A paperback known as a softcover or سعيد, is a type of book characterized by a thick paper or paperboard cover, held together with glue rather than stitches or staples. In contrast, hardcover or hardback books are bound with cardboard covered with cloth; the pages on the inside are made of paper. Inexpensive books bound in paper have existed since at least the 19th century in such forms as pamphlets, dime novels, airport novels. Modern paperbacks can be differentiated by size. In the U. S. there are "mass-market paperbacks" and larger, more durable "trade paperbacks." In the U. K. there are A-format, B-format, the largest C-format sizes. Paperback editions of books are issued when a publisher decides to release a book in a low-cost format. Cheaper, lower quality paper. Paperbacks can be the preferred medium when a book is not expected to be a major seller or where the publisher wishes to release a book without putting forth a large investment. Examples include many novels, newer editions or reprintings of older books.
Since paperbacks tend to have a smaller profit margin, many publishers try to balance the profit to be made by selling fewer hardcovers against the potential profit to be made by selling more paperbacks with a smaller profit per unit. First editions of many modern books genre fiction, are issued in paperback. Best-selling books, on the other hand, may maintain sales in hardcover for an extended period to reap the greater profits that the hardcovers provide; the early 19th century saw numerous improvements in the printing and book-distribution processes, with the introduction of steam-powered printing presses, pulp mills, automatic type setting, a network of railways. These innovations enabled the likes of Simms and McIntyre of Belfast, Routledge & Sons and Ward & Lock to mass-produce cheap uniform yellowback or paperback editions of existing works, distribute and sell them across the British Isles, principally via the ubiquitous W H Smith & Sons newsagent found at most urban British railway stations.
These paper bound volumes were offered for sale at a fraction of the historic cost of a book, were of a smaller format, 110 mm × 178 mm, aimed at the railway traveller. The Routledge's Railway Library series of paperbacks remained in print until 1898, offered the traveling public 1,277 unique titles; the German-language market supported examples of cheap paper-bound books: Bernhard Tauchnitz started the Collection of British and American Authors in 1841. These inexpensive, paperbound editions, a direct precursor to mass-market paperbacks ran to over 5,000 volumes. Reclam published Shakespeare in this format from October 1857 and went on to pioneer the mass-market paper-bound Universal-Bibliothek series from 10 November 1867; the German publisher Albatross Books revised the 20th-century mass-market paperback format in 1931, but the approach of World War II cut the experiment short. It proved an immediate financial success in the United Kingdom in 1935 when Penguin Books adopted many of Albatross' innovations, including a conspicuous logo and color-coded covers for different genres.
British publisher Allen Lane invested his own financial capital to launch the Penguin Books imprint in 1935, initiating the paperback revolution in the English-language book-market by releasing ten reprint titles. The first released book on Penguin's 1935 list was André Maurois' Ariel. Lane intended to produce inexpensive books, he purchased paperback rights from publishers, ordered large print runs to keep unit prices low, looked to non-traditional book-selling retail locations. Booksellers were reluctant to buy his books, but when Woolworths placed a large order, the books sold well. After that initial success, booksellers showed more willingness to stock paperbacks, the name "Penguin" became associated with the word "paperback". In 1939, Robert de Graaf issued a similar line in the United States, partnering with Simon & Schuster to create the Pocket Books label; the term "pocket book" became synonymous with paperback in English-speaking North America. In French, the term livre de poche is still in use today.
De Graaf, like Lane, negotiated paperback rights from other publishers, produced many runs. His practices contrasted with those of Lane by his adoption of illustrated covers aimed at the North American market. To reach an broader market than Lane, he used distribution networks of newspapers and magazines, which had a lengthy history of being aimed at mass audiences; because of its number-one position in what became a long list of pocket editions, James Hilton's Lost Horizon is cited as the first American paperback book. However, the first mass-market, pocket-sized, paperback book printed in the US was an edition of Pearl Buck's The Good Earth, produced by Pocket Books as a proof-of-concept in late 1938, sold in New York City. In World War II, the U. S. military distributed some 122 million "Armed Services Editions" paperback novels to the troops, which helped popularize the format after the war. Through the circulation of the paperback in kiosks and bookstores and intellectual knowledge was able to reach the masses.
