click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Light curve

In astronomy, a light curve is a graph of light intensity of a celestial object or region, as a function of time. The light is in a particular frequency interval or band. Light curves can be periodic, as in the case of eclipsing binaries, Cepheid variables, other periodic variables, transiting extrasolar planets, or aperiodic, like the light curve of a nova, a cataclysmic variable star, a supernova or a microlensing event or binary as observed during occultation events; the study of the light curve, together with other observations, can yield considerable information about the physical process that produces it or constrain the physical theories about it. Graphs of the apparent magnitude of a variable star over time are used to visualise and analyse their behaviour. Although the categorisation of variable star types is done from their spectral properties, the amplitudes and regularity of their brightness changes are still important factors; some types such as Cepheids have regular light curves with the same period and shape in each cycle.

Others such as Mira variables have somewhat less regular light curves with large amplitudes of several magnitudes, while the semiregular variables are less regular still and have smaller amplitudes. The shapes of variable star light curves give valuable information about the underlying physical processes producing the brightness changes. For eclipsing variables, the shape of the light curve indicates the degree of totality, the relative sizes of the stars, their relative surface brightnesses, it may show the eccentricity of the orbit and distortions in the shape of the two stars. For pulsating stars, the amplitude or period of the pulsations can be related to the luminosity of the star, the light curve shape can be an indicator of the pulsation mode. Light curves from supernovae can be indicative of the type of supernova. Although supernova types are defined on the basis of their spectra, each has typical light curve shapes. Type I supernovae have light curves with a sharp maximum and decline, while Type II supernovae have less sharp maxima.

Light curves are helpful for classification of faint supernovae and for the determination of sub-types. For example, the type II-P have similar spectra to the type II-L but are distinguished by a light curve where the decline flattens out for several weeks or months before resuming its fade. In planetary science, a light curve can be used to derive the rotation period of a minor planet, moon, or comet nucleus. From the Earth there is no way to resolve a small object in the Solar System in the most powerful of telescopes, since the apparent angular size of the object is smaller than one pixel in the detector. Thus, astronomers measure the amount of light produced by an object as a function of time; the time separation of peaks in the light curve gives an estimate of the rotational period of the object. The difference between the maximum and minimum brightnesses can be due to the shape of the object, or to bright and dark areas on its surface. For example, an asymmetrical asteroid's light curve has more pronounced peaks, while a more spherical object's light curve will be flatter.

This allows astronomers to infer information about the spin of asteroids. The Asteroid Lightcurve Database of the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link uses a numeric code to assess the quality of a period solution for minor planet light curves, its quality code parameter "U" ranges from 0 to 3: U = 0 → Result proven incorrect U = 1 → Result based on fragmentary light curve, may be wrong. U = 2 → Result based on less than full coverage. Period may be wrong by ambiguous. U = 3 → Secure result within the precision given. No ambiguity. U = n.a. → Not available. Incomplete or inconclusive result. A trailing plus sign or minus sign is used to indicate a better or worse quality than the unsigned value; the occultation light curve is characterised as binary, where the light from the star is terminated instantaneously, remains constant for the duration, is reinstated instantaneously. The duration is equivalent to the length of a chord across the occulting body. Circumstances where the transitions are not instantaneous are.

When the occulted body is large, e.g. a star like Antares the transitions are gradual. When the occulting body has an atmosphere, e.g. the moon TitanThe observations are recorded using video equipment and the disappearance and reappearance timed using a GPS disciplined Video Time Inserter. Occultation light curves are archived at the VizieR service. Light curve inversion is a mathematical technique used to model the surfaces of rotating objects from their brightness variations; this can be used to image starspots or asteroid surface albedos. Microlensing is a process where small and low-mass astronomical objects cause a brief small increase in the brightness of a more distant object; this is caused by the small relativistic effect as larger gravitational lenses, but allows the detection and analysis of otherwise-invisible stellar and planetary mass objects. The properties of these objects can be inferred from the shape of the lensing light curve. For example, PA-99-N2 is a microlensing event that may have been due to a star in the Andromeda Galaxy that has an exoplanet.

