Racing Club de Lens, is a French football club based in the northern city of Lens in the Pas-de-Calais department. Its nickname, comes from its traditional colours of red and gold, their primary rivals are their northern neighbours Lille, with. The club's origins date back to 1906 in Lens and lie with students playing football on the Place Verte; the name "Racing Club de Lens" was a reference to Racing Club de Roubaix and Racing Club de France, both popular at the time. The club's first board of directors was formed by the parents of those students under the name of Racing Club de Lens in 1906; the club played in green and black to represent the founding location. They wore green to represent the name, "Verte", which means green in French, black to represent the omnipresence of coal mines in the surrounding area. Between 1907 and 1912, the players were forced to change sports grounds twice before settling at the actual Parc des Glissoires, between Avion and Lens. During World War I, the club's activities were stopped, only restarting in 1919.
Lens was playing in sky blue. It was in 1924 that the gold colours appeared; the legend says that Pierre Moglia, president of the club from 1923 to 1930, chose the colours of the Spanish flag after someone from the club remarked that the Saint-Léger church ruins they walked by that night were the last remains of the Spanish domination in 1648. People say that the colours come from the coal mines: the red for the blood of the miners and the gold for the coal, valuable at the time, it was in 1924 that the club was authorised to play at the newly built municipal stadium Raoul Briquet. The first match with the new colours was played for the inauguration of the stadium. In 1926, British footballer Kid Fenton was the first star who played for Lens, staying for eight seasons, it was the year the first supporters group was formed, – – Lens first capture of the Championnat d'Artois. In 1929, Lens won the North championship and won promotion for the first time to the Division d'Honneur of the Ligue du Nord with the clubs Olympique Lillois, RC Roubaix, Excelsior Athlétic Club de Roubaix and AC Amiens.
In the Artois League, the club gained prestige, in 1932, the club inaugurated the Stade Félix Bollaert. In 1937, Lens gained access to the first division after finishing first in the second division, led by such players as Stefan Dembicki and Spechtl. Lens managed to reach the last 16 of the Coupe de France, although the team was eliminated by the Red Star, 3–2. In 1943, Lens won the first division of the Northern Zone thanks to Dembicki, who scored 43 goals in 30 games. A year earlier, in a Coupe de France match, he scored 17 goals, still the world record today. After World War II, Lens finished in sixth place in the 1945–46 season, but they were relegated the following year. In 1948, the club played its first Coupe de France final. A year Lens was promoted to the first division, Maryan Wisnieski was recruited, in 1953. Problems with the board, made him quit the club. In 1962, the city of Lens' mines were shut down and the club was at stake given that most of the players were miners. Between 1956 and 1968, survival was hard.
In 1964, Lens finished third, with Ahmed Oudjani the top scorer with 30 goals. Another famous player, Georges Lech, joined Lens, although the club was relegated in 1968; the following year, the mine's administrators rescinded their ownership of Lens, it was the end of professional football at the Stade Bollaert-Delelis. Lens was once again one year after its relegation. Better days arrived in 1960 after the town council bet on the Racing Club de Lens. Lens's mayor, André Delelis, wanted to see the club continue thrilling the fans. With the future president, Jean Bondoux, the mayor brought together volunteers and subscriptions to make the club survive. Moreover, the city recovered the stadium from the closing mine industry. In 1972, Lens reached the semi-finals of the Coupe de France, the arrival of two Polish players helped the club to the first division. In 1975, Lens once again reached the final of the Coupe de France against Saint-Étienne, but les Verts won the game 2–0, with an anthology goal by Jean-Michel Larqué.
