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Light fighter

A Light fighter or lightweight fighter is a fighter aircraft towards the low end of the practical range of weight and complexity over which fighters are fielded. The light or lightweight fighter retains selected competitive features, in order to provide cost-effective design and performance. A well-designed lightweight fighter is able to match or better a heavier type plane-for-plane in many missions, for lower cost; the lightweight class can therefore be strategically valuable. In attempts to scale this efficiency to still lower cost, some manufacturers have in recent years adopted the term “light fighter” to refer to light air-to-ground attack aircraft, some of which are modified trainer designs. From 1926 the light fighter concept has been a regular thread in the development of fighter aircraft, with some notable designs entering large-scale use. A key design goal of light/lightweight fighter design is to satisfy standard air-to-air fighter effectiveness requirements at minimum cost; these criteria, in order of importance, are the ability to benefit from the element of surprise, to have numerical superiority in the air, to have superior maneuverability, to possess adequate weapon systems effectiveness.

Light fighters achieve a surprise advantage over larger aircraft due to smaller visual and radar signatures, important since in the majority of air-to-air kills, the element of surprise is dominant. Their comparative lower cost and higher reliability allows for greater numbers per budget. While a single engine light fighter would only carry about half the weapons load of a heavy twin engine fighter, its surprise and maneuverability advantages allow it to gain positional advantage to make better use of those weapons. A requirement for low cost and therefore small fighters first arose in the period between World War I and World War II. Examples include several RAF interceptor designs from the interwar era and French "Jockey" aircraft of the immediate pre-World War II. None of these light fighters enjoyed success into World War II, as they were too hampered in performance. Similar to the meaning of lightweight fighter today, during World War II the term “small fighter” was used to describe a single engine aircraft of competitive performance and armament load, but with no unnecessary weight and cost.

The modern view of light/lightweight fighters is as a capable weapon intended to satisfy the main criteria of air-to-air combat effectiveness, which in order of importance, are: 1. Superiority in the element of surprise, to be aware of the enemy before they are aware of you. In past combats, surprise advantage has been based upon small visual and radar signatures, having good visibility out of the cockpit. Surprise is a significant advantage, since in about 80% of air-to-air kills, the victim was unaware of the attacker until too late. Small fighters like the F-5 with a planform area of about 300 square feet or the F-16 at about 400 square feet, compared to about 1,050 square feet for the F-15, have a much lower visual profile; the small fighter is invisible to opposing pilots beyond about 4 miles, whereas a larger fighter such as the F-15 is visible to about 7 miles. This is a non-linear advantage to the light fighter opposing a heavy fighter. Additionally, smaller targets take longer to visually acquire if they are visible.

These two factors together give the light fighter pilot much better statistical odds of seeing the heavy fighter first and setting up a decisive first shot. Once the small fighter sees and turns towards the opponent its small frontal area reduces maximum visual detection range to about 2 to 2.5 miles. Given similar technology, smaller fighters have about two thirds the radar range against the same target as heavy fighters. However, this cannot be counted upon to give the large fighter a winning advantage, as larger fighters with typical radar cross sectional area of about 10 square metres are detectable by a given radar at about 50% farther range than the 2 to 3 square metres cross section of the light fighter; this balances these trade-offs, can sometimes favor the lightweight fighter. For example, from the front the F-15 presents about 20 square metres radar cross sectional area, has been defeated by opposing F-16 forces not only in close dogfighting combat, but in extensive Beyond Visual Range trials.

Airborne fighter radars are limited: their coverage is only to the front, are far from perfect in detecting enemy aircraft. Although radar was extensively used by the United States in the Vietnam War, only 18% of North Vietnamese fighters were first detected by radar, only 3% by radar on fighter aircraft; the other 82% were visually acquired. The modern trend to stealth aircraft is an attempt to maximize surprise in an era when Beyond Visual Range missiles are becoming more effective than the quite low effectiveness BVR has had in the past.2. Numerical superiority in the air, which implies the need for lower procurement cost, lower maintenance cost, higher reliability. Not taking into account the sometimes superior combat capability of lighter aircraft based on surprise and maneuverability, the pure numbers issue of lower cost and higher reliability tends to favor light fighters, it is a basic outcome of Lanchester's laws, or the salvo combat model, that a larger number of less-sophisticated units will tend to be successful over a smaller number of more advanced ones.