The AAVSO online light curve generator can plot light curves for thousands of variable stars The Open Astronomy

Territories of the Holy Roman Empire outside the Imperial Circles

When the Imperial Circles — comprising a regional grouping of territories of the Holy Roman Empire — were created as part of the Imperial Reform at the 1500 Diet of Augsburg, many Imperial territories remained unencircled. Six circles were established in order to secure and enforce the Public Peace declared by Emperor Maximilian I and the jurisdiction of the Reichskammergericht, they did not incorporate the territories of the Prince-electors and the Austrian homelands of the ruling House of Habsburg. Only at the 1512 Diet of Trier were these estates included in the newly implemented Burgundian, Upper Saxon, Electoral Rhenish circles, confirmed by the 1521 Diet of Worms. After 1512, the bulk of the remaining territories not comprised by Imperial Circles were the lands of the Bohemian crown, the Old Swiss Confederacy and the Italian territories. Besides these, there were a considerable number of minor territories which retained imperial immediacy, such as individual Imperial Villages, the lands held by individual Imperial Knights.

The Kingdom of Bohemia the Bohemian Margraviate of Moravia the Piast duchies of Silesia, in large part conquered by Prussia in 1742 in Lower Silesia: the Duchy of Silesia-Wrocław, held by the Bohemian kings since 1335 the Duchy of Nysa, held by the Prince-Bishops of Wrocław the Duchy of Legnica the Duchy of Jawor, held by the Bohemian kings since 1392 the Duchy of Brzeg the Duchy of Głogów the Duchy of Żagań, held by the Saxon House of Wettin until 1549 the Duchy of Oleśnica the Duchy of Bierutów the Duchy of Ziębice in Upper Silesia: the Duchy of Opole the Duchy of Racibórz the Duchy of Cieszyn the Duchy of Opava, established on Moravian territory in 1269 the Duchy of Krnov, partitioned from Opava in 1377 including the state countries of Pszczyna Syców Żmigród Milicz Bytom Odrzański Bytom the Margraviates of Upper and Lower Lusatia, ceded to Saxony in 1635, including the state countries of Muskau Seidenberg Hoyerswerda Königsbrück, from 1562 the County of Kladsko, conquered by Prussia in 1742 The Old Swiss Confederacy remained part of the Holy Roman Empire until 1648, when it gained formal independence in the Peace of Westphalia.

The Thirteen Cantons the City of Zürich, since 1351 the City and Republic of Berne, since 1353.

Push th' Little Daisies

"Push th' Little Daisies" is a song by the band Ween, appearing on their third album, Pure Guava in 1992. It was released as a single in 1993. A music video was released, featuring Dean and Gene Ween eating various foods while fooling around and interspersed with them performing the song; the video and song gained exposure after being critiqued on MTV show and Butt-head. The song was a hit in Australia, spending 13 weeks on the Australian singles chart and peaking at #18, it came 40th in Triple J's annual Hottest 100 music poll in 1993. It was successful on United States Alternative rock radio, charting at #21 on the Billboard Modern Rock Tracks chart and is one of only two Ween songs–the other being "Voodoo Lady"–to chart on any Billboard chart; the A. V. Club said, "there’s something undeniable about the madness of "Push th’ Little Daisies", with its roots in alternative-nation open-mindedness, pop subversion, lots of drugs. It’s crazy catchy, too as it’s deliberately annoying."The song is mentioned in the book 1001 Songs You Must Hear Before You Die, on the appendix list of 10,001 songs recommended for download.