As finalist of the Coupe de France, Lens had the opportunity to participate in its first UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, but the team was knocked out by the Dutch club ADO Den Haag. Lens' progress continued, after finishing second in the league behind Nantes, they managed to qualify to the UEFA Cup, they knocked out Malmö FF, above all, the Lazio. After an away defeat, they won 6–0 at the Stade Bollaert-Delelis after extra-time. After this rare exploit for a French club, they were eliminated by East German side 1. FC Magdeburg. Worse, the club went back to the second division in 1978; the return among the elite was in 1979 with Roger Lemerre as head coach. During the 1980s, Gérard Houllier and Joachim Marx succeeded him; these were great gains to the team though the club lost players such as Didier Sénac, Gaëtan Huard and Philippe Vercruysse. In 1988, a local businessman took over the club, with the help of Serge Doré. During the same year, Arnaud Dos Santos was named head coach of the club, led the club back to the first division in 1991.
In 1993 and 1994, Lens played in the top of the league, the team qualified for the UEFA Cup twice in a row. Lens reached the semi-final of the Coupe de France after knocking out Pari
Sponsoring something is the act of supporting an event, person, or organization financially or through the provision of products or services. The individual or group that provides the support, similar to a benefactor, is known as sponsor. Sponsorship is a cash and/or in-kind fee paid to a property in return for access to the exploitable commercial potential associated with that property. While the sponsoree may be nonprofit, unlike philanthropy, sponsorship is done with the expectation of a commercial return. While sponsorship can deliver increased awareness, brand building and propensity to purchase, it is different from advertising. Unlike advertising, sponsorship can not communicate specific product attributes. Nor can it stand alone, as sponsorship requires support elements. A range of psychological and communications theories have been used to explain how commercial sponsorship works to impact consumer audiences. Most use the notion that a brand and event become linked in memory through the sponsorship and as a result, thinking of the brand can trigger event-linked associations.
Cornwell and Roy have published an extensive review of the theories so far used to explain commercial sponsorship effects. One of the most pervasive findings in sponsorship is that the best effects are achieved where there is a logical match between the sponsor and sponsoree, such as a sports brand sponsoring a sports event. Work by Cornwell and colleagues however, has shown that brands that don't have a logical match can still benefit, at least in terms of memory effects, if the sponsor articulates some rationale for the sponsorship to the audience. Series sponsor is the highest status of sponsorship; the name and the logo of the sponsor is incorporated into the title of the series. This status allows companies to have a decisive voice on the issue of presence among sponsors other companies operating in the same business, the priority right to use teams, team members, players and the sanctioning body for conducting joint promotions, right of presence at all official events dedicated to a sports event, mandatory mentioning in all activities conducted on behalf of the team, highlighting the name of title sponsor in film credits, television programs which were created with its financial support, placement of logos and banners.
A patch or sticker is required to placed or worn on a visible item of every competitor if their personal sponsor is in direct competition with the series sponsor. Title sponsor characterizes the most significant contribution to a company in organizing and hosting an event; the name of such sponsor is placed next to the name of competition, individual athletes and is associated with it. In case of title sponsor's presence, the general sponsor position may remain free. General sponsor is a sponsor that makes one of the largest contributions and that receives for it the right to use the image of competition as well as extensive media coverage. If necessary, the status of the general sponsor may be supplemented by the general sponsors for certain categories, as well as the main sponsor. Team sponsor provides funds for individual teams; the more money provided, the larger area and more visible location are allocated. In some instances, the team sponsor may be rotated between the secondary sponsor roles.
This occurs with auto racing teams that travel over a vast area. A team sponsor may take the primary sponsorship role at a race in an area where they are present, such as a store chain; that sponsor may take a secondary sponsorship role, or not be on the car, in an area they have little or no presence, or are prohibited by law to sell, such as alcohol or tobacco products. Official sponsor is a sponsor; the given status may be granted by category. Technical sponsor is a sponsor which promotes organization of sporting events through the partial or full payment of goods and services. Participating sponsor is a company, the sponsorship fee size of which does not exceed 10% of total raised funds.. Informational sponsor is an organization that provides informational support through media coverage, conducting PR-actions, joint actions, etc. All sponsorship should be based on contractual obligations between the sponsor and the sponsored party. Sponsors and sponsored parties should set out clear terms and conditions with all other partners involved, to define their expectations regarding all aspects of the sponsorship deal.
