A lifeboat or life raft is a small, rigid or inflatable boat carried for emergency evacuation in the event of a disaster aboard a ship. Lifeboat drills are required by law on larger commercial ships. Rafts are used. In the military, a lifeboat may double as dinghy, or gig; the ship's tenders of cruise ships double as lifeboats. Recreational sailors carry inflatable life rafts, though a few prefer small proactive lifeboats that are harder to sink and can be sailed to safety. Inflatable lifeboats may be equipped with mechanical pumps. A quick release and pressure release mechanism is fitted on ships so that the canister or pump automatically inflates the lifeboat, the lifeboat breaks free of the sinking vessel. Commercial aircraft are required to carry auto-inflating life rafts in case of an emergency water landing. Ship-launched lifeboats are lowered from davits on a ship's deck, are hard to sink in normal circumstances; the cover serves as protection from sun and rain, can be used to collect rainwater, is made of a reflective or fluorescent material, visible.
Lifeboats have oars and mirrors for signaling, first aid supplies, food and water for several days. Some lifeboats are more capably equipped to permit self-rescue, with supplies such as a radio, an engine and sail, navigational equipment, solar water stills, rainwater catchments and fishing equipment; the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea and the International Life-Saving Appliance Code requires certain emergency equipment be carried on each lifeboat and liferaft used on international voyages. Modern lifeboats carry an Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon and either a radar reflector or Search and Rescue Transponder. During the Age of Sail, the ship's boats were also used as lifeboats in case of emergency. In March 1870, answering a question at the House of Commons of the United Kingdom about the sinking of PS Normandy, George Shaw-Lefevre said that...in the opinion of the Board of Trade, it will not be possible to compel the passenger steamers running between England and France to have boats sufficient for the numerous passengers they carry.
They would encumber the decks, rather add to the danger than detract from it. In the late 1880s, Maria Beasley improved the design of life rafts, she patented a life-saving raft in both the United States and England in 1880. By the turn of the 20th century larger ships meant more people could travel, but safety rules regarding lifeboats remained out of date: for example, British legislation concerning the number of lifeboats was based on the tonnage of a vessel and only encompassed vessels of "10,000 gross register tons and over", it was not until after the sinking of RMS Titanic on April 15, 1912, that a broader movement began to require a sufficient number of lifeboats on passenger ships for all people on board. Titanic, with a gross tonnage of 46,000 tonnes and carrying 20 lifeboats, exceeded the regulations laid down by the Board of Trade, which required a ship of her size to carry boats capable of carrying a total of 1,060 people. Titanic's boats had a capacity of 1,178 people on a ship capable of carrying 3,330 people.
The type of life raft used on Titanic were the ones patented by Beasley. The need for so many more lifeboats on the decks of passenger ships after 1912 led to the use of most of the deck space available on the large ships, creating the problem of restricted passageways; this was resolved by the wider use of collapsible lifeboats, a number of, carried on Titanic. During World War II and the Battle of the Atlantic with convoys going to northern Russia through the Arctic Ocean it was found that the chance of the crews of merchant ships surviving in open lifeboats was not good unless they were rescued in a couple of hours; the US Navy asked various manufacturers to suggest solutions. The result was the first enclosed, self-righting lifeboat, manufactured in Delanco, New Jersey; these radically new lifeboats weighed 5,000 lb. They had two enclosed cabins; the space in between was designed to help persons in the water be pulled aboard, could be enclosed with a canvas top. The new type lifeboat could be driven either by sail.
