Light rail transit is a form of urban rail transit using rolling stock similar to a tram, but operating at a higher capacity and speed, on an exclusive right-of-way. There is no standard definition, but in the United States, light rail operates along exclusive rights-of-way and uses either individual tramcars or multiple units coupled to form a train, lower capacity and lower speed than a long heavy-rail passenger train or metro system. A few light rail networks tend to have characteristics closer to rapid transit or commuter rail. Other light rail networks are tram-like in nature and operate on streets. Light rail systems are found on all inhabited continents, they have been popular in recent years due to their lower capital costs and increased reliability compared with heavy rail systems. Many original tram and streetcar systems in the United Kingdom, United States, elsewhere were decommissioned starting in the 1950s as the popularity of the automobile increased. Britain abandoned its last tram system, except for Blackpool, by 1962.
Although some traditional trolley or tram systems exist to this day, the term "light rail" has come to mean a different type of rail system. Modern light rail technology has West German origins, since an attempt by Boeing Vertol to introduce a new American light rail vehicle was a technical failure. After World War II, the Germans retained many of their streetcar networks and evolved them into model light rail systems. Except for Hamburg, all large and most medium-sized German cities maintain light rail networks; the basic concepts of light rail were put forward by H. Dean Quinby in 1962 in an article in Traffic Quarterly called "Major Urban Corridor Facilities: A New Concept". Quinby distinguished this new concept in rail transportation from historic streetcar or tram systems as: having the capacity to carry more passengers appearing like a train, with more than one car connected together having more doors to facilitate full utilization of the space faster and quieter in operationThe term light rail transit was introduced in North America in 1972 to describe this new concept of rail transportation.
The first of the new light rail systems in North America began operation in 1978 when the Canadian city of Edmonton, adopted the German Siemens-Duewag U2 system, followed three years by Calgary and San Diego, California. The concept proved popular, although Canada has few cities big enough for light rail, there are now at least 30 light rail systems in the United States. Britain began replacing its run-down local railways with light rail in the 1980s, starting with the Tyne and Wear Metro and followed by the Docklands Light Railway in London; the historic term light railway was used because it dated from the British Light Railways Act 1896, although the technology used in the DLR system was at the high end of what Americans considered to be light rail. The trend to light rail in the United Kingdom was established with the success of the Manchester Metrolink system in 1992; the term light rail was coined in 1972 by the U. S. Urban Mass Transportation Administration to describe new streetcar transformations that were taking place in Europe and the United States.
In Germany the term Stadtbahn was used to describe the concept, many in UMTA wanted to adopt the direct translation, city rail. However, UMTA adopted the term light rail instead. Light in this context is used in the sense of "intended for light loads and fast movement", rather than referring to physical weight; the infrastructure investment is usually lighter than would be found for a heavy rail system. The Transportation Research Board defined "light rail" in 1977 as "a mode of urban transportation utilizing predominantly reserved but not grade-separated rights-of-way. Electrically propelled. LRT provides a wide range of passenger capabilities and performance characteristics at moderate costs." The American Public Transportation Association, in its Glossary of Transit Terminology, defines light rail as:...a mode of transit service operating passenger rail cars singly on fixed rails in right-of-way, separated from other traffic for part or much of the way. Light rail vehicles are driven electrically with power being drawn from an overhead electric line via a trolley or a pantograph.
However, some diesel-powered transit is designated light rail, such as the O-Train Trillium Line in Ottawa, Canada, the River Line in New Jersey, United States, the Sprinter in California, United States, which use diesel multiple unit cars. Light rail is similar to the British English term light railway, long-used to distinguish railway operations carried out under a less rigorous set of regulation using lighter equipment at lower speeds from mainline railways. Light rail is a generic international English phrase for these types of rail systems, which means more or less the same thing throughout the English-speaking world; the use of the generic term light rail avoids some serious incompatibilities between British and American English. The word tram, for
Jeannette: The Childhood of Joan of Arc is a 2017 French musical film directed by Bruno Dumont. It was screened in the Directors' Fortnight section at the 2017 Cannes Film Festival, it was followed two years by the non-musical sequel Joan of Arc which premiered at the 2019 Cannes Film Festival and directed by Dumont and with Lise Leplat Prudhomme reprising her role. The script is an adaptation of the play "The Mystery of the Charity of Joan of Arc", written in 1910 by the Catholic author Charles Péguy. Set in France during the Hundred Years' War, the film portrays Joan of Arc's religious awakening and her decision to fight against the English invasion. Lise Leplat Prudhomme as Jeannette Jeanne Voisin as Jeannette Lucile Gauthier as Hauviette Victoria Lefebvre as Hauviette Aline Charles as Madame Gervaise / Sainte Marguerite Elise Charles as Madame Gervaise / Sainte Catherine Nicolas Leclaire as Durand Lassois Anaïs Rivière as Saint Michel Gery De Poorter as Jacques d'Arc Regine Delalin as Isabeau d'Arc Review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a score of 74% based on 34 reviews, with an average rating of 6.6/10.
On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 62 out of 100, based on 14 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". In the Boston Globe, Ty Burr described the film as "very the first medieval heavy-metal musical to grace the silver screen" and "deeply and unsettlingly strange", providing "genuine oddball pleasures amid stretches of real tedium". Simon Abrams of RogerEbert.com gave the film 3 1/2 stars, calling it "a challenging arthouse drama that has a slippery sense of humor and a whole lot of chutzpah." Sam C. Mac of Slant Magazine said, "As an exploration of Joan of Arc in cinema narrative, the film isn't as rich and substantial as Bresson's The Trial of Joan of Arc or Dreyer's The Passion of Joan of Arc, but Dumont's more flexible sense of spiritualism makes it nonetheless compelling."Conversely, Jordan Mintzer of The Hollywood Reporter said, "The acting outside the singing is on the level of a class play, the repetition of musical numbers and kitschy dances can grow tiresome to say the least, but you have to give Dumont credit for making something so silly seem so filled with conviction."
Peter Debruge of Variety called it "a blasphemous assault on French history and the musical genre."Cahiers du cinéma placed the film at number 2 on its list of the top 10 films of 2017. The soundtrack, composed by French avant-garde musician Igorrr, was nominated for Best Music at the 23rd Lumières Awards. Joan of Arc Cultural depictions of Joan of Arc Jeannette: The Childhood of Joan of Arc on IMDb
Mahlowali is a village in Dera Baba Nanak in Gurdaspur district of Punjab State, India. It is located 22 kilometres from sub district headquarter and 40 kilometres from district headquarter; the village is administrated by Sarpanch an elected representative of the village. As of 2011, The village has a total number of 130 houses and the population of 729 of which 382 are males while 347 are females. According to the report published by Census India in 2011, out of the total population of the village 328 people are from Schedule Caste and the village does not have any Schedule Tribe population so far. List of villages in India Tourism of Punjab Census of Punjab