A power outage is a short-term or a long-term loss of the electric power to a particular area. There are many causes of power failures in an electricity network. Examples of these causes include faults at power stations, damage to electric transmission lines, substations or other parts of the distribution system, a short circuit, cascading failure, fuse or circuit breaker operation. Power failures are critical at sites where the environment and public safety are at risk. Institutions such as hospitals, sewage treatment plants, mines and the like will have backup power sources such as standby generators, which will automatically start up when electrical power is lost. Other critical systems, such as telecommunication, are required to have emergency power; the battery room of a telephone exchange has arrays of lead–acid batteries for backup and a socket for connecting a generator during extended periods of outage. Power outages are categorized into three different phenomena, relating to the duration and effect of the outage: A permanent fault is a massive loss of power caused by a fault on a power line.
Power is automatically restored. A brownout is a drop in voltage in an electrical power supply; the term brownout comes from the dimming experienced by lighting. Brownouts can cause poor performance of equipment or incorrect operation. A blackout is the total loss of power to an area and is the most severe form of power outage that can occur. Blackouts which result from or result in power stations tripping are difficult to recover from quickly. Outages may last from a few minutes to a few weeks depending on the nature of the blackout and the configuration of the electrical network. In power supply networks, the power generation and the electrical load must be close to equal every second to avoid overloading of network components, which can damage them. Protective relays and fuses are used to automatically detect overloads and to disconnect circuits at risk of damage. Under certain conditions, a network component shutting down can cause current fluctuations in neighboring segments of the network leading to a cascading failure of a larger section of the network.
This may range to a block, to an entire city, to an entire electrical grid. Modern power systems are designed to be resistant to this sort of cascading failure, but it may be unavoidable. Moreover, since there is no short-term economic benefit to preventing rare large-scale failures, researchers have expressed concern that there is a tendency to erode the resilience of the network over time, only corrected after a major failure occurs. In a 2003 publication, Carreras and co-authors claimed that reducing the likelihood of small outages only increases the likelihood of larger ones. In that case, the short-term economic benefit of keeping the individual customer happy increases the likelihood of large-scale blackouts; the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources held a hearing in October 2018 to examine "black start", the process of restoring electricity after a system-wide power loss. The hearing's purpose was for Congress to learn about what the backup plans are in the electric utility industry in the case that the electric grid is damaged.
Threats to the electrical grid include cyberattacks, solar storms, severe weather, among others. For example, the "Northeast Blackout of 2003" was caused when overgrown trees touched high-voltage power lines. Around 55 million people in the U. S. and Canada lost power, restoring it cost around $6 billion. Computer systems and other electronic devices containing logic circuitry are susceptible to data loss or hardware damage that can be caused by the sudden loss of power; these can include video projectors, alarm systems as well as computers. To protect computer systems against this, the use of an uninterruptible power supply or'UPS' can provide a constant flow of electricity if a primary power supply becomes unavailable for a short period of time. To protect against surges, which can damage hardware when power is restored, a special device called a surge protector that absorbs the excess voltage can be used. Restoring power after a wide-area outage can be difficult, as power stations need to be brought back on-line.
This is done with the help of power from the rest of the grid. In the total absence of grid power, a so-called black start needs to be performed to bootstrap the power grid into operation; the means of doing so will depend on local circumstances and operational policies, but transmission utilities will establish localized'power islands' which are progressively coupled together. To maintain supply frequencies within tolerable limits during this process, demand must be reconnected at the same pace that generation is restored, requiring close coordination between power stations and distribution organizations, it has been argued on the basis of historical data and computer modeling that power grids are self-organized critical systems. These systems exhibit unavoidable disturbances of all sizes, up to the size of the entire system; this phenomenon has been attributed to increasing demand/load, the economics of running a power company, the limits of modern engineering. While blackout frequency has been shown to be reduced by operating it further from its critical point, it isn’t economically feasible, causing providers to increase the average load over time or upgrade less resulting in the grid moving itself closer to its critical point.
