Attorney General of California
The Attorney General of California is the State Attorney General of California. The Department employs over 1,100 attorneys and 3,700 non-attorney employees, the Attorney General is elected to a four-year term, with a maximum of two terms. The election is held at the statewide election as the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Heads the Department of Justice, which is responsible for providing legal services. Acts as the counsel in state litigation. Oversees law enforcement agencies, including District Attorneys and Sheriffs, the attorney general lacked jurisdiction over matters in the jurisdiction of locally-elected district attorneys and sheriffs. Warren went on to become Attorney General himself in 1938 where he reorganized states law enforcement into districts, for a comprehensive list, see List of Attorneys General of California. Representative George Deukmejian – Governor of California Jerry Brown – California Secretary of State, Governor of California Mayor, Oakland California Kamala Harris – U. S
California Institute for Regenerative Medicine
The California Institute for Regenerative Medicine was created in 2004 after 59% of California voters approved California Proposition 71 (2004, The California Stem Cell Research and Cures Initiative. The passing of Proposition 71 established a 29-member Independent Citizens Oversight Committee that governs the allocation of the $3 billion authorized to fund stem cell research in California, implementation of Proposition 71 was delayed when opponents filed two lawsuits that challenged the constitutionality of California Proposition 71. During the litigation delay, CIRM focused on logistical and administrative procedures, in December 2004, CIRM held their first meeting to discuss the hiring of their first president, the location of their headquarters and established three working groups that would advise the board. The three working groups included and Medical Research Funding and Medical Research Facilities, in 2005, the agency moved their headquarters to San Francisco, California and CIRM issued its first grants in 2006. CIRM’s funding process occurs in several steps and it begins with the science staff evaluating current stem cell research and determining the type of funding that is most likely to advance the field.
This decision marks a new round of funding focused on a specific goal, the agency issues a request for applications and scientists and organizations in California organize and submit proposals relating to the specific goals of CIRM. The proposals are evaluated by an group of independent experts in stem cell research, therapy development. None of the experts are located in California, the expert panel reviews each application and makes recommendations to CIRM’s governing board as to those applications that should receive funding. The CIRM governing board considers the experts’ recommendations and votes on the applications that will receive funding, CIRM provides funding in three general areas, research and facilities. The earliest rounds of funding focused on the development of facilities, lab spaces, when CIRM first started in 2004, scientists in California interested in stem cell research struggled with a lack of specialized research facilities and access to essential research equipment. A majority of the funding is allocated to areas of stem cell research.
The first research grants focused specifically on basic science to help build knowledge, CIRM has provided funding for research that involves all types of stem cells with the most commonly funded being embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and adult stem cells. Developing a more understanding of stem cells has enabled scientists to expand their research. CIRM has provided funding for 87 therapy-focused studies totaling approximately $600 million, the grants focused on advancing basic research towards patient application by enhancing the development of drugs for various diseases. In 2012, two companies, ViaCyte and Bluebird Bio received a total of $20 million in grants that supported their work in developing therapies for diabetes mellitus. Over the past few years, the developments in stem cell research, up until 2009, awards were applied to research space and discovery research. Since 2009, CIRM has continually increased the funds committed to research from approximately $200,000.00 to $600,000.00.
In 2008 the Little Hoover Commission evaluated CIRM at the request of California Senators Sheila Kuehl, the Commission commented specifically on the structure of the CIRM governance board and the need for greater transparency and accountability
Joseph Graham Gray Davis, Jr. is an American politician and attorney who served as the 37th Governor of California from 1999 to 2003. A member of the Democratic Party, only months into his term, in 2003 Davis was recalled and removed from office. Prior to serving as governor, Davis was chief of staff to Governor Jerry Brown, a California State Assemblyman, California State Controller, Davis holds a B. A. in history from Stanford University and a J. D. from Columbia Law School. He was awarded a Bronze Star for his service as a Captain in the Vietnam War, during his time as governor, Davis made education his top priority and California spent eight billion dollars more than was required under Proposition 98 during his first term. Under Davis, California standardized test scores increased for five straight years, Davis signed the nations first state law requiring automakers to limit auto emissions. Davis supported laws to ban assault weapons and he is credited with improving relations between California and Mexico.