This occurred at the same time that the masses were starting to attend university, leading to the student revolts of 1968 prompting open access to knowledge. The paperback book meant that more people were able to and access knowledge and this led to people wanting more and more of it; this accessibility posed a threat to the wealthy by imposing that
A couch known as a sofa or settee, is a piece of furniture for seating two or three people in the form of a bench, with armrests, or upholstered, fitted with springs and tailored cushions. Although a couch is used for seating, it may be used for sleeping. In homes, couches are found in the family room, living room, den, or the lounge, they are sometimes found in non-residential settings such as hotels, lobbies of commercial offices, waiting rooms, bars. The term couch is predominantly used in Ireland, North America, South Africa and Australia, whereas the terms sofa and settee are used in the United Kingdom; the word couch originated in Middle English from the Old French noun couche, which derived from the verb meaning "to lie down". It denoted an item of furniture for lying or sleeping on, somewhat like a chaise longue, but now refers to sofas in general; the word sofa comes from Turkish and is derived from the Arabic word suffah, originating in the Aramaic word sippa. Joseph Pubillones in A Little Shimmer Goes a Long Way specifies that the main difference between the couch and the sofa is that "couches can be used for reclining or laying upon" so a couch would "best be used to describe an upholstered piece in a family room", while the term sofa "used predominantly in England and Ireland denotes a tone of formality, hence a sofa is more appropriate word for the upholstered piece in the living room".
The word settee or setee comes from the Old English word setl, used to describe long benches with high backs and arms, but is now used to describe upholstered seating. Other terms which can be synonymous with the above definition are chesterfield, davenport and canapé; the most common types of couches are the two-seater, sometimes referred to as a loveseat, designed for seating two persons, the sofa, which has two or more cushion seats. A sectional sofa just referred to as a "sectional", is formed from multiple sections and includes at least two pieces which join at an angle of 90 degrees or greater, used to wrap around walls or other furniture. Other variants include the divan, the fainting couch and the canapé. To conserve space, some sofas daybeds, or futons. A furniture set consisting of a sofa with two matching chairs is known as a "chesterfield suite" or "living-room suite". In the UK, the word chesterfield meant any couch in the 1900s, but now describes a deep buttoned sofa made from leather, with arms and back of the same height.
The first leather chesterfield sofa, with its distinctive deep buttoned, quilted leather upholstery and lower seat base, was commissioned by Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield. In Canadian English, chesterfield as equivalent to a couch or sofa is widespread among older Canadians, but the term is vanishing according to one survey done in the Golden Horseshoe region of Ontario in 1992. A couch consists of the padding and the covering; the frame is made of wood, but can be made of steel, plastic or laminated boards. Sofa padding is made from foam, feathers, fabric or a combination thereof. Sofa coverings are made out of soft leather, corduroy or linen fabric coverings. Bean bag Couch potato Confidante Davenport Divan Ottoman Settle, wooden furniture with similar usage Slipcover Wing chair Window seat John Gloag, A Short Dictionary of Furniture rev. ed. 1962. Campbell, Gordon. "Sofa". The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts. Volume 2. Oxford University Press. P. 369. ISBN 9780195189483; the dictionary definition of couch at Wiktionary
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
Glossary of cricket terms
This is a general glossary of the terminology used in the sport of cricket. Where words in a sentence are defined elsewhere in this article, they appear in italics. Certain aspects of cricket terminology are explained in more detail in cricket statistics and the naming of fielding positions is explained at fielding. Cricket is known for its rich terminology; some terms are thought to be arcane and humorous by those not familiar with the game. Across the line A batsman plays across the line when he moves his bat in a direction lateral to the direction of the incoming ball. Agricultural shot A swing across the line of the ball played without much technique. One that results in a chunk of the pitch being dug up by the bat, or that winds up with the ball going to cow corner. A type of a slog. Air When a spin bowler delivers a ball with a more looping trajectory than usual, he is said to be giving the ball some air. In combination with top spin, the objective is to lure the batsman into misreading the length of the ball.