The Poles referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture and are native speakers of the Polish language. The population of self-declared Poles in Poland is estimated at 37,394,000 out of an overall population of 38,538,000, of whom 36,522,000 declared Polish alone. A wide-ranging Polish diaspora exists throughout Europe, the Americas, in Australasia. Today the largest urban concentrations of Poles are within the Warsaw and Silesian metropolitan areas. Poland's history dates back over a thousand years, to c. 930–960 AD, when the Polans – an influential West Slavic tribe in the Greater Poland region, now home to such cities as Poznań, Kalisz and Września – united various Lechitic tribes under what became the Piast dynasty, thus creating the Polish state. The subsequent Christianization of Poland, in 966 CE, marked Poland's advent to the community of Western Christendom. Poles have made important contributions to the world in every major field of human endeavor.
Notable Polish émigrés – many of them forced from their homeland by historic vicissitudes – have included physicists Marie Skłodowska Curie and Joseph Rotblat, mathematician Stanisław Ulam, pianists Fryderyk Chopin and Arthur Rubinstein, actresses Helena Modjeska and Pola Negri, novelist Joseph Conrad, military leaders Tadeusz Kościuszko and Casimir Pulaski, U. S. National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, politician Rosa Luxemburg, filmmakers Samuel Goldwyn and the Warner Brothers, cartoonist Max Fleischer, cosmeticians Helena Rubinstein and Max Factor. Slavs have been in the territory of modern Poland for over 1500 years, they organized into tribal units, of which the larger ones were known as the Polish tribes. In the 9th and 10th centuries the tribes gave rise to developed regions along the upper Vistula, the Baltic Sea coast and in Greater Poland; the last tribal undertaking resulted in the 10th century in a lasting political structure and state, one of the West Slavic nations. The concept which has become known as the Piast Idea, the chief proponent of, Jan Ludwik Popławski, is based on the statement that the Piast homeland was inhabited by so-called "native" aboriginal Slavs and Slavonic Poles since time immemorial and only was "infiltrated" by "alien" Celts, Baltic peoples and others.
After 1945 the so-called "autochthonous" or "aboriginal" school of Polish prehistory received official backing in Poland and a considerable degree of popular support. According to this view, the Lusatian Culture which archaeologists have identified between the Oder and the Vistula in the early Iron Age, is said to be Slavonic. In contrast, the critics of this theory, such as Marija Gimbutas, regard it as an unproved hypothesis and for them the date and origin of the westward migration of the Slavs is uncharted. Polish people are the sixth largest national group in the European Union. Estimates vary depending on source, though available data suggest a total number of around 60 million people worldwide. There are 38 million Poles in Poland alone. There are Polish minorities in the surrounding countries including, indigenous minorities in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and eastern Lithuania, western Ukraine, western Belarus. There are some smaller indigenous minorities in nearby countries such as Moldova.
There is a Polish minority in Russia which includes indigenous Poles as well as those forcibly deported during and after World War II. The term "Polonia" is used in Poland to refer to people of Polish origin who live outside Polish borders estimated at around 10 to 20 million. There is a notable Polish diaspora in the United States and Canada. France has a historic relationship with Poland and has a large Polish-descendant population. Poles have lived in France since the 18th century. In the early 20th century, over a million Polish people settled in France during world wars, among them Polish émigrés fleeing either Nazi occupation or Soviet rule. In the United States, a significant number of Polish immigrants settled in Chicago, Detroit, New Jersey, New York City, Pittsburgh and New England; the highest concentration of Polish Americans in a single New England municipality is in New Britain, Connecticut. The majority of Polish Canadians have arrived in Canada since World War II; the number of Polish immigrants increased between 1945 and 1970, again after the end of Communism in Poland in 1989.
In Brazil the majority of Polish immigrants settled in Paraná State. Smaller, but significant numbers settled in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Espírito Santo and São Paulo; the city of Curitiba has the second largest Polish diaspora in the world and Polish music and culture are quite common in the region. A recent large migration of Poles took place followi
In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people. Stereotypes are generalized because one assumes that the stereotype is true for each individual person in the category. While such generalizations may be useful when making quick decisions, they may be erroneous when applied to particular individuals. Stereotypes may arise for a number of reasons. Explicit stereotypes are those people who are willing to admit to other individuals, it refers to stereotypes that one is aware that one holds, is aware that one is using to judge people. People can attempt to consciously control the use of explicit stereotypes though their attempt to control may not be effective. Only males play. In fact half of all gamers are female, when including mobile phone gaming. Women are more to play mobile phone games than traditional video games. Implicit stereotypes are those that lay on individuals' subconsciousness, that they have no control or awareness of. In social psychology, a stereotype is any thought adopted about specific types of individuals or certain ways of behaving intended to represent the entire group of those individuals or behaviors as a whole.