Voters were alienated by Daviss record-breaking fundraising efforts and negative campaigning and he was succeeded in office on November 17,2003 by actor Arnold Schwarzenegger, who won the recall replacement race. Davis spent 1,778 days as governor and signed 5,132 bills out of 6,244, vetoing 1,112 bills. Since being recalled, Davis has worked as a lecturer at the UCLA School of Public Affairs, as an attorney at Loeb & Loeb, Davis was born in the Bronx, New York City, the son of Doris Morell and Joseph G. Davis. Davis moved to California with his family as a child in 1954 and he was the first of the familys five children, three boys and two girls. He was raised a Roman Catholic and his family were one of the millions of Americans to migrate to the southwest and California as part of the post-World War II sun belt migration. His diverse educational experiences at public and Catholic schools allowed him an opportunity to all three systems as a lawmaker. Davis graduated from a North Hollywood military academy, the Harvard School for Boys, Davis family was upper middle class and was led by his demanding mother.
Davis was nicknamed Gray by his mother and his father, Joseph Graham Davis, Sr. an advertising manager at Time Inc. and an alcoholic, was the son of businessman William Rhodes Davis. His strong academic accomplishments earned him acceptance to Stanford University and he played on the Stanford golf team with a two handicap. After Davis entered Stanford University, his left the family. The deal included a promise to enter the regular Army after completing his education and he earned a Bachelor of Arts in history at Stanford, where he was admitted to the Zeta Psi fraternity, graduating in 1964 with distinction. He returned to New York City to attend Columbia Law School where he won the Moot Court award, during law school Davis had a romantic encounter with actress Cybill Shepherd
California gubernatorial recall election
The 2003 California gubernatorial recall election was a special election permitted under California state law. It resulted in voters replacing incumbent Democratic Governor Gray Davis with Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger, Davis was ineligible to run for a third term due to term limits after the recall election. The recall effort spanned the latter half of 2003, other California governors, including Pat Brown, Ronald Reagan, Jerry Brown, and Pete Wilson, had faced unsuccessful recall attempts. S. In 1988, an election had been scheduled for Arizona governor Evan Mecham, but he was impeached, convicted. California is one of 19 states that allow recalls, the third U. S. gubernatorial recall election occurred in Wisconsin in 2012. The California recall process became law in 1911 as the result of Progressive Era reforms that spread across the United States in the late 19th, the ability to recall elected officials came along with the initiative and referendum processes. No illegality has to be committed by politicians in order for them to be recalled, if an elected official commits a crime while in office, the state legislature can hold impeachment trials.
For a recall, only the will of the people is necessary to remove an official, before the successful recall of Gray Davis, no California statewide official had ever been recalled, though there had been 117 previous attempts. Only seven of those made it onto the ballot, all for state legislators. Davis faced a petition in 1999, but that effort failed to gain enough signatures to qualify for the ballot. As Daviss recall transpired before he had served half of his term as governor, he remains eligible to serve another term, nineteen states, along with the District of Columbia, allow the recall of state officials, but Daviss recall was only the second in US history. The first governor recall occurred in 1921 when North Dakotas Lynn J. Frazier was recalled over a dispute about state-owned industries, the third recall occurred in Wisconsin in 2012. Under California law, any elected official may be the target of a recall campaign, to trigger a recall election, proponents of the recall must gather a certain number of signatures from registered voters within a certain time period.
The number of signatures statewide must equal 12% of the number of votes cast in the election for that office. For the 2003 recall election, that meant a minimum of 897,156 signatures, based on the November 2002 statewide elections, but 1.2 million were needed to ensure that there were enough valid signatures. The effort was not taken seriously, until Rep. Darrell Issa and this infusion of money allowed Costa and Kaloogian to step up their efforts. Eventually, proponents gathered about 1.6 million signatures, of which 1,356,408 were certified as valid, if the recall campaign qualified less than 180 days prior to the next regularly scheduled election, the recall becomes part of that regularly scheduled election. In the case of a recall against the governor, the responsibility for scheduling a special election falls on the lieutenant governor, who in 2003 was Cruz Bustamante
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Gavin Christopher Newsom is an American politician and businessman, the former mayor of San Francisco, and the Lieutenant Governor of California since 2011. Newsom was formerly married to Fox News contributor Kimberly Guilfoyle and he was a prominent early advocate for same-sex marriage and was influential in legalizing cannabis in California. Newsom studied at Redwood High School and graduated from Santa Clara University, after graduation, he co-founded businesses with family friend Gordon Getty, who was an investor. Newsom drew voter attention with his Care Not Cash program, which was designed to move people into city-assisted care. In 2003 he was elected as the 42nd Mayor of San Francisco, Newsom was re-elected in 2007 with 72 percent of the vote. He was elected Lieutenant Governor of California in 2010 and re-elected in 2014, in February 2015, Newsom announced he was opening a committee to run for Governor of California in 2018. Gavin Christopher Newsom was born in San Francisco, California, to Tessa Thomas and William Alfred Newsom III and he is a fourth-generation San Franciscan.