Marion C. Moore School

Marion C. Moore is a public middle school and high school located at 6415 Outer Loop in Louisville, Kentucky. Operations in the building began in January, 1969; this building, the largest of all high schools in Jefferson County, was notable for a number of features. The large main gymnasium was contained in the center of the building, off the lobby, bordered by two parallel rows of classrooms; the art classrooms, located on the second floor of the western end of the building, had balconies that overlooked a courtyard below that separated the main building from the small industrial arts building to its west. Moore High School added a grade in each of the three succeeding years so that by the 1971/1972 school year, the school contained grades 7–12 for the first time. Moore High School made a name for itself in music, as the band won a state championship in those early years and the choral music department put on the musicals "Brigadoon", "Oklahoma" and "Pajama Game". In 2017, the name of the school was changed to Marion C. Moore School, shedding the traditional label, placed on the school.

On November 22, 2019 the Marion C. Moore Instagram page made a post announcing Rob Fulk’s retirement as principle, it was formatted as a letter, written by Rob himself. It reads as follows: “Dear Marion C. Moore Community, Effective 12/2/19 I will be transitioning to Iroquois High School as Principal, it was not an easy decision to make, as I have great love and admiration for THE Marion C. Moore; this is my fourth year at Moore, on the toughest days, I have enjoyed the work with our students and community. My decision comes from a desire to continue the work of developing schools where students can be part of a great education, building the community of our city. Moore is on a great path forward, with no limit to what can be accomplished on this campus. I am PROUD of the students and the growth they’ve shown, they are capable of great things, have produced evidence of this time and again. I consider myself fortunate to have worked with this dedicated staff of 250+, am a better educator for my time working alongside them all.

I still live in the community of Highview, I am PROUD of the work that only makes our community stronger, you’ll see me around the neighborhood. I wish our school community the best moving forward; the process in selecting a new principal will begin soon. Traci Burke will serve as the interim principal until a permanent replacement is named; this campus is a special place, remarkable in the fabric of our city. Keep the mission and belief moving forward, Moore will continue to be the school that students want to attend, staff want to work, community is proud to call their own. Sincerely, Rob Fulk #KNOWmoore” As of January 11, 2020, a new permanent replacement principal has yet to be announced; the Moore Mustangs fielded their first varsity football team in the fall of 1970 at a time when the school's highest grade was its junior class. The going was difficult early on, as the 1970 team finished 0-10, as did the 1971 team; the 1972 varsity football team was able to tie Doss High School and Fern Creek High School but still remained winless, finishing 0-8-2.

At that time, Moore's combined record stood at 0-28-2. Things changed for the 1973 Moore team, however. Many of its players had played in the three seasons leading up to 1973 and had been toughened by that experience; the first game of the season ended in a 6-6 tie with the Western Warriors. Moore traveled to face Ballard High School for its second game of the season and defeated the Bruins 21-12 for its first victory in the school's history. Moore defeated Fairdale High School, Durrett High School, Fern Creek High School and Southern High School during the 1973 season to compile its first winning season at 5 wins, 4 losses and 1 tie; the victory over Southern was notable for the fact that Southern went on to play in the 1973 Class AAA Moore has a 6th grade-12th grade wrestling team that has placed many in the middle school state such as Sam Willbanks, Jason Hall, Blake Kraft. Moore has had several high school state placers In the 80's including Jeff Simms and Scott Bridgewaters, John Blanton, Trey Oswald, James Schneider, Zack Michael.

Moore's head coach is Mike Thomas a former student of Moore, former wrestler for Moore. Moore's best Soccer Season was under the coaching prowess of Head Coach Joseph C. Davis and Assistant Coach Joe Prather in the 1992-1993 Season; the team was led by Senior Captains Richard Sheldon and Anthony Davis, fellow Seniors Lonnie Harris, Matt Young, Pat Hale, in which they finished the season out 13-4-2. Although losing to St. Xavier in the Regional Tournament, Moore had won its first District Tournament since 1988-1989, defeating DeSales in a shootout, with the game winning goal from Jesus Lopez. Moore Mustang's Soccer team resumed playing in 2010, coached by Jake McKinney, led by Salvador Lopez and Edwin Padilla; the Mustangs began the building process of constructing a good program but results came slim for their starting season of play coming up with a season result of 1-5-0. 2011-2012 Season The Moore Mustangs implemented Edwin Juarez and Elmer Padilla as well as a new coach, Paul Vitato who all began to bring the Mustangs into the 7th Region League.