These thoughts or beliefs may or may not reflect reality. Within psychology and across other disciplines, different conceptualizations and theories of stereotyping exist, at times sharing commonalities, as well as containing contradictory elements; the term stereotype comes from the French adjective stéréotype and derives from the Greek words στερεός, "firm, solid" and τύπος, hence "solid impression on one or more idea/theory." The term comes from the printing trade and was first adopted in 1798 by Firmin Didot to describe a printing plate that duplicated any typography. The duplicate printing plate, or the stereotype, is used for printing instead of the original. Outside of printing, the first reference to "stereotype" was in 1850, as a noun that meant image perpetuated without change. However, it was not until 1922 that "stereotype" was first used in the modern psychological sense by American journalist Walter Lippmann in his work Public Opinion. Stereotypes and discrimination are understood as related but different concepts.
Stereotypes are regarded as the most cognitive component and occurs without conscious awareness, whereas prejudice is the affective component of stereotyping and discrimination is one of the behavioral components of prejudicial reactions. In this tripartite view of intergroup attitudes, stereotypes reflect expectations and beliefs about the characteristics of members of groups perceived as different from one's own, prejudice represents the emotional response, discrimination refers to actions. Although related, the three concepts can exist independently of each other. According to Daniel Katz and Kenneth Braly, stereotyping leads to racial prejudice when people react to the name of a group, ascribe characteristics to members of that group, evaluate those characteristics. Possible prejudicial effects of stereotypes are: Justification of ill-founded prejudices or ignorance Unwillingness to rethink one's attitudes and behavior Preventing some people of stereotyped groups from entering or succeeding in activities or fields Stereotype content refers to the attributes that people think characterize a group.
Studies of stereotype content examine what people think of others, rather than the reasons and mechanisms involved in stereotyping. Early theories of stereotype content proposed by social psychologists such as Gordon Allport assumed that stereotypes of outgroups reflected uniform antipathy. For instance and Braly argued in their classic 1933 study that ethnic stereotypes were uniformly negative. By contrast, a newer model of stereotype content theorizes that stereotypes are ambivalent and vary along two dimensions: warmth and competence. Warmth and competence are predicted by lack of competition and status. Groups that do not compete with the in-group for the same resources are perceived as warm, whereas high-status groups are considered competent; the groups within each of the four combinations of high and low levels of warmth and competence elicit distinct emotions. The model explains the phenomenon that some out-groups are admired but disliked, whereas others are liked but disrespected; this model was empirically tested on a variety of national and international samples and was found to reliably predict stereotype content.
Early studies suggested that stereotypes were only used by rigid and authoritarian people. This idea has been refuted by contemporary studies that suggest the ubiquity of stereotypes and it was suggested to regard stereotypes as collective group beliefs, meaning that people who belong to the same social group share the same set of stereotypes. Modern research asserts that full understanding of stereotypes requires considering them from two complementary perspectives: as shared within a particular culture/subculture and as formed in the mind of an individual person. Stereotyping can serve cognitive functions on an interpersonal level, social functions on an intergroup level. For stereotyping to function on an intergroup level, an individual must see themselves as part of a group and being part of that group must be salient for the individual. Craig McGarty, Russell Spears, Vincent Y. Yzerbyt argued that the cognitive functions of stereotyping are best understood in relation to its social functions, vice versa.
Stereotypes can help make sense of the w
Edison screw is a standard lightbulb socket for electric light bulbs. It was developed by Thomas Edison and was licensed in 1909 under General Electric's Mazda trademark; the bulbs have right-hand threaded metal bases. For bulbs powered by AC current, the thread is connected to neutral and the contact on the bottom tip of the base is connected to the "live" phase. In North America and continental Europe, Edison screws displaced other socket types for general lighting. In the early days of electrification, Edison screws were the only standard connector, appliances other than light bulbs were connected to AC power via lamp sockets. Today Edison screw sockets comply with international standards. Early US incandescent lamp manufacturers used several incompatible bases; the Thomson-Houston Electric Company used a threaded stud at the bottom of the socket, a flat contact ring. The Sawyer-Mann or Westinghouse base used a spring clip acting on grooves in the bulb base, a contact stud at the bottom of the lamp.