Sponsorship should be recognisable as such. The terms and conduct of sponsorship should be based upon the principle of good faith between all parties to the sponsorship. There should be clarity regarding the specific rights being sold and confirmation that these are available for sponsorship from the rights holder. Sponsored parties should have the absolute right to decide on the value of the sponsorship rights that they are offering and the appropriateness of the sponsor with whom they contract; the sa
Promotion and relegation
In sports leagues and relegation is a process where teams are transferred between multiple divisions based on their performance for the completed season. The best-ranked team in the lower division are promoted to the higher division for the next season, the worst-ranked team in the higher division are relegated to the lower division for the next season. In some leagues, playoffs or qualifying rounds are used to determine rankings; this process can continue through several levels of divisions, with teams being exchanged between levels 1 and 2, levels 2 and 3, levels 3 and 4, so on. During the season, teams that are high enough in the league table that they would qualify for promotion are sometimes said to be in the promotion zone, those at the bottom are in the relegation zone. An alternate system of league organisation, used in the US and Canada is a closed model based on licensing or franchises; this maintains the same teams from year to year, with occasional admission of expansion teams and relocation of existing teams, with no team movement between the major league and minor leagues.
The number of teams exchanged between the divisions is always identical. Exceptions occur when the higher division wishes to change the size of its membership, or has lost one or more of its clubs and wishes to restore its previous membership size, in which case fewer teams are relegated from that division, or more teams are accepted for promotion from the division below; such variations cause a "knock-on" effect through the lower divisions. For example, in 1995 the Premier League voted to reduce its numbers by two and achieved the desired change by relegating four teams instead of the usual three, whilst allowing only two promotions from Football League Division One. In the absence of such extraordinary circumstances, the pyramid-like nature of most European sports league systems can still create knock-on effects at the regional level. For example, in a higher league with a large geographical footprint and multiple feeder leagues each representing smaller geographical regions, should most or all of the relegated teams in the higher division come from one particular region the number of teams to be promoted or relegated from each of the feeder leagues may have to be adjusted, or one or more teams playing near the boundary between the feeder leagues may have to transfer from one feeder league to another to maintain numerical balance.
The system is said to be the defining characteristic of the "European" form of professional sports league organization. Promotion and relegation have the effect of allowing the maintenance of a hierarchy of leagues and divisions, according to the relative strength of their teams, they maintain the importance of games played by many low-ranked teams near the end of the season, which may be at risk of relegation. In contrast, a low-ranked US or Canadian team's final games serve little purpose, in fact losing may be beneficial to such teams, yielding a better position in the next year's draft. Although not intrinsic to the system, problems can occur due to the differing monetary payouts and revenue-generating potential that different divisions provide to their clubs. For example, financial hardship has sometimes occurred in leagues where clubs do not reduce their wage bill once relegated; this occurs for one of two reasons: first, the club can't move underperforming players on, or second, the club is gambling on being promoted back straight away and is prepared to take a financial loss for one or two seasons to do so.
Some leagues offer "parachute payments" to its relegated teams for the following year. The payouts are higher than the prize money received by some non-relegated teams and are designed to soften the financial hit that clubs take whilst dropping out of the Premier League. However, in many cases these parachute payments just serve to inflate the costs of competing for promotion among the lower division clubs as newly relegated teams retain a financial advantage. In some countries and at certain levels, teams in line for promotion may have to satisfy certain non-playing conditions in order to be accepted by the higher league, such as financial solvency, stadium capacity, facilities. If these are not satisfied, a lower-ranked team may be promoted in their place, or a team in the league above may be saved from relegation. While the primary purpose of the promotion/relegation system is to maintain competitive balance, it may be used as a disciplinary tool in special cases. On several occasions, the Italian Football Federation has relegated clubs found to have been involved in match-fixing.
