. In 2007, the family sold a 60% stake, sold control of the Marmon Group to Berkshire Hathaway for $4.5 billion, a sale that it completed in 2013. In 2010, the family sold its majority stake in Transunion, the Chicago-based credit reporting company, to Chicago-based private-equity firm Madison Dearborn Partners for an undisclosed a
Royal Caribbean International
Royal Caribbean International known by its former name Royal Caribbean Cruise Line, is a cruise line brand founded in 1968 in Norway and organised as a wholly owned subsidiary of Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. since 1997. Based in Miami, United States, it is one of the largest cruise lines in the world. In 2018, Royal Caribbean International controlled 19.2% of the worldwide cruise market by passengers and 14.0% by revenue. It operates many of the world's largest ships. Royal Caribbean Cruise Line was founded in 1968 by three Norwegian shipping companies: Anders Wilhelmsen & Company, I. M. Skaugen & Company, Gotaas Larsen; the newly created line put the Song of Norway, into service two years later. A year the line added the Nordic Prince to the fleet and in 1972 it added the Sun Viking. In 1978, Song of Norway became Royal Caribbean's first passenger ship to be lengthened; this was accomplished via the insertion of an 85-foot section to the vessel's severed center. Following the success of this work, Nordic Prince was stretched in 1980.
During the stretching on both ships, their sterns were modified. However the Sun Viking remained the same size and shape. Royal Caribbean received widespread global recognition when in 1982 it launched the Song of America, over twice the size of Sun Viking and at the time the third largest passenger vessel afloat. In 1986, Royal Caribbean leased a coastal property in Labadie, Haiti to be used as a private destination for its guests, renamed as Labadee. After a corporate restructuring in 1988, the line launched Sovereign of the Seas, the largest passenger vessel afloat at the time; that same year, Royal Caribbean merged with Admiral Cruises. Two years in 1990, Nordic Empress and Viking Serenade entered service, while Royal Caribbean purchased a second private destination, Little Stirrup Cay, an island in the Bahamas, which they branded as CocoCay; the second and third Sovereign-class cruise ships Monarch of the Seas and Majesty of the Seas were delivered in 1991 and 1992 respectively. Royal Caribbean went public on the New York Stock Exchange in 1993.
Over the next two years, the company experienced rapid growth, it built a new corporate headquarters in Miami and replaced the Nordic Prince with a new vessel, the Legend of the Seas. Following these events, two new Vision-class vessels entered service, the Splendour of the Seas and Grandeur of the Seas. In 1996, the company contracted with Finland's Aker Finnyards for the construction of 130,000-ton vessels and, in 1997, the line's oldest ship, Song of Norway, was sold and two new Vision-class ships entered service, Rhapsody of the Seas and Enchantment of the Seas. In 1997, it merged with the Greek cruise line Celebrity Cruises and changed its name from Royal Caribbean Cruise Line to Royal Caribbean International; the next year marked a transition to a more "strictly modern line", when the last of the company's older vessels, Song of America and Sun Viking, were retired. In 1998, Vision of the Seas came into the last of the Vision-class ships. In 1999, the Voyager of the Seas, the line's newest and world's largest cruise ship entered service with much attention from the news media.
Two years the line took delivery of a second Voyager-class ship, Explorer of the Seas, the first of a new Radiance class of more environmentally friendly cruise liners, Radiance of the Seas. In 2000, Royal Caribbean operated a series of land-and-sea-based "cruise tours" in Alaska, featuring glass-domed train cars to scenic destinations within the state and Canada. Over the next two years, they introduced cruise tours to destinations throughout Europe; the Voyager-class Navigator of the Seas and the Radiance-class Brilliance of the Seas were put into service in 2002. Mariner of the Seas and Serenade of the Seas, another pair of Voyager and Radiance-class ships, were introduced the next year, rock-climbing walls were made a feature of every Royal Caribbean ship that year. A fourth Radiance-class ship, Jewel of the Seas, followed in 2004, the line's Nordic Empress was reconditioned and re-christened as Empress of the Seas, sold to Pullmantur Cruises in 2008. In 2005, Enchantment of the Seas underwent a massive renovation including enlarging the ship with a 74-foot midsection.
Construction commenced on Freedom of the Seas, the line's newest ship, at Aker Finnyards in 2005, the vessel launched the next year as the largest passenger vessel in the world. Freedom of the Seas's sister ship, Liberty of the Seas, was launched in 2007, Independence of the Seas was delivered in 2008. An larger class, the Oasis class, featuring Oasis of the Seas and Allure of the Seas, was launched in 2009 and 2010, guaranteeing Royal Caribbean the ship size lead for years to come. In December 2012, Royal Caribbean announced that they had ordered a third Oasis-class cruise ship from STX France, which would be larger than the previous ships in the class. In March 2014 Royal Caribbean announced that they had ordered a fourth Oasis-Class ship from STX France. In February 2013, Royal Caribbean announced the first two ships of their newest Quantum class, Quantum of the Seas and Anthem of the Seas, which were being built at the Meyer Werft shipyard. In May of that year, Royal Caribbean announced that they had signed a contract for a third Quantum-class ship for delivery in mid-2016.
In September 2014, Royal Caribbean announced that the third Quantum-class ship would be named Ovation of the Seas, in February 2015 they announced that the third Oasis-class ship would be named Harmony of the Seas. In Ma