By about 1908, the Edison base was most common in the US, with the others falling out of use. In response to Edison's patent, Reginald Fessenden invented the bi-pin connector for the 1893 World's Fair. Other lamp bases include the bayonet wedge base. Specifications for all lamp mount types are defined in the following American National Standards Institute and International Electrotechnical Commission publications: Lamp Caps—ANSI C81.61 and IEC 60061-1 Lamp Holders—NSI C81.62 and IEC 60061-2 Gauges —ANSI C81.63 and IEC 60061-3 Guidelines for Electrical Lamp Bases and Gauges—ANSI C81.64 and IEC 60061-4Generally, the two standards are harmonized, although several types of screw mount are still defined in only one standard. In the designation "Exx", "E" stands for "Edison" and "xx" indicates the diameter in millimeters as measured across the peaks of the thread on the base, e.g. E12 has a diameter of 12 mm; this is distinct from the glass envelope diameter, which in the U. S. is given in eighths of an inch, e.g. A19, MR16, T12.
There are four used thread size groups for mains supply lamps: Candelabra: E12 North America, E11 in Europe Intermediate: E17 North America, E14 in Europe Medium or standard: E26 in North America, E27 in Europe Mogul: E39 North America, E40 in Europe. The E26 and E27 are interchangeable, as are the E39 and E40, because there is only a 1 mm difference in thread outside diameter. E11 and E12 are not interchangeable. Other semi-standard screw thread sizes are available for certain specific applications; the large E39 "Mogul" and E40 "Goliath" base are used on street lights, high-wattage lamps and many high-intensity discharge lamps. In areas following the U. S. National Electrical Code, general-use lamps over 300 W cannot use an E26 base and must instead use the E39 base. Medium Edison screw bulbs for 12 V are produced for recreational vehicles. Large outdoor Christmas lights use Intermediate base, as do some desk lamps and many microwave ovens. Emergency exit signs tended to use the intermediate base, but U.
S. and Canadian rules now require long-life and energy-efficient LED lamps, which can be purchased inside a conventional Edison base bulb as a retrofit. A medium screw base should not carry more than 25 amperes current. E29 "Admedium" bases are used for special applications, for example UV spotlight lamps in magnetic crack detection machines. In countries that use 220–240 volt AC domestic power, standard-size E27 and small E14 are the most common screw-mount sizes and are prevalent throughout continental Europe and China. In 120-volt North America, 100-volt Japan and Taiwan, the standard size for general-purpose lamps is E26. E12 is used for candelabra fixtures. E17 is sometimes used in small table lamps and novelty lighting, the lights on newer ceiling fans. Christmas lights use various base sizes E17 for C9 bulbs, E12 for C7 bulbs, E10 for decades-old series-wired C6 bulb sets in the U. S. and an different wedge base for T1¾ mini lights. For a short time early on, these mini lights were manufactured using E5 screw bases.
A tiny E5 or E5.5 size is used only for extra-low voltages, such as in interior illumination for model buildings, model vehicles such as model trains. These are called "pea bulbs" if they are globe-shaped, but they look like mini Christmas bulbs, or large "grain-of-wheat" bulbs. E10 bulbs are common on battery-powered flashlights; the E11 base is sometimes used for 50/75/100-watt halogen lights in North America, where it is called the "mini-can", tighter threads are used to keep them out of E12-base nightlights and other places where they could start a fire. There are adapters between screw sizes, for adapting to or from bayonet caps. A socket extender makes the bulb stick out further, such as to accommodate a compact fluorescent lamp that doesn't fit in a recessed lighting fixture. Most Edison screws have right-hand threads, but left-hand threaded screws are sometimes used for a non-standard voltage or wattage bulb; this prevents the use of an incorrect bulb. Public locations such as railway trains and the New York City Subway have used light bulbs with left-hand threads to discourage theft of the bulbs for use in regular light fixtures.