This occurred most in 2006, when the season's initial champions Juventus were relegated to Serie B, two other teams were relegated but restored to Serie A after appeal. In some Communist nations several in Europe after World War II, clubs were promoted and relegated for political reasons rather than performance; this was made evident in the late eighties by teams such as Romanian Steaua București and Yugoslav Red Star Belgrade, both winners of the European Champions League despite the rampant level of corruption in their Communist local leagues. Promotion and relegation may be used in international sports tournaments. In tennis, the Davis Cup and Fed Cup have promotion and relegation, with a'World Group' (split into two divisions in the Fe
Conseil d'État (France)
In France, the Council of State is a body of the French national government that acts both as legal adviser of the executive branch and as the supreme court for administrative justice. Established in 1799 by Napoleon as a successor to the King's Council, it is located in the Palais-Royal in Paris and is made up of top-level legal officers; the Vice President of the Council of State ranks 9th as the most important civil servant in France. Members of the Conseil D'État are part of a Grand Corps of the French State; the Conseil D'État recruits among the top ranking students graduating from the École nationale d'administration. A General Session of the Council of State is presided over by the Prime Minister or, in his absence, the Minister of Justice. However, since the real presidency of the Council is held by the Vice-President, he presides all but the most ceremonial assemblies; this is done for obvious reasons pertaining to the separation of powers. Other members of the Council include, by decreasing order of importance: Department heads Councillors ordinary Councillors extraordinary Masters of requests Master of requests extraordinary Senior masters Masters The Vice-President is appointed by Order-in-Council on the recommendation of the Minister of Justice and is selected from among the Council's department heads or councillors ordinary.
Division heads are appointed and selected from among the councillors ordinary. Councillors ordinary, masters of requests, senior masters are appointed based on seniority from the preceding rank. Appointees from outside the Council may include administrative law judges or may come from outside the justice system. Masters are recruited from among the graduates of France's National Administration Academy; the Council sits in the Palais Royal located in Paris. The Council is divided into 7 divisions: Administrative Claims — see below. Report and Studies: writes the annual report, conducts studies and helps to oversee judgments and verdicts are carried out. Finances, the Interior and Social Security, Public Works and Administrative Issues review any and all Cabinet-issued orders and statutory instruments and examine and sign off on all Orders of Council; these reviews, though mandatory, are not binding. The Council of State studies legal issues and problems brought before the Cabinet. In addition, it is responsible for carrying out administrative court inspections.
The Council of State originates from the 13th century by which time the King's Court had split into three sections, one of, the King's Council, which too broke up into three distinct parts: the Conseil secret'Privy Council', the Conseil privé'Private Council', Conseil des finances'Council of Finances'. Reorganized under Louis XIV into two major groupings, it was the Conseil d'État privé, finances et direction, the direct ancestor of the Council of State, it brought together legal experts to advise the King on claims against the Crown. Established in 1557, this was the largest of the King's Councils made up of France's High Chancellor, lords of peerage and Secretaries of State, the Comptroller-General, 30 Councillors of State, 80 masters of requests, the Intendants of Finance; the judicial portion of the Council was known as the Conseil d'État Conseil des parties. The kings, who had the power to dispense justice and hand down judgments as the court of last resort, delegated this judicial power to royal courts and parlements.
But the French king still retained the power to override them at will. French kings maintained their privilege to decide major issues and hand down judgements when administrative acts were in dispute; the judgments of the King's Council of State were regarded as being issued under the King's residual proper jurisdiction, that is, the sovereign's reserved power to dispense justice in certain matters. Legal advisors assisted the King in developing new laws and, by delegated jurisdiction, directly exercised sovereign rights. For more on French government administration during the Old Regime, see Ancien Régime in France; the current Council of State was established by the French Consulate government in 1799 as a judicial body mandated to adjudicate claims against the State and assist in the drafting of important laws. The First Consul presided over Council sessions, the Council performed many of the functions of a Cabinet. After the Bourbon Restoration, the Council was retained as an administrative court but without its former prominence.