Improving from 2010, The Mustangs improved their soon to be dominance run into their local district, finishing the season 4-10-1. Mekale McKay, NFL player

Kim Rhode

Kimberly Susan Rhode is an American double trap and skeet shooter. A California native, she is a six-time Olympic medal winner, including three gold medals, six-time national champion in double trap, she is the most successful female shooter at the Olympics as the only triple Olympic Champion and the only woman to have won two Olympic gold medals for Double Trap. She won a gold medal in skeet shooting at the 2012 Summer Olympics, equaling the world record of 99 out of 100 clays. Most she won the bronze medal at the Rio 2016 Olympics, making her the first Olympian to win a medal on five different continents, the first Summer Olympian to win an individual medal at six consecutive summer games, the first woman to medal in six consecutive Olympics. Kimberly Rhode was born in Whittier, California in 1979. Rhode began sport hunting at an early age, traveling on African safaris by the age of 12. Rhode began competing in skeet at age 10. Rhode, at 13, won her first world championship title in women's double trap shooting.

After double trap shooting was eliminated from the 2008 Summer Olympics, she has concentrated on skeet. Rhode became a Distinguished International Shooter in 1995. In ISSF World Cup competition, she has won 19 Gold, 7 Silver, 8 Bronze medals. At the 2007 World Cup competition in Santo Domingo, she set a new world record in this event with 98 hits. Rhode won a gold medal at the 1996 Summer Olympics, making her the youngest female gold medalist in the history of Olympic shooting. Rhode won a bronze medal at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Australia. Rhode won a gold medal at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens in Women's Double trap. Rhode won the silver medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics in women's skeet. On July 29 at the 2012 Summer Olympics, Rhode won the gold medal in skeet shooting with an Olympic record score of 99, tying the world record in this event. With this medal, Rhode is the only American competitor to win medals for an individual event in five consecutive Olympics, she became one of the three competitors to win three Olympic individual gold medals for shooting, along with Ralf Schumann of Germany and Jin Jong-oh of Korea.

Qualifying for the 2016 Summer Olympics made Rhode the first U. S. Olympian to qualify for an Olympic team on five different continents. Kim Rhode won the bronze medal at the Rio 2016 Olympics, making her the first Olympian to win a medal on five different continents, the first Summer Olympian to win an individual medal at six consecutive summer games, the first woman to medal in six consecutive Olympics. Rhode is co-host of the Outdoor Channel's TV program Step Outside. Rhode studied Pre-veterinary medicine at Cal Poly Pomona. On September 11, 2008, Rhode's competition shotgun was stolen from her pickup; the gun was returned to her in January 2009 after it was discovered during an unrelated search of a parolee's home. In the meantime fans had donated to buy her a new $13,000 Perazzi shotgun. Having become used to training with the new gun, she elected to retire "Old Faithful" after four Summer Games. Rhode spoke at the 2012 Republican National Convention, introducing several other Olympians on the stage.

Rhode married Mike Harryman in 2009. Their son was born in 2013. In addition to being a member of USA Shooting's National Team, Rhode is an honorary lifetime member of the National Rifle Association and a member of Safari Club International. Kim Rhode's U. S. Olympic Team bio USA Shooting Kim Rhode Kim Rhode at the International Shooting Sport Federation Kim Rhode at Olympics at Kimberly Rhode at the International Olympic Committee Kim Rhode at at the Wayback Machine