He is of mostly Irish descent, one of his maternal great-grandfathers, Scotsman Thomas Addis, was a pioneer scientist in the field of nephrology, Newsom is the second cousin, twice removed, of musician Joanna Newsom. Newsoms parents separated when he was 2 and divorced in 1972, at age 10, Newsom moved with his mother and sister, to nearby Marin County. In May 2002, his mother died following a fight with breast cancer. While Newsom reflected that he did not have a childhood, he attended kindergarten. He eventually transferred because of dyslexia that still affects him. His dyslexia has made it difficult for him to write, read and he attended third through fifth grades at Notre Dame des Victoires, where he was placed in remedial reading classes. Newsom graduated from Redwood High School in 1985 and he played basketball and baseball in high school. Newsom was an outfielder in baseball and his baseball skills placed him on the cover of the Marin Independent Journal. Newsoms aunt was married to Ron Pelosi, the brother-in-law of former Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Nancy Pelosi, in an interview with The San Francisco Chronicle, his sister recalled Christmas holidays when their mother told them there wouldnt be any gifts.
Tessa opened their home to children, instilling in Newsom the importance of public service. His fathers finances were strapped in part because of his tendency to give away his earnings, Newsom worked several jobs in high school to help support his family
Edmund Gerald Jerry Brown Jr. is an American politician and lawyer who has served as the 39th Governor of California since 2011. A member of the Democratic Party, Brown previously served as the 34th governor from 1975 to 1983, as the only son of Edmund G. Pat Brown Sr. Elected governor in 1974 at age 36, Brown was the youngest California governor in 111 years, Brown was re-elected governor in 1978, and ran against fellow Democrat and incumbent President Jimmy Carter in the 1980 primaries. While challengers to incumbent presidents seldom gain traction, the challenge by Senator Ted Kennedy of Massachusetts did, Brown declined to run for a third term in 1982, instead running for the United States Senate in 1982. However, Brown was defeated by Republican Pete Wilson, and many considered his career to be over. After traveling abroad, Brown returned to California and served as Chairman of the California Democratic Party, after six years out of politics, Brown returned to public life, serving as Mayor of Oakland, and Attorney General of California.
Brown decided to run for another term as governor in 2010, the law limited a governor to two terms, the four living governors when the law was passed remained eligible. Brown defeated Meg Whitman in 2010 to become the 39th governor in 2011, on October 7,2013, he became the governor in California history. Brown was re-elected in 2014, with sixty percent of the vote, as a consequence of the 28-year gap between his second and third terms, Brown has been both the sixth-youngest California governor, and the oldest California governor in history. Browns father was of half-Irish and half-German descent, Browns great-grandfather August Schuckman, a German immigrant, settled in California in 1852 during the California Gold Rush. Brown was a member of the California Cadet Corps at St. Ignatius High School, in 1955, Brown entered Santa Clara University for a year, and left to attend Sacred Heart Novitiate, a Jesuit novice house, intent on becoming a Catholic priest. Brown left the novitiate after three years, enrolling at the University of California, Berkeley in 1960, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Classics in 1961, Brown went on to Yale Law School and graduated with a Bachelor of Laws in 1964.