Its role was more defined by an 1872 Act of Parliament. Certain types of statutory instruments must be examined by the Council and receive its advisory approval, including: All draft legislation proposed by non-parliamentary members and prior to being introduced before Parliament. Orders-in-council, signed by the Prime Minister and cabinet ministers. A statutory law will authorize, prescribe, or prohibit an action defined in broad terms and require a government order to define its scope and a
UEFA Europa League
The UEFA Europa League is an annual football club competition organised by UEFA since 1971 for eligible European football clubs. Clubs qualify for the competition based on their performance in their national leagues and cup competitions, it is the second-tier competition of European club football, ranking below the UEFA Champions League. Called the UEFA Cup, the competition has been known as the UEFA Europa League since the 2009–10 season, following a change in format. For UEFA footballing records purposes, the UEFA Cup and UEFA Europa League are considered the same competition, with the change of name being a rebranding. In 1999, the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup was merged with the UEFA Cup. For the 2004–05 competition a group stage was added prior to the knockout phase; the 2009 re-branding included a merge with the UEFA Intertoto Cup, producing an enlarged competition format, with an expanded group stage and a change in qualifying criteria. The winner of the UEFA Europa League qualifies for the UEFA Super Cup and, since the 2014–15 season, the following season's UEFA Champions League, entering at the group stage.
The title has been won by 28 clubs. The most successful club in the competition is Sevilla, with five titles; the current champions are Atlético Madrid, after defeating Marseille in the final to win the 2017–18 UEFA Europa League. The UEFA Cup was preceded by the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, a European football competition played between 1955 and 1971; the competition grew from 11 teams during the first cup to 64 teams by the last cup, played in 1970–71. It had become so important on the European football scene that in the end it was taken over by UEFA and relaunched the following season as the UEFA Cup; the UEFA Cup was first played in the 1971–72 season, with an all-English final of Wolverhampton Wanderers against Tottenham Hotspur, with Spurs taking the first honours. The title was retained by another English club, Liverpool, in 1973, who defeated Borussia Mönchengladbach in the final. Borussia would win the competition in 1975 and 1979, reach the final again in 1980. Feyenoord Rotterdam won the cup in 1974 after defeating Tottenham Hotspur with 4-2 in aggregate.
Liverpool won the competition for the second time in 1976 after defeating Club Brugge in the final. During the 1980s, IFK Göteborg and Real Madrid won the competition twice each, with Anderlecht reaching two consecutive finals, winning in 1983 and losing to Tottenham Hotspur in 1984; the year 1989 saw the commencement of the Italian clubs' domination, when Diego Maradona's Napoli defeated Stuttgart. The 1990s started with two all-Italian finals, in 1992, Torino lost the final to Ajax on the away goals rule. Juventus won the competition for a third time in 1993 and Internazionale kept the cup in Italy the following year; the year 1995 saw a third all-Italian final, with Parma proving their consistency, after two consecutive Cup Winners' Cup finals. The only final with no Italians during that decade was in 1996. Internazionale reached the final the following two years, losing in 1997 to Schalke 04 on penalties, winning yet another all-Italian final in 1998, taking home the cup for the third time in only eight years.