Alla Aleksandrovska

Alla Aleksandrovska is a Ukrainian politician, member of the Communist Party of Ukraine, People's Deputy of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th Verkhovna Radas of Ukraine. Aleksandrovska was born on 7 December 1948 in Kharkiv, she studied in Kharkkiv school No.116, graduated from Kharkiv Aviation Institute in 1972 as qualified mechanical engineer. In 1990s she graduated from Kharkiv Institute of Interdisciplinary Economics, with qualification in Management and Marketing. Since 1972 had worked as an engineer senior engineer as team manager of the design bureau JSC "Khartron". Aleksandrovska has been the First Secretary in Kharkiv regional Communist Party Committee and the Member of the Presidium of the Communist Party of Ukraine. In 1998 - 2002 Alla Aleksandrovska was elected the People's Deputy from the Communist Party, No. 24 in the list. At the time of elections she was working as team manager of the design bureau JSC "Khartron", Kharkiv, she was Member of Verkhovna Rada Committee on Fuel and Energy Complex, Nuclear Policy and Nuclear Safety.

In 2002 - 2006 Aleksandrovska was the People's Deputy from No. 21 in the list. Her activities during the plenary included: Member of the Committee on Fuel and Energy Complex, Nuclear Policy and Nuclear Safety Member of Verkhovna Rada Committee on Fuel and Energy Complex, Nuclear Policy and Nuclear Safety Secretary of the Group of Interparliamentary Relations with the Kingdom of Sweden Member of the Group of Interparliamentary Relations with Russian Federation Member of the Group of Interparliamentary Relations with the Republic of Belarus Member of the Group of Interparliamentary Relations with Canada Member of the Group of Interparliamentary Relations with the Republic of Iraq In 2006 - 2007 Aleksandrovska was the People's Deputy from the Communist Party, No. 17 in the list. Activities: Chairman of Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine Interim Commission for audit of the situation with providing natural gas to Ukrainian consumers, payments for the delivered natural gas and possible violations of acting law at the energy market of Ukraine Secretary of the Budget Committee of Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine Deputy Head of the Group for Interparliamentary Relations with Syria Member of the Group for Interparliamentary Relations with the Arab Republic of Egypt Member of the Group of Interparliamentary Relations with Russian Federation Member of the Group of Interparliamentary Relations with the Kingdom of Sweden Member of the Group of Interparliamentary Relations with the Republic of Cuba Since November 2007, Alla Aleksandrovska has been the People's Deputy of Ukraine in the 6th Verkhovna Rada, elected by CPU lists Positions during the plenary: Secretary of the Budget Committee of Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine Secretary of the Interim Commission of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine on the audit of the National Bank of Ukraine during the financial crisis Member of the Special Control Commission of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine on privatization issues Head of the Group for Interparliamentary Relations with Syria Member of the Group of Interparliamentary Relations with the Republic of CubaAleksandrovska did not return to parliament after the 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election after losing in single-member districts number 170 located in Kharkiv.

2007 Ukrainian parliamentary election List of Ukrainian Parliament Members 2007 Alla Aleksandrovskaya' profile at the official web site of Verkhovna Rada

Brink's-Mat robbery

The Brink's-Mat robbery occurred at the Heathrow International Trading Estate on 26 November 1983, with a record £26 million worth of gold bullion and cash stolen from a warehouse. The bullion was the property of Johnson Matthey Bankers Ltd, which collapsed the following year after making large loans to frauds and insolvent firms. Two men were convicted, the majority of the gold has never been recovered. Insurers Lloyd's of London paid out for the losses. Several deaths have been linked to the case, there are links to the Hatton Garden safe deposit burglary in April 2015; the Brink's-Mat robbery occurred early on 26 November 1983 when six robbers broke into the Brink's-Mat warehouse, Unit 7 of the Heathrow International Trading Estate near Heathrow Airport in the west of Greater London. It was described as "the crime of the century"; the gang gained entry to the warehouse from security guard Anthony Black. Once inside, they poured petrol over staff and threatened them with a lit match if they did not reveal the combination numbers of the vault.