After law school, Brown worked as a law clerk for California Supreme Court Justice Mathew Tobriner, returning to California, Brown took the state bar exam and passed on his second attempt. He settled in Los Angeles and joined the law firm of Tuttle & Taylor, in 1969, Brown ran for the newly created Los Angeles Community College Board of Trustees, which oversaw community colleges in the city, and placed first in a field of 124. In 1970, Brown was elected California Secretary of State, Brown argued before the California Supreme Court and won cases against Standard Oil of California, International Telephone and Telegraph, Gulf Oil, and Mobil for election law violations. In addition, he forced legislators to comply with campaign disclosure laws, while holding this office, he discovered the use of falsely notarized documents by then-President Richard Nixon to fraudulently earn a tax deduction for donation of his pre-presidential papers. Brown drafted and helped to pass the California Political Reform Act of 1974, Proposition 9, among other provisions, it established the California Fair Political Practices Commission.
Brown won the primary with the recognition of his father, Pat Brown
Geography of California
California is a U. S. state on the western coast of North America. Covering an area of 163,696 sq mi, California is geographically diverse, the Sierra Nevada, the fertile farmlands of the Central Valley, and the arid Mojave Desert of the south are some of the major geographic features of this U. S. state. It is home to some of the worlds most exceptional trees, the tallest, most massive and it is home to both the highest and lowest points in the 48 contiguous states. The state is divided into Northern and Southern California, although the boundary between the two is not well defined. San Francisco is decidedly a Northern California city and Los Angeles likewise a Southern California one, the US Geological Survey defines the geographic center of the state at a point near North Fork, California. Earth scientists typically divide the state into eleven distinct geomorphic provinces with clearly defined boundaries, the boundaries of California were defined by Spanish claims of Mexico, as part of the province of Alta California.
The northern boundary of Spanish claims was set at 42 degrees latitude by the Adams–Onis Treaty of 1819, the states of Nevada and Utah, originally part of Alta California, use that line for their northern boundaries. The southern boundary, between California and Mexico, was established by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican–American War in 1848, the line is about 30 miles north of the former Alta California southern boundary. The eastern boundary consists of two lines, a north-south line from the northern border to the middle of Lake Tahoe. From that point,14 mi south–southwest of Davis Dam on Lake Mohave, the eastern and south-eastern boundaries were decided upon during the debates of the California Constitutional Convention in 1849. Northern California usually refers to the states northernmost 48 counties, the main population centers of Northern California include San Francisco Bay Area, and Sacramento as well as its metropolitan area. Apart from the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento metropolitan areas, Northern Californias economy is noted for being the de facto world leader in industries such as high technology, as well as being known for clean power, biomedical and finance.
The Klamath Mountains are a range in northwest California and southwest Oregon. As a consequence of the geology, they have a unique flora including several endemic or near-endemic species, such as Lawsons Cypress, brewers Spruce and Kalmiopsis are relict species, remaining since the last ice age. The Cascade Range is a region stretching from the Fraser River in British Columbia, Canada down to south of Lassen Peak. The Cascades are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, the ring of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean, all of the known historic eruptions in the contiguous United States have been from either Cascade volcanoes or near Mono Lake. Lassen Peak was the last Cascade volcano to erupt in California, Lassen is the most southerly active volcano of the Cascade chain. This region is located in the section of the state bordering Oregon and Nevada, mostly north of the Central Valley
California Floristic Province
This biodiversity hotspot is known for being the home of the Sierran giant sequoia tree and its close relative the coast redwood. In 1996, the Province was designated as a biodiversity hotspot allowing it to join ranks among 33 other areas in the world with a number of endemic species. To be named a biodiversity hotspot, an area has to contain species, the California Floristic Province is home to over 3,000 species of vascular plants, 60% of which are endemic to the province. The California Floristic Province belongs to the Madrean Region of the Holarctic Floristic Kingdom, as part of the Madrean Region, it is bordered on its east by the Great Basin Floristic Province, and to the south and southwest by the Sonoran Province. With an area of 293,804 km2, as defined by Conservation International, it includes 70% of California and extends into southwestern Oregon, the province is bordered by, and sometimes defined as partly coincident with, the Rocky Mountain Floristic Region in the north. This boundary is defined as some leading geobotanists, including Robert F.