"Push th' Little Daisies" – 2:49 "Push th' Little Daisies" – 2:49 "Ode to Rene" – 2:21 "I Smoke Some Grass" – 7:45 "Mango Woman" – 2:23 "Push th' Little Daisies" – 2:52

2014 national electoral calendar

This national electoral calendar for the year 2014 lists the national/federal direct elections held in 2014 in all sovereign states and their dependent territories. By-elections are excluded. 5 January: Bangladesh, Parliament 14–15 January: Egypt, Constitutional referendum 2 February: Costa Rica and Parliament El Salvador, President Thailand, General 9 February: Switzerland, Referendums 20 February: Libya, Constitutional Assembly 9 March: Colombia, Legislative El Salvador, President North Korea, Parliament 15 March: Slovakia, President 16 March: Serbia, Parliament Crimea, Referendum 22 March: Maldives, Parliament 29 March: Slovakia, President 1 April: Malta, President 5 April: Afghanistan, President 6 April: Costa Rica, President Hungary, Parliament 7 April: India, Parliament 9 April: India, Parliament Indonesia, Legislative 10 April: India, Parliament 12 April: India, Parliament 13 April: Guinea-Bissau and Parliament Macedonia, President 17 April: Algeria, President India, Parliament 23 April: Lebanon, President 24 April: India, Parliament 27 April: Macedonia and Parliament 30 April: India, Parliament Iraq, Parliament Lebanon, President 4 May: Panama and Parliament 7 May: India, Parliament Lebanon, President South Africa, Parliament 11 May: Lithuania, President 12 May: India, Parliament 15 May: Lebanon, President 18 May: Guinea-Bissau, President Switzerland, Referendums 20 May: Malawi and Parliament 22 May: Lebanon, President 25 May: Belgium and Regional Colombia, President Denmark, Unified Patent Court referendum Lithuania, President Ukraine, President 26–28 May: Egypt, President 3 June: Syria, President 8 June: Kosovo, Parliament South Ossetia, Parliament 9 June: Lebanon, President 10 June: Israel, President 12 June: Antigua and Barbuda, Parliament 14 June: Afghanistan, President 15 June: Colombia, President Liechtenstein, Referendum 18 June: Lebanon, President 21 June: Mauritania, President 25 June: Libya, Parliament 2 July: Lebanon, President 9 July: Cook Islands, Parliament Indonesia, President 13 July: Slovenia, Parliament 23 July: Lebanon, President 24 July: Iraq, President 10 August: Turkey, President 12 August: Lebanon, President 24 August: Abkhazia, President 29 August: Sint Maarten, Parliament 2 September: Lebanon, President 14 September: Sweden, Parliament 17 September: Fiji, Parliament 20 September: New Zealand, Parliament 23 September: Lebanon, President 28 September: France, Senate Switzerland, Referendums 4 October: Latvia, Parliament 5 October: Brazil and Parliament Bulgaria, Parliament 9 October: Lebanon, President 10–11 October: Czech Republic, Senate 12 October: Bolivia and Congress Bosnia and Herzegovina, Presidential Council and Parliament São Tomé and Príncipe, Parliament 15 October: Mozambique and Parliament 17–18 October: Czech Republic, Senate 24 October: Botswana, Parliament 26 October: Brazil, President Tunisia, Parliament Ukraine, Parliament Uruguay and Parliament 29 October: Lebanon, President 2 November: Romania, President 4 November: United States, House of Representatives and Senate 16 November: Romania, President 19 November: Lebanon, President Solomon Islands, Parliament 22 November: Bahrain, Parliament 23 November: Tunisia, President 27 November: Tonga, Parliament 29 November: Namibia and National Assembly 30 November: Moldova, Parliament Switzerland, Referendums Uruguay, President 8 December: Dominica, Parliament 10 December: Mauritius, Parliament Lebanon, President 14 December: Japan, Parliament 17 December: Greece, President 20 December: Liberia, Senate 21 December: Tunisia, President Uzbekistan, Parliament 23 December: Greece, President 28 December: Croatia, President 29 December: Greece, President List of next general elections National electoral calendar 2015 National Democratic Institute - Electoral Calendar