The robbers thought that they were going to steal £3.2 million in cash, but they found three long tons of gold bullion and stole £26 million worth of gold and cash. Two days after the robbery, a couple saw a white-hot crucible operating in a garden hut at a neighbour's property near Bath, Somerset. Suspecting it might be linked to the bullion robbery, they informed the police; the police arrived and were shown the hut, but they said it was just beyond their jurisdiction and said they would pass the information on to the police responsible for that area. The couple were never asked to give a statement to give evidence in court. No explanation has been given for the police failure to follow up on the tip-off. 14 months the premises were raided, the smelter found, occupier John Palmer, a local jeweller and bullion dealer, arrested. In court, Palmer said he was unaware the gold was linked to the robbery and he was cleared of all charges. One of the robbers, Brian Robinson, was caught after security guard insider Black, his brother-in-law, passed his name to investigating officers.

He was arrested in December 1983. Scotland Yard discovered the family connection and Black confessed to aiding and abetting the raiders, providing them with a key to the main door, giving them details of security measures. Micky McAvoy had entrusted part of his share to associates Brian George Francis. Perry recruited Kenneth Noye, an expert in his field, to dispose of the gold. Noye recast it for sale, mixing in copper coins to disguise the source. However, the sudden movement of large amounts of money through a Bristol bank came to the notice of the Bank of England, which informed the police. Noye was placed under police surveillance. In January 1985 he killed DC John Fordham, whom he had discovered in his garden. At the resulting trial, the jury found him not guilty. Tried at the Old Bailey in December 1984, McAvoy was sentenced to 25 years imprisonment for armed robbery. Black was sentenced to six years. In 1986, Noye was found guilty of conspiracy to handle the Brink's-Mat gold, fined £500,000, plus £200,000 costs, sentenced to 14 years in prison.

He served seven years before being released in 1994. George Francis was murdered and McAvoy was thought to be a suspect. Attempts by McAvoy to strike a deal to give back his share of the money in exchange for a reduced sentence failed, as by the money had vanished. In January 1995, the High Court ordered McAvoy to make a payment of £27,488,299, making him responsible for the entire sum stolen, he was released from prison in 2000. In 1996 Noye murdered motorist Stephen Cameron during a road rage incident. Arrested in Spain and extradited, he was convicted of Cameron's murder in 2000, received a life sentence. Much of the three tonnes of stolen gold has never been recovered and the other four robbers were never convicted. In 1996 about half of the gold, the portion, smelted, was thought to have found its way back into the legitimate gold market, including the reserves of the true owners, Johnson Matthey. According to the BBC, some have claimed that anyone wearing gold jewellery bought in the UK after 1983 is wearing Brink's-Mat.

On 21 December 1983, less than four weeks after the robbery, police in Austria arrested five men – four Italians and an Austrian – at a Vienna hotel. Police recovered ten bullion bars bearing the refiner's mark and serial numbers of bars stolen in the Brink's-Mat robbery. According to the police spokesman, the bars were gold-coated tungsten counterfeits, therefore could not be Johnson Matthey's stolen gold bars, he said. No explanation was given as to how the counterfeiters obtained the unpublished bar serial numbers, nor the benefit of counterfeiting stolen property in this way. A person named Gordon Parry laundered large amounts of cash from the robbery after the disposal of the gold according to the Panama Papers, which show an offshore financial intermediary firm in Jersey named Centre Services requested Mossack Fonseca set up a Panamanian company 12 months after the Heathrow raid, on behalf of an unnamed client. Under Parry's direction millions of pounds were put through the resulting Feberion, other front companies, via banks in Switzerland, Liechtenstein and the Isle of Man.

Two nominee directors from Sark were appointed to Feberion, the company issued two bearer shares. Parry used the offshore firms and recycled the funds, said to have amounted to £10.7 million, through transaction

1989 Bhagalpur violence

The Bhagalpur riots of 1989 refers to the violence between the Hindus and the Muslims in the Bhagalpur district of Bihar, India. The riots started on 24 October 1989, the violent incidents continued to happen for 2 months; the violence affected 250 villages around it. Over 1,000 people, were killed, another 50,000 were displaced as a result of the violence, it was the worst Hindu-Muslim violence in independent India at the time, surpassing the 1969 Gujarat riots. Bhagalpur has a history of communal violence, in 1989, the Hindu-Muslims tensions had escalated during the Muharram and Bisheri Puja festivities in August. In 1989, as part of the Ram Janmabhoomi campaign, which aimed to construct a Hindu temple at Ayodhya in place of the Babri mosque, the Vishwa Hindu Parishad had organized a "Ramshila" procession in Bhagalpur; the procession aimed to collect bricks for the proposed Ram temple at Ayodhya. One such procession passing through Fatehpur village provoked arson on 22 October. Prior to the outbreak of the riots, two false rumors about the killing of Hindu students started circulating: one rumor stated that nearly 200 Hindu university students had been killed by the Muslims, while another rumor stated that 31 Hindu boys had been murdered with their bodies dumped in a well at the Sanskrit College.