The Edison screw socket
A joke is a display of humour in which words are used within a specific and well-defined narrative structure to make people laugh and is not meant to be taken seriously. It takes the form of a story with dialogue, ends in a punch line, it is in the punch line that the audience becomes aware that the story contains a second, conflicting meaning. This can be done using a pun or other word play such as irony, a logical incompatibility, nonsense, or other means. Linguist Robert Hetzron offers the definition: A joke is a short humorous piece of oral literature in which the funniness culminates in the final sentence, called the punchline… In fact, the main condition is that the tension should reach its highest level at the end. No continuation relieving the tension should be added; as for its being "oral," it is true that jokes may appear printed, but when further transferred, there is no obligation to reproduce the text verbatim, as in the case of poetry. It is held that jokes benefit from brevity, containing no more detail than is needed to set the scene for the punchline at the end.
In the case of riddle jokes or one-liners the setting is implicitly understood, leaving only the dialogue and punchline to be verbalised. However, subverting these and other common guidelines can be a source of humor—the shaggy dog story is in a class of its own as an anti-joke. Jokes are a form of humour; some humorous forms which are not verbal jokes are: involuntary humour, situational humour, practical jokes and anecdotes. Identified as one of the simple forms of oral literature by the Dutch linguist André Jolles, jokes are passed along anonymously, they are told in both public settings. Jokes are passed along in written form or, more through the internet. Stand-up comics and slapstick work with comic timing and rhythm in their performance, relying as much on actions as on the verbal punchline to evoke laughter; this distinction has been formulated in the popular saying. Any joke documented from the past has been saved through happenstance rather than design. Jokes do not belong to refined culture, but rather to the leisure of all classes.
As such, any printed versions were considered ephemera, i.e. temporary documents created for a specific purpose and intended to be thrown away. Many of these early jokes deal with scatological and sexual topics, entertaining to all social classes but not to be valued and saved. Various kinds of jokes have been identified in ancient pre-classical texts; the oldest identified joke is an ancient Sumerian proverb from 1900 BC containing toilet humour: "Something which has never occurred since time immemorial. Its records were dated to the Old Babylonian period and the joke may go as far back as 2300 BC; the second oldest joke found, discovered on the Westcar Papyrus and believed to be about Sneferu, was from Ancient Egypt circa 1600 BC: "How do you entertain a bored pharaoh? You sail a boatload of young women dressed only in fishing nets down the Nile and urge the pharaoh to go catch a fish." The tale of the three ox drivers from Adab completes the three known oldest jokes in the world. This is a comic triple dating back to 1200 BC Adab.
The earliest extant joke book is the Philogelos, a collection of 265 jokes written in crude ancient Greek dating to the fourth or fifth century AD. The author of the collection is obscure and a number of different authors are attributed to it, including "Hierokles and Philagros the grammatikos", just "Hierokles", or, in the Suda, "Philistion". British classicist Mary Beard states that the Philogelos may have been intended as a jokester's handbook of quips to say on the fly, rather than a book meant to be read straight through. Many of the jokes in this collection are familiar though the typical protagonists are less recognisable to contemporary readers: the absent-minded professor, the eunuch, people with hernias or bad breath; the Philogelos contains a joke similar to Monty Python's "Dead Parrot Sketch". During the 15th century, the printing revolution spread across Europe following the development of the movable type printing press; this was coupled with the growth of literacy in all social classes.
Printers turned out Jestbooks along with Bibles to meet both lowbrow and highbrow interests of the populace. One early anthology of jokes was the Facetiae by the Italian Poggio Bracciolini, first published in 1470; the popularity of this jest book can be measured on the twenty editions of the book documented alone for the 15th century. Another popular form was a collection of jests and funny situations attributed to a single character in a more connected, narrative form of the picaresque novel. Examples of this are the characters of Rabelais in France, Till Eulenspiegel in Germany, Lazarillo de Tormes in Spain and Master Skelton in England. There is a jest book ascribed to William Shakespeare, the contents of which appear to both inform and borrow from his plays. All of these early jestbooks corroborate both the rise in the literacy of the European populations and the general quest for leisure activities during the Renaissance in Europe; the practice of printers to use jokes and cartoons as page fillers was widely used in the broadsides and chapbooks of the 19th century and earlier.
