A light gun is a pointing device for computers and a control device for arcade and video games shaped to resemble a pistol. In aviation and shipping, it can be a directional signal lamp. Modern screen-based light guns work by building an optical sensor into the gun, which receives its input from the light emitted by on-screen target; the first device of this type, the light pen, was used on the MIT Whirlwind computer. The light gun and its ancestor the light pen are now used as pointing devices due to the popularity of the mouse and changes in monitor display technology—conventional light guns work only with CRT monitors; the first light guns appeared following the development of light-sensing vacuum tubes. It was not long before the technology began appearing in arcade shooting games, beginning with the Seeburg Ray-O-Lite in 1936; these early light gun games, like modern laser tag, used small targets onto which a light-sensing tube was mounted. If the beam struck the target, a "hit" was scored.
These games evolved throughout subsequent decades, culminating in Sega's Periscope, the company's first successful game released in 1966, which required the player to target cardboard ships. Periscope was an early electro-mechanical game, the first arcade game to cost a quarter per play. Sega's 1969 game Missile featured electronic sound and a moving film strip to represent the targets on a projection screen, their 1972 game Killer Shark featured a mounted light gun that shot at targets whose movement and reactions were displayed using back image projection onto a screen. Nintendo released the Beam Gun in 1970 and the Laser Clay Shooting System in 1973, followed in 1974 by the arcade game Wild Gunman, which used video projection to display the target on the screen. In 1975, Sega released the early co-operative light gun shooters Bullet Mark; the video game light gun is modeled on a ballistic weapon and is used for targeting objects on a video screen. With force feedback, the light gun can simulate the recoil of the weapon.
The first gun for a home console was in fact a big rifle, the Magnavox Odyssey's Shooting Gallery, which looked lifelike and needed to be "cocked" after each shot. Light guns are popular in arcade games, but had not caught on as well in the home video game console market until after the Nintendo Entertainment System, Sega Master System, Mega Drive/Genesis, Super Nintendo Entertainment System systems and Atari XEGS. Many home'Pong' systems of the 1970s included a gun for shooting simple targets on screen. Nintendo's NES Zapper for the NES is the most popular example of the light gun, Duck Hunt its most popular game. Traditional light guns cannot be used on LCD and plasma screens, have problems with projection screens. There are light guns for Sega Saturn, PlayStation and several other console and arcade systems. Recent light gun video games include Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles, Time Crisis 4, Virtua Cop 3, The House of the Dead: Overkill. In 2007, Nintendo released the Wii Zapper for the Wii, a peripheral, a plastic shell that houses both the Wii Remote and nunchuk for gun-style video games.
While it does not contain any traditional light gun technology, the peripheral makes use of the Wii Remote's built-in infrared tracking system to shoot targets that correspond on-screen. Its name is a reference to the classic NES Zapper for the Nintendo Entertainment System. Sony has released attachments that house the PlayStation Move motion controller in the form of a pistol and rifle, the latter named the Sharp Shooter. Namco's GunCon 3 uses an infrared optical sensor system similar to the Wii Remote; the "light gun" is named because it uses light as its method of detecting where on screen the user is targeting. The name leads one to believe that the gun itself emits a beam of light, but in fact most light guns receive light through a photodiode in the gun barrel. There are two versions of this technique that are used, but the concept is the same: when the trigger of the gun is pulled, the screen is blanked out to black, the diode begins reception. All or part of the screen is painted white in a way that allows the computer to judge where the gun is pointing, based on when the diode detects light.
The user of the light gun notices little or nothing, because the period in which the screen is blank is only a fraction of a second. The first detection method, used by the Zapper, involves drawing each target sequentially in white light after the screen blacks out; the computer knows that if the diode detects light as it is drawing a square, the target at which the gun is pointed. The diode tells the computer whether or not the player hit something, for n objects, the sequence of the drawing of the targets tell the computer which target the player hit after 1 + ceil refreshes. A side effect of this is that on poorly designed games a player can point the gun at a light bulb or other bright light source, pull the trigger, cause the system to falsely detect a hit on the first target every time. Better games account for this either by detecting if all targets appear to match or by displaying a black screen and verifying that no targets match; the second method, used by the Super Nintendo Entertainment System's Super Scope and computer light pens, is more elaborate and more accurate.
