Light pollution is the presence of anthropogenic and artificial light in the night environment. It is exacerbated by excessive, misdirected or obtrusive use of light, but carefully used light fundamentally alters natural conditions; as a major side-effect of urbanization, it is blamed for compromising health, disrupting ecosystems and spoiling aesthetic environments. Light pollution is the presence of artificial light in otherwise dark conditions; the term is most used in relation to in the outdoor environment, but is used to refer to artificial light indoors. Adverse consequences are multiple. Light pollution competes with starlight in the night sky for urban residents, interferes with astronomical observatories, like any other form of pollution, disrupts ecosystems and has adverse health effects. Light pollution is a side-effect of industrial civilization, its sources include building exterior and interior lighting, outdoor area lighting, factories and illuminated sporting venues. It is most severe in industrialized, densely populated areas of North America and Japan and in major cities in the Middle East and North Africa like Tehran and Cairo, but relatively small amounts of light can be noticed and create problems.
Awareness of the deleterious effects of light pollution began early in the 20th century, but efforts to address effects did not begin until the 1950s. In the 1980s a global dark-sky movement emerged with the founding of the International Dark-Sky Association. There are now such educational and advocacy organizations in many countries worldwide. Energy conservation advocates contend that light pollution must be addressed by changing the habits of society, so that lighting is used more efficiently, with less waste and less creation of unwanted or unneeded illumination. Several industry groups recognize light pollution as an important issue. For example, the Institution of Lighting Engineers in the United Kingdom provides its members with information about light pollution, the problems it causes, how to reduce its impact. Although, recent research point that the energy efficiency is not enough to reduce the light pollution because of the rebound effect. Since not everyone is irritated by the same lighting sources, it is common for one person's light "pollution" to be light, desirable for another.
One example of this is found in advertising, when an advertiser wishes for particular lights to be bright and visible though others find them annoying. Other types of light pollution are more certain. For instance, light that accidentally crosses a property boundary and annoys a neighbour is wasted and pollutive light. Disputes are still common. Where objective measurement is desired, light levels can be quantified by field measurement or mathematical modeling, with results displayed as an isophote map or light contour map. Authorities have taken a variety of measures for dealing with light pollution, depending on the interests and understandings of the society involved. Measures range from doing nothing at all, to implementing strict laws and regulations about how lights may be installed and used. Light pollution is caused by unnecessary use of artificial light. Specific categories of light pollution include light trespass, over-illumination, light clutter, skyglow. A single offending light source falls into more than one of these categories.
Light trespass occurs when unwanted light enters one's property, for instance, by shining over a neighbor's fence. A common light trespass problem occurs when a strong light enters the window of one's home from the outside, causing problems such as sleep deprivation. A number of cities in the U. S. have developed standards for outdoor lighting to protect the rights of their citizens against light trespass. To assist them, the International Dark-Sky Association has developed a set of model lighting ordinances; the Dark-Sky Association was started to reduce the light going up into the sky which reduces visibility of stars. This is any light, emitted more than 90° above nadir. By limiting light at this 90° mark they have reduced the light output in the 80–90° range which creates most of the light trespass issues. U. S. federal agencies may enforce standards and process complaints within their areas of jurisdiction. For instance, in the case of light trespass by white strobe lighting from communication towers in excess of FAA minimum lighting requirements the Federal Communications Commission maintains an Antenna Structure Registration database information which citizens may use to identify offending structures and provides a mechanism for processing citizen inquiries and complaints.
The U. S. Green Building Council has incorporated a credit for reducing the amount of light trespass and sky glow into their environmentally friendly building standard known as LEED. Light trespass can be reduced by selecting light fixtures which limit the amount of light emitted more than 80° above the nadir; the IESNA definitions include full cutoff and semi-cutoff. Over-illumination is the excessive use of light. Within the United States, over-illumination is responsible for two million barrels of oil per day in energy wasted; this is based upon U. S. consumption of equivalent of 18.8 million barrels per day of petroleum. It is further noted in th
Zsófia Kovács is a Hungarian artistic gymnast who competed at the 2016 Summer Olympics. She is the 2017 European all-around silver medalist. In 2016, she performed in the German Gymnastics Bundesliga for the team TZ DSHS Köln. On the second competition day, she showed the best all-around performance of all gymnasts. At the 2017 European Gymnastics Championships in Cluj-Napoca, she won a silver medal in the all-around, becoming the first Hungarian woman to land on the podium since Adrienn Varga did so in 1998 when she won vault. During these championships, Kovacs qualified to three individual finals where she finished 6th on vault, uneven bars and balance beam. Zsofia Kovacs at the International Gymnastics Federation Zsofia Kovacs at the International Olympic Committee Zsófia Kovács at the Magyar Olimpiai Bizottság Zsófia Kovács at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com
The 1984 United States presidential election in Louisiana took place on November 6, 1984. All 50 states and the District of Columbia, were part of the 1984 United States presidential election. Louisiana voters chose 10 electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president of the United States. Louisiana was won by incumbent United States President Ronald Reagan of California, running against former Vice President Walter Mondale of Minnesota. Reagan ran for a second time with former C. I. A. Director George H. W. Bush of Texas, Mondale ran with Representative Geraldine Ferraro of New York, the first major female candidate for the vice presidency; the presidential election of 1984 was a partisan election for Louisiana, with just under 99% of the electorate voting only for either the Democratic or Republican parties, though eight parties total appeared on the ballot. Most parishes in Louisiana voted in majority for Reagan a strong turn out in this conservative-leaning state.