The Monster Times

The Monster Times was a horror film fan magazine created in 1972. Published by The Monster Times Publishing Co. it was intended as a competitor to Famous Monsters of Filmland. Although the main editorial focus of the magazine was horror media, it featured articles and reviews of modern and classic science fiction/fantasy movies and television series, as well as comic books; each issue featured a fold-out centerfold poster based on that particular issue's feature story. The Monster Times was edited at various times in its formative years by Chuck R. McNaughton, Allen Asherman, Joe Brancatelli and Tom Rogers. Joe Kane took over as editor with Issue # 11, remained in that capacity until the periodical's demise; the publishers were art directors Larry Brill and Les Waldstein, who were the original designers for the pornographic weekly tabloid Screw, for Famous Monsters of Filmland and other Jim Warren publications in the late 1960s. The first issue is dated January 26, 1972. Printed on newspaper-quality paper stock, with a more refined white paper for covers and other content in earlier issues, the magazine was published on a biweekly schedule for its first fourteen issues switched to monthly until 1975, at which point it became a bi-monthly publication.

Its final few issues were published erratically, the title ceased publication in July 1976 with issue # 48. Three Monster Times special issues were published: Star Trek Lives #1, subtitled "Sci-Fi Super TV Special Issue", Star Trek Lives #2 and an untitled all giant monster poster special. Contributing writers and photographers included Michael Uslan, Joe Kane, Doug Murray, Allan Asherman, Steve Vertlieb, Phil Seuling, Buddy Weiss, Frank Verzyl, Dean Latimer, Edward Summer, Joe Brancatelli, Manny Maris, Jason Thomas. Contributing artists included Gray Morrow, Jeff Jones, Neal Adams, Bernie Wrightson and Larry Vincent. In the 1990s, an attempt by Brill and Waldstein to target a similar market resulted in a few issues of The Dinosaur Times. Monster Magazines - The First Decade

Lewis E. Welshofer Jr.

Lewis E. Welshofer Jr. is a United States Army soldier, convicted of homicide of an Iraqi prisoner of war on November 23, 2003 in al-Qaim. Welshofer was serving as a Chief Warrant Officer in the 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment. Following a technique which he alleged was approved by his superiors, Welshofer placed Iraqi Major General Abed Hamed Mowhoush headfirst into a sleeping bag, wrapped the bag with electrical cords sat on his chest and held his mouth closed. General Mowhoush had eight broken ribs from an earlier beating carried out by CIA contractors under Welshofer's direction. American forces believed Mowhoush, a former high-level officer in Saddam Hussein's regime, was one of the leaders of the Iraqi insurgency, he had voluntarily surrendered to the Americans in hopes of helping free his sons, who were being held by the Americans. In his defense, Welshofer had stressed that the General was refusing to acknowledge leading the insurgency, that his superiors were insisting that Army interrogators "take the gloves off" when dealing with Iraqi prisoners.

At his court martial, a CIA official who observed Welshofer's interrogation techniques, wrote a memo because he was alarmed when Welshofer told him that he violated interrogation rules every day. On January 17, 2006, military judge Mark Toole rejected the request from attorney Frank Spinner, to dismiss the charges. CWO Jefferson L. Williams and Spc Jerry L. Loper both agreed to testify against Welshofer in exchange for a reduction in their own charges relating to the death. Welshofer claimed he was only following orders which came all the way from the Pentagon and Donald Rumsfeld. Welshofer was convicted of negligent homicide, negligent dereliction of duty on January 21, 2006; the jury took 6 hours of deliberation. Welshofer could have faced a dishonorable discharge as well as up to 39 months in prison, but received only 60 days of barracks confinement and he was ordered to forfeit $6,000 in salary. Critics around the world questioned the verdict's leniency. In September, 2013, in an article looking back on the use of torture in Iraq, Douglas A. Pryer, writing in Foreign Policy magazine, wrote that Welshofer had lobbied for the way he stuffed captives headfirst into sleeping bags be interpreted as an instance of the "extended interrogation technique" Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld had approved -- close confinement.

More than a "few rotten apples", January 27, 2006