The trick to this method lies in the nature
The 1947 Wilberforce State Green Wave football team was an American football team that represented Wilberforce State College of Education in the Midwest Athletic Association during the 1947 college football season. In its 12th season under head coach Gaston F. Lewis, the team compiled a 11–1 record and all outscored opponents by a total of 415 to 79. Wilberforce State was ranked No. 2 among the nation's black college football teams according to the Pittsburgh Courier and its Dickinson Rating System. The team's only defeat was against Tennessee A&I, the team selected by the Courier as the 1947 national champion. Key players on the 1947 Wilberforce State team included halfbacks Walt Sellers and Carl Baylor, quarterbacks Freddie Hall and Michael "Mickey" Carter, end Blake White. Prior to the start of the 1947–48 academic year, the State of Ohio withdrew support from the church-supported portion of the school; the two portions of the school split and fielded separate football teams with different coaches.
Lewis, the coach at Wilberforce since 1934, took responsibility for coaching the state school, Dwight Fisher coached the religious school
The Brierfield Furnace known as the Bibb Naval Furnace and Brierfield Ironworks, is a historic district in Brierfield, Alabama. The district includes one building and nine sites, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on November 20, 1974. The district is encompassed by Brierfield Ironworks Historical State Park; the Brierfield Furnace site was developed in 1861 by Caswell Campbell Huckabee, a Greensboro planter, Jonathan Newton Smith, a Bibb County planter, on land purchased from Jesse Mahan near the Little Cahaba River, a tributary of the Cahaba. The endeavor was known as the Bibb County Iron Company, with Huckabee providing most of the capital and slave labor for construction. Richard Fell was employed to build a 36-foot-high stone blast furnace and, in 1862, a rolling mill; the company produced cast iron but soon changed over to the more lucrative production of wrought iron. The iron was used to produce farm implements. Recognizing the high quality of iron produced at Brierfield, Confederate officials forced the men to sell the ironworks to the government for $600,000 in 1863, renaming it the Bibb Naval Furnace.
A new 40-foot-high brick furnace was built and a railroad line was constructed to connect the furnace to the mainline of the Alabama and Tennessee River Railroad. The output of the ironworks was shipped to the Confederate arsenal at Selma. By 1864, the furnace was producing 25 tons of iron per day, much of which went into producing over 100 Brooke rifles, one of the South's most important weapons, at Selma; this all ended on March 31, 1865, when the Bibb Naval Furnace was destroyed by the 10th Missouri Volunteer Cavalry during Wilson's Raid. Following the war, the operation was rebuilt under the private ownership of the Canebrake Company; the new company, formed by former Confederates Josiah Gorgas and Francis Strother Lyon, purchased the ironworks site from the Federal government for $45,000 in January 1866. They had the site back in production by November 2, 1866. In January 1867, Lyon turned the deed over to Gorgas, who became president of the newly formed Brierfield Ironworks. Gorgas leased the ironworks to Thomas S. Alvis on August 2, 1869.
He ran the works until forced to close due to economic conditions following the Panic of 1873. The facilities were purchased and reactivated by William D. and Kearsley Carter, of Louisville, Kentucky, in 1877. By 1882, the operation was under the management of Kansas. Peter had the furnace remodeled the rolling mill, he had a nailery, coke ovens, a washer built. However, at least due to the competition from cut-wire nails out of Pittsburgh, the ironworks closed for good in December 1894. In the years following the closure the site lay abandoned. During the World War II era thousands of bricks were scavenged from the site. In 1976, the Bibb County Commission created a park containing 45 acres at the urging of the Bibb County Historical Society; this initial effort has evolved over the years into what is now the Brierfield Ironworks Historical State Park. The structures and sites that contribute to the National Register of Historic Places listing include the ruinous brick furnace, the tramway bed from the railroad, the brick foundations of the rolling mill, the nailery foundations, coke ovens and the superintendent's house.
Several other structures have been moved to the park from other nearby locations. They include the Ashby Post Office, Brierfield Ironworks Park Office, Wilson Hayes House, J. Henry Jones General Store, Lightsey Cabin, Sims-Hubbard Log Cabin, Billy Mitchell Cabin, Mulberry Baptist Church; the park features the additional attractions of an outdoor amphitheater and nature trails, a swimming pool. Shelby Ironworks Tannehill Ironworks Brierfield Ironworks Historical State Park