Thorne and Armen Takhtajan, include Oregon. A biodiversity hotspot contains irreplaceable areas to the plants and animals live there. Among these unique regions, almost every one of them is subject to their species being at greater risk from the impact of humans. The greatest threat to this area is wilderness destruction caused by commercial farming industries. The issues that are causing the most threats to this province include but are not limited to population pressures, loss of habitat, unsustainable resource use, and introduced non-native species. The California Floristic Province is one of the five biodiversity hotspots with Mediterranean climates, in California, the province includes most of the state excluding the Modoc Plateau, Great Basin and deserts in the southeastern part of the state. In Oregon, the province includes the mountains south of Cape Blanco. In Baja California, the province includes the forest and chaparral belts of the Sierra Juarez and the Sierra San Pedro Martir, coastal areas south to about El Rosario, and Guadalupe Island.
In Nevada, the CFP includes the region of the Sierra in the vicinity of Lake Tahoe, numerous plant communities exist in California and botanists have attempted to structure them into identifiable vegetation types groupings. Robert Ornduff and colleagues Phyllis M. Munz, of the 7,031 vascular plants found in the hotspot,2,153 taxa are endemic, meaning they are found nowhere else. About 80,000 km², or 24. 7% of the vegetation remains in relatively pristine conditions today. Commercial farming in the region generates half of all agricultural products consumed by the United States population, the large farms that grow from this demand cause the greater loss of the biodiversity hotspot’s natural un-renewable resources. California has one of the highest human populations rendering it one of the four most ecologically degraded expanses in the United States
Hearst Communications, often referred to as simply Hearst, is an American mass media and business information conglomerate. The Hearst company is based in the Hearst Tower in Midtown Manhattan and it was founded by William Randolph Hearst as an owner of newspapers, and the Hearst family remains involved in its ownership and management. Under William Randolph Hearsts will, a board of thirteen trustees administers the Hearst Foundation, the William Randolph Hearst Foundation. The foundations shared ownership until tax law changed to prevent this, Frank A. Bennack Jr. former chief executive officer and executive vice chairman of the corporation John G. Conomikes, former executive of the corporation Gilbert C. In 1880, George Hearst, mining entrepreneur, American publisher, on March 4,1887, he turned the Examiner over to his son, 23-year-old William Randolph Hearst. He pushed his staff to write exciting stories, and wrote editorials worded with force. Within a few years, the new Examiner was a success, in 1895, Hearst purchased the New York Journal, laying the foundation for one of the major newspaper dynasties in American history.
He established Hearsts Chicago American in 1900, renamed the morning edition of the New York Journal as the New York American in 1901, the Los Angeles Examiner was launched in 1903 followed by the Boston American one year later. Hearst experimented with every aspect of publishing, from page layouts to editorial crusades. His newspapers introduced innovations such as presses, halftone photographs on newsprint, comic sections printed in color. Stories by Hearst correspondents from around the world were sold to newspapers, giving rise to the Hearst International News Service. In 1903, Hearst Magazines was begun with the publication of Motor magazine, within the next 10 years Hearst acquired several popular titles, starting in 1905 with Cosmopolitan and Good Housekeeping in 1911. Also in 1911, Hearst bought a middling monthly magazine called World To-Day, in June 1914, its title was shortened to Hearsts, and it was ultimately retitled Hearsts International in May 1922. In 1953 Hearst Magazines bought Sports Afield magazine which it kept until 1999 when it was sold to Robert E.
Petersen, Hearst began producing film feature in the mid-1910s, creating one of the earliest animation studios, the International Film Service. Hearst established Cosmopolitan Pictures in the 1920s, distributing his films under the newly created Metro Goldwyn Mayer, in 1929, Hearst and MGM created the Hearst Metrotone newsreels. In order to spare serious cutbacks at San Simeon, Hearst merged Hearsts International magazine with Cosmopolitan effective March 1925, Hearst died in 1951, and the Hearsts International disappeared from the magazine cover altogether in April 1952. In the 1920s and 1930s, Hearst owned the biggest media conglomerate in the world, in 1924 he merged his Milwaukee operations with the Pfister family, owners of The Milwaukee Sentinel. Hearst owned the evening Wisconsin News while the Pfisters kept the Sentinel adding Hearsts features from the now-folded Telegram, in 1925, Hearst sold the Syracuse Telegram to the owners of the Syracuse Journal, while selling the New York Mirror in 1928
Governor of California
The position was created in 1849, the year before California became a state. The current governor is Jerry Brown, a Democrat who was inaugurated January 3,2011, in October 2013, Jerry Brown surpassed Earl Warren for the longest cumulative period of time served as governor. Governors are elected by ballot and serve terms of four years. Governors take office on the first Monday after January 1 after their election, there are two methods available to remove a governor before the expiration of the gubernatorial term of office. Impeachment and removal by the legislature The governor can be impeached for misconduct in office by the State Assembly, recall by the voters Petitions signed by California state voters equal in number to 12% of the last vote for the office of governor can launch a gubernatorial recall election. The voters can vote on whether or not to recall the incumbent governor. If a majority of the voters in the vote to recall the governor. The 2003 California recall began with a drive that successfully forced sitting Democratic Governor Gray Davis into a special recall election.