With the incr
The pun called paronomasia, is a form of word play that exploits multiple meanings of a term, or of similar-sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect. These ambiguities can arise from the intentional use of homophonic, metonymic, or figurative language. A pun differs from a malapropism in that a malapropism is an incorrect variation on a correct expression, while a pun involves expressions with multiple interpretations. Puns may be regarded as in-jokes or idiomatic constructions as their usage and meaning are specific to a particular language or its culture. Puns have a long history in human writing. For example, the Roman playwright Plautus was famous for word games. Puns can be classified in various ways; the homophonic pun, a common type, are not synonymous. Walter Redfern summarized this type with his statement, "To pun is to treat homonyms as synonyms." For example, in George Carlin's phrase "atheism is a non-prophet institution", the word prophet is put in place of its homophone profit, altering the common phrase "non-profit institution".
The joke "Question: Why do we still have troops in Germany? Answer: To keep the Russians in Czech" relies on the aural ambiguity of the homophones check and Czech. Puns are not homophonic, but play on words of similar, not identical, sound as in the example from the Pinky and the Brain cartoon film series: "I think so, but if we give peas a chance, won't the lima beans feel left out?" which plays with the similar—but not identical—sound of peas and peace in the anti-war slogan "Give Peace a Chance". A homographic pun exploits words which are spelled the same but possess different meanings and sounds; because of their nature, they rely on sight more than hearing, contrary to homophonic puns. They are known as heteronymic puns. Examples in which the punned words exist in two different parts of speech rely on unusual sentence construction, as in the anecdote: "When asked to explain his large number of children, the pig answered simply:'The wild oats of my sow gave us many piglets.'" An example that combines homophonic and homographic punning is Douglas Adams's line "You can tune a guitar, but you can't tuna fish.
Unless of course, you play bass." The phrase uses the homophonic qualities of tune a and tuna, as well as the homographic pun on bass, in which ambiguity is reached through the identical spellings of, and. Homographic puns do not need to follow grammatical rules and do not make sense when interpreted outside the context of the pun. Homonymic puns, another common type, arise from the exploitation of words which are both homographs and homophones; the statement "Being in politics is just like playing golf: you are trapped in one bad lie after another" puns on the two meanings of the word lie as "a deliberate untruth" and as "the position in which something rests". An adaptation of a joke repeated by Isaac Asimov gives us "Did you hear about the little moron who strained himself while running into the screen door?" Playing on strained as "to give much effort" and "to filter". A homonymic pun may be polysemic, in which the words must be homonymic and possess related meanings, a condition, subjective.
However, lexicographers define polysemes as listed under a single dictionary lemma while homonyms are treated in separate lemmata. A compound pun is a statement. In this case, the wordplay cannot go into effect by utilizing the separate words or phrases of the puns that make up the entire statement. For example, a complex statement by Richard Whately includes four puns: "Why can a man never starve in the Great Desert? Because he can eat the sand, there, but what brought the sandwiches there? Why, Noah sent Ham, his descendants mustered and bred." This pun uses sand, there/sandwiches there, Ham/ham, mustered/mustard, bred/bread. The phrase "piano is not my forte" links two meanings of the words forte and piano, one for the dynamic markings in music and the second for the literal meaning of the sentence, as well as alluding to "pianoforte", the older name of the instrument. Compound puns may combine two phrases that share a word. For example, "Where do mathematicians go on weekends? To a Möbius strip club!"
Puns on the terms Möbius strip club. A recursive pun is one in which the second aspect of a pun relies on the understanding of an element in the first. For example, the statement "π is only half a pie.". Another example is. Another example is "a Freudian slip is when you say one thing but mean your mother." The recursive pun "Immanuel doesn't pun, he Kant," is attributed to Oscar Wilde. Visual puns are sometimes used in logos, emblems and other graphic symbols, in which one or more of the pun aspects is replaced by a picture. In European heraldry, this technique is called canting arms. Visual and other puns and word games are common in Dutch gable stones as well as in some cartoons, such as Lost Consonants and The Far Side. Another type of visual pun exists in languages. For example, in Chinese, a pun may be based on a similarity in shape of the written character, despite a complete lack of phonetic similarity in the words punned upon. Mark Elvin describes how this "peculiarly Chinese form of visual punning involved comparing written characters to objects."