Apart from these, the political and criminal rivalries in the area played a role in inciting the riots. On 24 October 1989, the Ramshila processions from the various parts of the district were to proceed to the Gaushala area, from where they would move on to Ayodhya; the procession coming from Parbatti area passed peacefully through Tatarpur, a Muslim-dominated area, after its leader Mahadev Prasad Singh told the Hindus not to raise any provocative slogans. Sometime another procession from Nathnagar arrived at Tatarpur; this massive procession was escorted for safety by the police, in the presence of the Superintendent of Police KS Dwivedi. Some members of the procession shouted slogans such as Hindi, Hindustan, Mullah Bhago Pakistan and Babur ki auladon, bhago Pakistan ya Kabristan; the District Magistrate Arun Jha stopped the procession at the Parbatti-Tatarpur junction. The DM requested the Muslims to allow the procession to pass through Tatarpur, but the Muslims refused and suggested that the procession take an alternative route to Gaushala.

As the discussions were going on, crude bombs were thrown at the procession from the premises of the Muslim high school nearby. Although no one was killed in the bombing, 11 policemen suffered minor injuries; this is considered as the event. A curfew was imposed by the state government in the afternoon of October 24, all the civilian assemblies were declared illegal; when the police opened fired to disperse the crowd at Tatarpur, the Muslims hurled bombs at the District Magistrate, the Superintendent of Police, the other administration officials and the police. The police fired more rounds. Meanwhile, the Hindu procession retreated from the Parbatti-Tatarpur junction, turned into a mob; the mob attacked. The Hindu rioters attempted to storm the Muslim-dominated locality of Assanandpur, but the Muslims there fired at them from the rooftops; the mob turned to the Hindu-dominated locality Parbatti, where it massacred at least 40 Muslims. As the news of the violence reached the other Ramshila processions at Gaushala, the Hindus went on a rampage, killing Muslims, looting their shops and destroying their property.

On October 25, an 8,000-strong mob looted and destroyed Madaninagar, a Muslim settlement, turning it into a ghost town. They attacked Kanjhiagram, a nearby locality. Bhatoria, a Muslim-dominated village was attacked on October 25, again on October 27, killing several Muslims. In Hasnabad, the Shahi Masjid built during Aurangazeb's reign was damaged; the alleged police atrocities further fueled the violence. Upon immediate request from the state government, Army was called in on October 26. KS Dwivedi, the Police Superintendent accused of being anti-Muslim, was asked by the Bihar Chief Minister Satyendra Narayan Sinha to hand over the charge to Ajit Datt on the same day. However, during a tour of the riot-affected area, the Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi overruled Dwivedi's transfer at the demand of a mob composed of policemen and VHP supporters. On October 26, at least 11 Muslims were killed in the Brahmin-dominated Parandarpur village; the same day, 18 Muslims including 11 children were killed in full public view, in the Nayabazar area of Bhagalpur.

Around 44 Muslims, including 19 children, were provided refuge by some local Hindus in the Jamuna Kothi building. At 11:30 am, a 70-strong mob entered the Jamuna Kothi with swords, axes and lathis. Within 10 minutes, 18 Muslims were killed; some of the children were beheaded, some had their limbs cut off while the others were thrown off the third floor. A woman called; some other Muslims, provided refuge by the Hindus in the neighbouring buildings, managed to survive. In Assanandpur, Muslims escorted several hostel-resident Hindu students to safety. Hindustan, a Hindi daily in the state capital Patna, reported that on 31 October, the army soldiers had recovered Pakistan-made arms and ammunition from some miscreants in the Tatarpur area. However, the District Magistrate Arun Jha dismissed the report as "sheer nonsense", termed the'foreign hand' theory as "silly". According to official figures 1,070 people were kil