Parma won the cup in 1999. Liverpool won the competition for the third time in 2001. In 2002 Feyenoord Rotterdam won it for the 2nd time in the club history by defeating Borussia Dortmund during the final in their own stadium, Stadion Feijenoord in Rotterdam with 3-2. Porto triumphed with the latter against Portuguese team Braga. In 2004, the cup returned to Spain with Valencia being victorious, Sevilla succeeded on two consecutive occasions in 2006 and 2007, the latter in a final against fellow Spaniards Espanyol. Either side of Sevilla's success, two Russian teams, CSKA Moscow in 2005 and Zenit Saint Petersburg in 2008, had their glory and yet another former Soviet club, Ukraine's Shakhtar Donetsk, won in 2009. Atlético Madrid would themselves win twice in three seasons, in 2010 and 2012, the latter in another all-Spanish final. In 2013, Chelsea would become the first Champions League holders to win the UEFA Cup/Europa League the following year. In 2014, Sevilla won their third cup in eight years after defeating Benfica on penalties.
Just one year in 2015, Sevilla won their fourth UEFA Cup/Europa League and, in an unprecedented feat, they defended their title a third year in a row beating Liverpool FC in the 2016 final, making Sevilla FC the most successful team in the history of the competition with 5 titles. Since the 2009–10 season, the competition has been known as the UEFA Europa League. At the same time, the UEFA Intertoto Cup, UEFA's third-tier competition, was discontinued and merged into the new Europa League. UEFA had considered adding a third-tier competition since at least 2015, believing that a bottom-level tournament could act as a means of giving clubs from lower-ranked UEFA member countries to have a chance of progressing to the stages beyond the stages they traditionally would be eliminated in the Champions League and Europa League. In mid-2018 talk of an announcement intensified, with news sources claiming an agreement had been reached for the competition to be launched and that the 48-team Europa League group stage would be split into two, with the lower-half forming the nucleus of what would be the new event.
On 2 December 2018, UEFA announced that the competition – provisionally known as "Europa League 2" or just "UEL2" – was to be launched as part of the 2021–24 three-year competition cycle, with UEFA announcing that the new tournament would bring "more matches for more clubs and more
Domino's Pizza, Inc. branded as Domino's, is an American pizza restaurant chain founded in 1960. The corporation is headquartered at the Domino's Farms Office Park in Ann Arbor and incorporated in Delaware. In February 2018, the chain became the largest pizza seller worldwide in terms of sales. On April 23, 1963, Tom Monaghan and his brother, took over the operation of DomiNick's, an existing location of a small pizza restaurant chain, owned by Dominick DiVarti, at 507 Cross Street in Ypsilanti, near Eastern Michigan University; the deal was secured by a $500 down payment, the brothers borrowed $900 to pay for the store. The brothers planned to split the work hours evenly, but James did not want to quit his job as a full-time postman to keep up with the demands of the new business. Within eight months, James traded his half of the business to Tom for the Volkswagen Beetle they used for pizza deliveries. By 1965, Tom Monaghan had purchased two additional pizzerias. Monaghan wanted the stores to share the same branding, but the original owner forbade him from using the DomiNick's name.
One day, an employee, Jim Kennedy, returned from a pizza delivery and suggested the name "Domino's". Monaghan loved the idea and renamed the business Domino's Pizza, Inc. in 1965. The company logo had three dots, representing the three stores in 1965. Monaghan planned to add a new dot with the addition of every new store, but this idea faded, as Domino's experienced rapid growth. Domino's Pizza opened its first franchise location in 1967 and by 1978, the company expanded to 200 stores. In 1975, Domino's faced a lawsuit by Amstar Corporation, the maker of Domino Sugar, alleging trademark infringement and unfair competition. On May 2, 1980, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals in New Orleans found in favor of Domino's Pizza. On May 12, 1983, Domino's opened its first international store, in Winnipeg, Canada; that same year, Domino's opened its first in Vancouver, Washington. In 1985, the chain opened their first store in the United Kingdom in Luton. In 1985, Domino's opened their first store in Tokyo, Japan.