Richard J. Alexander notes two additional forms which puns may take: graphological (sometimes
Iran hostage crisis
The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic standoff between the United States and Iran. Fifty-two American diplomats and citizens were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979, to January 20, 1981, after a group of Iranian college students belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, who supported the Iranian Revolution, took over the U. S. Embassy in Tehran, it stands as the longest hostage crisis in recorded history. Western media described the crisis as an "entanglement" of "vengeance and mutual incomprehension." American President Jimmy Carter called the hostage-taking an act of "blackmail" and the hostages "victims of terrorism and anarchy." In Iran it was seen as an act against the U. S. and its influence in Iran, including its perceived attempts to undermine the Iranian Revolution and its longstanding support of the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, overthrown in 1979. After Shah Pahlavi was overthrown, he was admitted to the U. S. for cancer treatment. Iran demanded his return in order to stand trial for crimes that he was accused of committing during his reign.
He was accused of committing crimes against Iranian citizens with the help of his secret police. Iran's demands were rejected by the United States, Iran saw the decision to grant him asylum as American complicity in those atrocities; the Americans saw the hostage-taking as an egregious violation of the principles of international law, such as the Vienna Convention, which granted diplomats immunity from arrest and made diplomatic compounds inviolable. The crisis reached a climax. Carter ordered the U. S. military to attempt a rescue mission—Operation Eagle Claw—using warships that included the USS Nimitz and USS Coral Sea, which were patrolling the waters near Iran. The attempt failed on April 24, 1980, resulting in the accidental deaths of eight American servicemen and one Iranian civilian after one of the helicopters crashed into a transport aircraft. United States Secretary of State Cyrus Vance resigned his position following the failed rescue attempt. Six American diplomats who had evaded capture were rescued by a joint CIA–Canadian effort on January 27, 1980.
The Shah left the United States in December 1979 and was granted asylum in Egypt, where he died from complications of cancer at age 60 on July 27, 1980. In September 1980 the Iraqi military invaded Iran, beginning the Iran–Iraq War; these events led the Iranian government to enter negotiations with the U. S. with Algeria acting as a mediator. The crisis is considered a pivotal episode in the history of Iran–United States relations. Political analysts cited the standoff as a major factor in the continuing downfall of Carter's presidency and his landslide loss in the 1980 presidential election. In Iran the crisis strengthened the prestige of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and the political power of theocrats who opposed any normalization of relations with the West; the crisis led to American economic sanctions against Iran, which further weakened ties between the two countries. In February 1979, less than a year before the crisis, the Pahlavi dynasty was overthrown during the Iranian Revolution. For several decades before that, the United States had supported the Shah.
During World War II, Allied powers Britain and the Soviet Union occupied Iran to force the abdication of first Pahlavi monarch Reza Shah Pahlavi, in favor of his eldest son, Crown Prince Mohammad. The Allies feared that Reza Shah intended to align his petroleum-rich country with Nazi Germany, but Reza Shah's earlier declaration of neutrality, his refusal to allow Iranian territory to be used to train or supply Soviet troops against Germany, were the strongest motives for the Allied invasion of Iran; because of its importance in the Allied victory, Iran was subsequently called "The Bridge of Victory" by Winston Churchill. By the 1950s Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was engaged in a power struggle with Iran's prime minister, Mohammad Mosaddegh, an immediate descendant of the preceding Qajar dynasty. Mosaddegh led a general strike on behalf of impoverished Iranians, demanding a share of the nation's petroleum revenue from Britain's Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. However, he lost revenue from the British. In 1953, the British and American spy agencies helped Iranian royalists depose Mosaddegh in a military coup d'état codenamed Operation Ajax, allowing the Shah to extend his power.
The Shah appointed himself an absolute monarch rather than a constitutional monarch, his position before the 1953 crisis, with the aim of assuming complete control of the government and purging the disloyal. The U. S. continued to support and fund the Shah after the coup, with the Central Intelligence Agency training the government's SAVAK secret police. In the subsequent decades of the Cold War, various economic and political issues united opposition against the Shah and led to his overthrow. Months before the revolution, on New Year's Eve 1977, President Carter further angered anti-Shah Iranians with a televised toast to Pahlavi, declaring how beloved the shah was by his people. After the revolution culminated in February 1979 with the return of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini from France, the American Embassy was occupied and its staff held hostage briefly. Rocks and bullets had broken so many of the embassy's front-facing windows that they had been replaced with bulletproof glass; the embassy's staff was reduced to just over 60 from a high of nearly one thousand earlier in the decade.
The Carter administration tried to mitigate