In combination with off spin or leg spin, the objective is to give the ball more time to drift. All out When an innings ends due to ten of the eleven batsmen on the batting side being either dismissed or unable to bat because of injury or illness. All-rounder Traditionally, a player adept at both bowling. Good all-rounders in the modern game include Shane Watson, Ben Stokes, Shakib Al Hasan; some recent sources regard a wicket-keeper/batsman as another type of all-rounder, but this usage is not universal. Anchor A top-order batsman capable of batting for a long time. Batsmen at numbers 3 or 4 play such a role if there is a batting collapse. An anchor plays defensively, is the top scorer in the innings. Angler A type of late-swing delivery used by Bart King in the early 1900s. King, a right-arm fast bowler, delivered his inswinger with the right arm raised over the left ear, concealed the seam of the ball by starting his action with the ball held in both hands, in the manner of baseball pitchers.
It is unclear whether angler referred to his outswinger. Appeal A bowler or fielder shouting at the umpire to ask if his last ball took the batsman's wicket. Phrased in the form of howzat Common variations include'Howzee?', or turning to the umpire and shouting. The umpire cannot give a batsman out unless the fielding side appeals if the criteria for a dismissal have otherwise been met. However, batsmen who are out will leave the field without waiting for an appeal. Approach The motion of the bowler before bowling the ball, it is known as the run-up. The ground a bowler runs on during his run up. Arm ball A deceptive delivery bowled by an off spin bowler, not spun, so that, it travels straight on. A good bowler's arm ball might swing away from the batsman in the air. Around the wicket or round the wicket A right-handed bowler passing to the right of the non-striker's stumps in his run-up, vice versa for a left-handed bowler. Compare with over the wicket; the Ashes The perpetual prize in England v Australia Test match series.
The Ashes originated as a result of a satirical obituary published in a British newspaper, The Sporting Times, in 1882 after a match at The Oval in which Australia beat England on an English ground for the first time. The obituary stated that English cricket had died, the body would be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia; the English press dubbed the next English tour to Australia as the quest to regain The Ashes. During that tour a small terracotta urn was presented to England captain Ivo Bligh by a group of Melbourne women; the contents of the urn are reputed to be the ashes of an item of a bail. Asking rate The run rate at which the team batting second needs to score to catch the opponents' score in a limited overs game. Same as'required run rate'. Attacking field A fielding configuration in which more fielders are close in to the pitch so as to take catches and dismiss batsmen more at the risk of allowing more runs to be scored should the ball get past them. Attacking shot An strong hit by the batsman designed to score runs.
Average A bowler's bowling average is defined as the total number of runs conceded by the bowler divided by the number of wickets taken by the bowler. A batsman's batting average is defined as the total number of runs scored by the batsman divided by the number of times he has been dismissed. Away swing see out swing Back foot In a batsman's stance, the back foot is the foot, closest to the stumps. A bowler's front foot is the last foot to contact the ground. Unless the bowler is bowling off the wrong foot, the bowling foot is the back foot. Back foot contact The position of the bowler at the moment when his back foot lands on the ground just before releasing the ball Back foot shot A shot played with the batsman's weight on his back foot. Back spin A delivery with a backward spin, so that after pitching the ball slows down, or bounces lower and skids on to the batsman. Backing up 1; the non-striking batsman leaving his crease during the delivery in order to shorten the distance to complete one run.