Notable exceptions to the trend were New Orleans's populated Orleans Parish, a conglomeration of parishes along the Mississippi River, which forms Louisiana's Democratic stronghold. Louisiana weighed in for this election as 2% more Republican than the national average; as of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which St. John the Baptist Parish voted for the Republican candidate. Walter Mondale accepted the Democratic nomination for presidency after pulling narrowly ahead of Senator Gary Hart of Colorado and Rev. Jesse Jackson of Illinois - his main contenders during what would be a contentious Democratic primary. During the campaign, Mondale was vocal about reduction of government spending, and, in particular, was vocal against heightened military spending on the nuclear arms race against the Soviet Union, reaching its peak on both sides in the early 1980s. Taking a stance on the social issues of the day, Mondale advocated for gun control, the right to choose regarding abortion, opposed the repeal of laws regarding institutionalized prayer in public schools.
He criticized Reagan for his economic marginalization of the poor, stating that Reagan's reelection campaign was "a happy talk campaign," not focused on the real issues at hand. A significant political move during this election: the Democratic Party nominated Representative Geraldine Ferraro to run with Mondale as Vice-President. Ferraro is the first female candidate to receive such a nomination in United States history, she said in an interview at the 1984 Democratic National Convention that this action "opened a door which will never be closed again," speaking to the role of women in politics. By 1984, Reagan was popular with voters across the nation as the President who saw them out of the economic stagflation of the early and middle 1970s, into a period of economic stability; the economic success seen under Reagan was politically accomplished in two ways. The first was initiation of deep tax cuts for the wealthy, the second was a wide-spectrum of tax cuts for crude oil production and refinement, with the 1980 Windfall profits tax cuts.
These policies were augmented with a call for heightened military spending, the cutting of social welfare programs for the poor, the increasing of taxes on those making less than $50,000 per year. Collectively called "Reaganomics", these economic policies were established through several pieces of legislation passed between 1980 and 1987; these new tax policies arguably curbed several existing tax loopholes and exceptions, but Reaganomics is remembered for its trickle down effect of taxing poor Americans more than rich ones. Reaganomics has been criticized by many analysts as "setting the stage" for economic troubles in the United State after 2007, such as the Great Recession. Unopposed during the Republican primaries, Reagan ran on a campaign of furthering his economic policies. Reagan vowed to continue his "war on drugs," passing sweeping legislation after the 1984 election in support of mandatory minimum sentences for drug possession. Furthermore, taking a stance on the social issues of the day, Reagan opposed legislation regarding comprehension of gay marriage and environmentalism, regarding the final as being bad for business.
Reagan won the election in Louisiana with a resounding 22 point sweep-out landslide. Reagan did better in the West than in the Deep South, but still pulled well ahead of Mondale with Southern voters during the election. While Louisiana votes conservative, the election results in Louisiana are reflective of a nationwide reconsolidation of base for the Republican Party which took place through the 1980s; this was most evident during the 1984 presidential election. It is speculated that Mondale lost support with voters nearly during the campaign, namely during his acceptance speech at the 1984 Democratic National Convention. There he stated. To quote Mondale, "By the end of my first term, I will reduce the Reagan budget deficit by two thirds. Let's tell the truth, it must be done, it must be done. Mr. Reagan will raise taxes, so will I, he won't tell you. I just did." Despite this claimed attempt at establishing truthfulness with the electorate, this claim to raise taxes badly eroded his chances in what had begun as an uphill battle against the charismatic Ronald Reagan.
Reagan enjoyed high levels of bipart