In 1943 the US developed a balsa wood liferaft that would not sink, irrespective of the number of holes in it. These balsa liferafts were designed to hold five to ten men on a platform suspended on the inside or fifteen to twenty-five hanging lines placed on the outsides, they were inexpensive, during the war thousands were stored in any space possible on US warships and merchant ships. These liferafts were intended only for use during a short term before lifeboats or another ship in the convoy or group could bring them aboard; when USS Indianapolis, a cruiser operating alone, was sunk in 1945, none of its larger lifeboats were launched, the survivors had to rely on balsa liferafts automatically released as the ship sank. TEMPSC are mandatory on all merchant vessels, tankers, MODUs, Floating Offshore Oil and Gas Platforms and some fixed offshore oil and gas platforms per 1983 Chapter III amendment to IMO SOLAS 1974. TEMPSC offer superior protection against fire on the water, poisonous gases and severe weather conditions (especially heat and roug
Alan H. Fishman is an American businessman, he was notably the last CEO of Washington Mutual prior to its assets being seized by federal regulators on September 25, 2008. Fishman holds a bachelor's degree from Brown University and a master's degree in economics from Columbia University, he was president and chief operating officer of Sovereign Bank and president and chief executive officer of Independence Community Bank. He has served as chairman of Meridian Capital Group, one of the nation's largest commercial mortgage brokerage firms, he has been a private equity investor, focusing on financial services at Neuberger & Berman, Adler & Shaykin and at his own firm Columbia Financial Partners. In addition, he held senior executive positions at ContiFinancial Corporation. Fishman was Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Brooklyn Academy of Music, on which he served for nearly thirty years, until January 2017. Fishman joined WaMu on 8 September 2008, replacing outgoing CEO Kerry Killinger as part of that bank's restructuring in the face of the subprime mortgage crisis of 2008.
He served as the bank's CEO for 17 days before its banking assets were seized by federal regulators in the largest bank failure in American history. WaMu's banking operations were sold to JPMorgan Chase for $1.9 billion, while the remainder of WaMu declared bankruptcy the next day. According to C-Span on 26 September 2008, Alan H. Fishman was paid $19 million for three weeks of being with Washington Mutual, including severance pay. Meanwhile, the company's stock price dwindled to only pennies after trading as high as $45 a share in 2007; the previous CEO was paid $14 million for one year on the job. Http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2007_April_16/ai_n19002844 http://www.marketwatch.com/news/story/alan-h-fishman-joins-washington/story.aspx?guid=
The Lamborghini Islero is a grand tourer produced by Italian automaker Lamborghini between 1968 and 1969. It featured the Lamborghini V12 engine; the car debuted at the 1968 Geneva Auto Show. The Islero was named after a Miura bull that killed matador Manuel Rodriguez "Manolete" on August 28, 1947. Since Carrozzeria Touring, the company that designed Lamborghini's chassis, was bankrupt, Carrozzeria Marazzi was the next logical choice as it was funded by Carlo Marazzi, an old employee of Touring, with sons Mario and Serafino; the design was a rebody of the 400GT, but the track was altered to allow for wider tires and while the Islero's body suffered from a lack of proper fit between the panels, its good outward visibility, roomier interior, much improved soundproofing made it an improvement over previous models. It had a 325 bhp 4.0 L V12 engine, a five-speed transmission independent suspension, disc brakes. Its top speed was rated at 154 mph and acceleration from 0 to 60 mph took 6.4 seconds.
125 Isleros were built. When leaving the factory the Islero fitted Pirelli Cinturato 205VR15 tyres. An updated Islero, dubbed the Islero S, was released in 1969; the engine in this model was tuned to 350 bhp. There were quite a few styling changes, including brightwork blind slots on the front fenders, an enlarged hood scoop flared fenders, tinted windows, round side-marker lights, a fixed section in the door windows. Various other changes included larger brake discs, revised rear suspension and revamped dashboard and interior; the top speed of the S improved to acceleration from 0 to 60 mph in 6.2 seconds. 100 examples of the Islero S were built, bringing the production total of the Islero nameplate to 225 cars. Ferruccio Lamborghini himself drove an Islero during that era --; the car is famous for its appearance in the Roger Moore thriller The Man Who Haunted Himself and in Italian Vedo nudo. Lamborghini Islero Information Exchange