A batsman "backing up" too far runs the risk of being run out, either by a fielder in a conventional run out, or – in a "Mankad" – by the bowler. 2. A fielder w
So Long, and Thanks for All the Fish
So Long, Thanks for All the Fish is the fourth book of the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy "trilogy" written by Douglas Adams. Its title is the message left by the dolphins when they departed Planet Earth just before it was demolished to make way for a hyperspace bypass, as described in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy; the phrase has since been adopted by some science fiction fans as a humorous way to say "goodbye" and a song of the same name was featured in the 2005 film adaptation of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. While hitchhiking through the galaxy, Arthur Dent is dropped off on a planet in a rainstorm, he appears to be in England on Earth though he saw the planet destroyed by the Vogons. He has been gone for several years, he hitches a lift with a man named his sister Fenchurch. Russell explains that Fenny became delusional after worldwide mass hysteria, in which everyone hallucinated "big yellow spaceships". Arthur becomes curious about Fenchurch. Inside his still standing home, Arthur finds a gift-wrapped bowl inscribed with the words "So long and thanks", which he uses for his Babel Fish.
Arthur considers that Fenchurch is somehow connected to the Earth's destruction. He still has the ability to fly. Arthur puts his life in order, tries to find out more about Fenchurch, he accidentally picks her up. He loses it, he haphazardly discovers her home when he searches for the cave he had lived in on prehistoric Earth. They find more circumstances connecting them. Fenchurch reveals that, moments before her "hallucinations", she had an epiphany about how to make everything right, but blacked out, she has not been able to recall the substance of the epiphany. Noticing that Fenchurch's feet do not touch the ground, Arthur teaches her, they have sex in the skies over London. In a conversation with Fenchurch, she learns from Arthur about hitchhiking across the galaxy and Arthur learns that all the dolphins disappeared shortly after the world hallucinations, he and Fenchurch travel to California to see John Watson, an enigmatic scientist who claims to know why the dolphins disappeared. He has abandoned his original name in favour of "Wonko the Sane", because he believes that the rest of the world's population has gone mad.
Watson shows them another bowl with the words "So long and thanks for all the fish" inscribed on it, encourages them to listen to it. The bowl explains audibly that the dolphins, aware of the planet's coming destruction, left Earth for an alternate dimension. Before leaving, they created a new Earth and transported everything from the original to the new one. After the meeting, Fenchurch tells Arthur that while he lost something and found it, she had found something and lost it, she desires that they travel to space together, reach the site where God's Final Message to His Creation is written. Ford Prefect discovers that the Hitchhiker's Guide entry for Earth consists of the volumes of text he wrote, instead of the previous truncated entry, "Mostly harmless". Curious, Ford hitchhikes across the galaxy to reach Earth, he uses the ship of a giant robot to land in the centre of London, causing a panic. In the chaos, Ford reunites with Arthur and Fenchurch, they commandeer the robot's ship. Arthur takes Fenchurch to the planet where God's Final Message to His Creation is written, where they discover Marvin.
Due to previous events, Marvin is now 37 times older than the known age of the universe and is functional. With Arthur and Fenchurch's help, Marvin reads the Message, utters the final words "I think... I feel good about it", dies happily; the novel has a different tone from the previous books in the series. This is because it is a romance, because the book bounces around in time more erratically than its predecessors. Adams injects a humorous sub-plot. There is less outer-space time than in the previous books; the different tone reflects the rushed nature of the writing. As a result, Adams stated that he was not happy with the book, which includes several jarring authorial intrusions, which fellow author and Adams' biographer Neil Gaiman described as "patronising and unfair"; the book reflects a significant shift in Adams's view of computers. In the previous books, computers had been portrayed quite negatively, reflecting Adams' views on the subject at the time. However, between the writing of Life, the Universe and Everything and So Long, Thanks for All the Fish, his attitude toward technology changed considerably.
Having been taken along to a computer fair, he became enamored of the first model of the Macintosh, the start of a long love affair with the brand. In So Long, Thanks for All the Fish, Arthur Dent purchases an Apple computer for the purpose of star mapping in order to pinpoint the location of the cave he lived in on prehistoric Earth, although Adams mocks Arthur's methodology, the computer itself is not disparaged, somehow produces the correct result. In a essay, Adams noted that some people had accused him of being a "turncoat" because of this change in his attitu