In 1993, they became the second American franchise to open in the Dominican Republic and the first one to open in Haiti, under the direction of entrepreneur Luis de Jesús Rodríguez. By 1995, Domino's had expanded to 1,000 international locations. In 1997, Domino's opened its 1,500th international location, opening seven stores in one day across five continents. By 2014, the company had grown to 6,000 international locations and was planning to expand to pizza's birthplace, Italy. CEO Patrick Doyle, in May 2014, said. In February 2016, Domino's opened its 1,000th store in India. Domino's Pizza chose to use its traditional delivery-based business model in China, altering neither its toppings, nor reducing the sizes of pizzas, promising the usual 30-minute delivery time; the delivery time promise failed due to high automobile traffic patterns in many crowded Chinese cities hindering the delivery operations. The large pizza sizes made the use of knives and forks to eat them impractical, takeout services were unpopular with Chinese people due to cultural reasons.
Savio S. Chan and Michael Zakkour, authors of China's Super Consumers: What 1 Billion Customers Want and How to Sell it to Them, wrote that Domino's "failed miserably" in its strategy, resulting in the company being "basically" irrelevant in China, with only 40 restaurants there as of 2014. In January 2014, the company began introducing small restaurants in China. Jamie Fullerton of Vice stated that these restaurants served "solid, mildly overpriced pizzas" and did not have unique-to-China menu items. In 1998, after 38 years of ownership, Domino's founder Tom Monaghan announced his retirement, sold 93 percent of the company to Bain Capital, Inc. for about $1 billion, ceased being involved in day-to-day operations of the company. A year the company named Dave Brandon as its CEO. In 2004, after 44 years as a held company, Domino's began trading common stock on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol "DPZ". Industry trade publication Pizza Today magazine named Domino's Pizza "Chain of the Year" in 2003, 2010, 2011.
In a simultaneous celebration in January 2006, Domino's opened its 5,000th U. S. store in Huntley and its 3,000th international store in Panama City, making 8,000 total stores for the system. In August 2006, the Domino's location in Tallaght, Ireland, became the first store in Domino's history to hit a turnover of $3 million per year; as of September 2006, Domino's has 8,200+ stores worldwide, which totaled $1.4 billion in gross income. In 2007, Domino's introduced its Veterans Delivering the Dream franchising program and rolled out its online and mobile ordering sites. In 2008, Domino's introduced the Pizza Tracker, an online application that allows customers to view the status of their order in a real time progress bar; the first Domino's with a dining room opened in Stephenville, giving the customers the option to either eat in or take their pizza home. Since 2005, the voice of Domino's Pizza's US phone ordering service has been Kevin Railsback. In a 2009 survey of consumer taste preferences among national chains by Brand Keys, Domino's was last — tied with Chuck E.
Cheese's. In December that year, Domino's announced plans to reinvent its pizza, it began a self-critical ad campaign in which consumers were filmed criticizing the then-current pizza's qu
Stade Malherbe Caen
Stade Malherbe Caen is a French professional football team, playing in the city of Caen in Normandy. The club was founded on 17 November 1913 by the merger of Club Malherbe Caennais and Club Sportif Caennais; the team takes its name from a 17th century poet from Caen. For most of its history, SM Caen has been one of the main amateur clubs in France; the late 1980s and early 1990s saw the rise of Stade Malherbe in the French football hierarchy. In 1985, Stade Malherbe adopted professional status. Three seasons it was promoted for the first time to first division. In 1992, a few months after being narrowly saved from bankruptcy, the club finished fifth in Division 1 and qualified for UEFA Cup, but it was relegated three years later. Despite a second division title won in 1996, SM Caen fell back into the anonymity of the second division. Under the chairmanship of Jean-François Fortin, from 2002, under the sporting direction of Patrick Rémy, Franck Dumas and Patrice Garande, the Stade Malherbe has regained sporting success.