It marked the first time in the history of California that a governor faced a recall election and he was subsequently voted out of office, becoming the second governor in the history of the United States to be recalled after Lynn Frazier of North Dakota in 1921. He was replaced by Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger, the Lieutenant Governor of California is separately elected during the same election, not jointly as the running mate of the gubernatorial candidate. California has had a governor and a lieutenant governor of different parties 26 of the past 31 years, the lieutenant governor is the President of the California State Senate. In practice, there is an agreement for the Lieutenant Governor not to perform more than perfunctory duties while the Governor is away from the state. This agreement was violated when Mike Curb was in office, as he signed several executive orders at odds with the Brown administration when Brown was out of the state. Court rulings have upheld the lieutenant governors right to perform the duties, peter Burnett had the longest post-governorship,44 years.
He left office in 1851 and died in 1895, excluding governors who died in office, Robert Waterman had the shortest post-governorship. He died on April 12,1891, a three months and four days after the expiration of his term. Sworn in at the age of 30, J. Neely Johnson was the youngest governor from 1856 to 1858, sworn in at the age of 72, Jerry Brown became the oldest governor in 2011. Earl Warren was the governor to serve more than two consecutive terms in office
Sacramento is the capital city of the U. S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County. It is at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in the portion of Californias expansive Central Valley. Its estimated 2014 population of 485,199 made it the sixth-largest city in California, Sacramento is the cultural and economic core of the Sacramento metropolitan area, which includes seven counties with a 2010 population of 2,414,783. In 2002, the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento Americas Most Diverse City, Sacramento became a city through the efforts of the Swiss immigrant John Sutter, Sr. his son John Augustus Sutter, Jr. and James W. Marshall. Sacramento grew quickly thanks to the protection of Sutters Fort, which was established by Sutter in 1839, the city was named after the Sacramento River, which forms its western border. The river was named by Spanish cavalry officer Gabriel Moraga for the Santísimo Sacramento, California State University, Sacramento, is the largest university in the city and one of 23 campuses in the California State University system.
University of the Pacific is a university with one of its three campuses in Sacramento. In addition, the University of California, located in nearby Davis, operates its UC Davis Medical Center and Plains Miwok Native Americans had lived in the area for perhaps thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would eventually make Sacramento their home, these Native Americans left little evidence of their existence. Traditionally, their diet was dominated by acorns taken from the oak trees in the region, and by fruits, seeds. In 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga discovered and named the Sacramento Valley, a Spanish writer with the Moraga expedition wrote, Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths, the air was like champagne, and drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. The valley and the river were christened after the Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ, John Sutter first arrived on August 13,1839 at the divergence of the American and Sacramento Rivers with a Mexican land grant of 50,000 acres.
The next year, he and his party established Sutters Fort, representing Mexico, Sutter called his colony New Helvetia, a Swiss inspired name, and was the political authority and dispenser of justice in the new settlement. Soon, the colony began to grow as more and more pioneers headed west, within just a few short years, John Sutter had become a grand success, owning a ten-acre orchard and a herd of thirteen thousand cattle. Fort Sutter became a stop for the increasing number of immigrants coming through the valley. In 1847, Sutter hired James Marshall to build a sawmill so that he could continue to expand his empire, Sutter received 2,000 fruit trees in 1847, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. In 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutters Mill in Coloma and he hired topographical engineer William H