The club was promoted in Ligue 1 several times, reached the Coupe de la Ligue final in 2005 and finished 7th in Ligue 1 in 2016. In 2018, as the club began its 5th consecutive season in Ligue 1, a conflict erupted within the management team: Jean-François Fortin left his place to Gilles Sergent, while Patrice Garande was replaced by Fabien Mercadal. SM Caen has been playing since 1993 at the Stade Michel d'Ornano. Before and since its foundation, the club played at Stade de Venoix, now used by the reserve team, it has geographical rivalries with Le Havre AC and Stade rennais, its closest neighbour in Ligue 1. Many football clubs were constituted in Caen at the end of the 19th century: the Union sportive des étudiants de Caen, founded in 1892, the Union Athlétique du Lycée Malherbe, founded in 1892 or 1895 and the Club Sportif Caennais, founded in November 1899; these clubs participated in the early editions of the football championship organised by the Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques.
In 1907, former members of UALM created the Club Malherbe Caennais, soon the best club in Lower Normandy. In 1909 and 1911, several friendlies matches were organised between a selection of players from Caen and the English club of St Albans City F. C.. The Stade Malherbe Caennais was founded on 17 November 1913 from the merger of Club Sportif Caennais and Club Malherbe Caennais, it was a multi-sport athletic club, which adopted the "Malherbe" and the striped jersey of the CMC, the red and blue colours of CSC. The club had its own facilities – the Stade de Venoix – inherited from the CMC; the football team of CMC, engaged in the league in Lower Normandy, changed its name just after the start of the season. By winning this competition, Stade Malherbe recorded their first title in its first year of existence. Having qualified for the finals of the 1914 USFSA Football Championship, Caen was eliminated in the 1/8 final by the Union sportive Servannaise: after a draw in the first game it had to forfeit the second.
World War I stopped the competitions. Thirty-nine members of the club were killed in the fighting, including former captain Eugène Lesomptier. In 1919, the USFSA championship was replaced by regional championships organised by the French Football Federation, called Division d'Honneur. Stade Malherbe, reinforced by the move to Caen of the former French international Eugène Maës, won six times the championship of Lower Normandy between 1920 and 1928, but were unable to compete with the major Upper Normandy clubs, Le Havre AC and FC Rouen. Since 1919–20, Caen participated in the Coupe de France but fell in round of 32 in 1921 and 1922. In 1929, the two Division d'Honneur leagues of Normandy were merged and Stade Malherbe was promoted the year after, its best final standing was 5th in 1933. In 1934, one year after FC Rouen and Le Havre AC, Stade Malherbe acquired professional status and reached the French Division 2; the club finished 11th out of 16 for the first season 6th in 1936 and 8th in 1937.
But its financial situation deteriorated and Stade Malherbe left D2 in 1938, after four professional seasons. The club returned to Division d'Honneur of Normandy, it won the last edition before World War II in 1938–39, the first two after WW2 in 1946 and 1947. In 1948, Stade Malherbe joined the newly founded Championnat de France amateur, the third level of French football. Soon considered as a "lord" in CFA, Caen was unable to win the championship, unlike their regional rival US Quevilly, despite successive calls to former French international players as coaches: Jules Vandooren, Jean Prouff, Andre Grillon, Jean Vincent and Oliver Celestin. Stade Malherbe made itself known by repeated feats in Coupe de France in the 1950s: French champion Stade de Reims and top teams Racing Club de France and RC Lens were defeated in January 1953, 1956 and 1961. In 1958, Caen pushed FC Nantes to play five games to decide: the first three games resulting in 0–0 draws, the fourth was stopped, the fifth saw Nantes win 1–0.
Through its success Caen won the "Challenge France-Football" rewarding the best amateur team in Coupe de France in 1956 and 1961. Undermined by the instability of its coaches and presidents and a precarious financial health, Stade Malherbe weakened and was relegated twice into Division d'Honneur, but regained its place in CFA. In 1970, the CFA was removed and the Division 2 was enlarged to 48 teams. During the 1970s, Caen evolved between D2, where it failed to stabilise. Jacques Mouilleron became coach in 1973. In 1975, the club won its first national title: the West group of Division 3. Stade