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Lijiang

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Lijiang
丽江市
Prefecture-level city
LijiangTown.jpg
Location of Lijiang City jurisdiction in Yunnan
Location of Lijiang City jurisdiction in Yunnan
Lijiang is located in China
Lijiang
Lijiang
Location in China
Coordinates: 26°53′N 100°14′E / 26.883°N 100.233°E / 26.883; 100.233
Country People's Republic of China
Province Yunnan
Admin HQ Gucheng
Area
 • Prefecture-level city 21,219 km2 (8,193 sq mi)
 • Urban 1,127 km2 (435 sq mi)
 • Metro 1,127 km2 (435 sq mi)
Elevation 2,400 m (7,900 ft)
Population (2010 census)
 • Prefecture-level city 1,244,769
 • Density 59/km2 (150/sq mi)
 • Urban 155,540
 • Urban density 140/km2 (360/sq mi)
 • Metro 155,540
 • Metro density 140/km2 (360/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 674100
Area code(s) 0888
ISO 3166 code CN-YN-07
Licence plate prefixes 云P
Website lijiang.gov.cn
Lijiang
Lijiang (Chinese characters).svg
"Lijiang" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese 丽江
Traditional Chinese 麗江

Lijiang (Chinese: 丽江) is a prefecture-level city in the northwest of Yunnan province, China. It has an area of 21,219 square kilometres (8,193 sq mi) and had a population of 1,244,769 at the 2010 census. Lijiang is famous for its UNESCO Heritage Site, the Old Town of Lijiang.

History[edit]

"Lijiang" started from the Yuan Dynasty to the 13th year of the Yuan Dynasty (1276) and set up the administrative district Lijiang Road..[1] 100,000 years ago, the Lijiang people of the late Paleolithic sapiens were active here. The discovery of cave paintings in the Jinsha River Valley and numerous new stone tools, bronzes, and ironsmiths prove that Lijiang is one of the important areas of ancient human activities in southwest China..[2]Lijiang City replaced the former administrative region of Lijiang Naxi Autonomous Prefecture. It was under the rule of the Mu family (木氏) local commanders (土司) during the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty.[3]

The Baisha Old Town was the political, commercial and cultural center for the local Naxi people and other ethnic groups for 400 years from the year 658 AD to 1107AD. The Dabaoji Palace of the Baisha Fresco, very close to the Baisha Naxi Hand-made Embroidery Institute, was built in the year 658 AD in the Tang Dynasty (618 AD to 960 AD).

In ancient times, the Baisha Old Town used to be the center of silk embroidery in the southwest of China and the most important place of the Ancient Southern Silk Road, also called the Ancient Tea and Horse Road or Ancient tea route.[4] The Ancient Southern Silk Road started from Burma, crossed Lijiang, Shangri-La County, Tibet, journeyed through Iran, the Fertile Crescent, and ultimately to the Mediterranean Sea.

Geography and climate[edit]

Geography[edit]

  • Lijiang City is located in the southeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, northwestern Plateau, and the middle reaches of the Jinsha River. The land spans 25°23′-27°56′ north latitude and 99°23′-101°31′ east longitude. It connects Sichuan Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture and Panzhihua City to the east, and Jianchuan, Heqing and Binchuan three of the Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture in the south. County and Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture Dayao and Yongren counties, west and north are adjacent to Lanping County of Nujiang Yi Autonomous Prefecture and Weixi County of Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. The city has a total area of 20,600 square kilometers and governs the ancient city, Yulong Naxi Autonomous County, Yongsheng County, Huaping County and Ninglang Yi Autonomous County.[5]

Climate[edit]

Owing to its low latitude and high elevation, the city centre of Lijiang experiences a mild subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cwb). Winters are mild and very dry and sunny (>70% possible sunshine), although average lows in December and January are just below the freezing mark; January, the coolest month, with 24-hour average temperature of 6.0 °C (42.8 °F). Spring begins early and remains dry and sunny until late May, when there is a dramatic uptick in frequency and amount of rainfall that lasts until late September. Summers are warm, rainy (more so than it is sunny) and damp, with June, the warmest month, averaging 18.4 °C (65.1 °F). Autumn sees an abrupt reduction in rainfall and return to sunniness. The annual mean temperature is 12.93 °C (55.3 °F), while precipitation averages 980 mm (38.6 in), around 80% of which occurs from June to September. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 32% in July to 80% in December, the city receives 2,463 hours of bright sunshine annually.


Climate data for Lijiang (1981−2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.6
(72.7)
23.6
(74.5)
26.3
(79.3)
28.9
(84)
30.8
(87.4)
31.8
(89.2)
31.4
(88.5)
28.2
(82.8)
28.7
(83.7)
25.9
(78.6)
23.6
(74.5)
22.8
(73)
31.8
(89.2)
Average high °C (°F) 14.0
(57.2)
15.0
(59)
17.3
(63.1)
20.2
(68.4)
22.9
(73.2)
24.1
(75.4)
23.3
(73.9)
22.9
(73.2)
21.4
(70.5)
20.2
(68.4)
17.1
(62.8)
14.6
(58.3)
19.4
(67)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.4
(43.5)
8.0
(46.4)
10.7
(51.3)
13.6
(56.5)
16.6
(61.9)
18.6
(65.5)
18.2
(64.8)
17.5
(63.5)
15.9
(60.6)
13.6
(56.5)
9.5
(49.1)
6.6
(43.9)
12.9
(55.3)
Average low °C (°F) 0.3
(32.5)
2.5
(36.5)
5.4
(41.7)
8.3
(46.9)
11.3
(52.3)
14.5
(58.1)
14.8
(58.6)
14.0
(57.2)
12.4
(54.3)
8.9
(48)
3.7
(38.7)
0.3
(32.5)
8
(46.4)
Record low °C (°F) −6.1
(21)
−5.7
(21.7)
−4.0
(24.8)
0.7
(33.3)
3.5
(38.3)
6.2
(43.2)
8.6
(47.5)
6.6
(43.9)
3.4
(38.1)
1.7
(35.1)
−3.7
(25.3)
−10.3
(13.5)
−10.3
(13.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 4.0
(0.157)
5.7
(0.224)
14.6
(0.575)
18.2
(0.717)
66.0
(2.598)
165.1
(6.5)
242.3
(9.539)
215.7
(8.492)
165.5
(6.516)
66.3
(2.61)
13.4
(0.528)
3.4
(0.134)
980.2
(38.59)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.9 3.9 6.6 7.9 11.7 20.3 24.2 22.3 20.8 11.5 4.3 1.5 136.9
Average relative humidity (%) 45 44 47 51 59 71 80 82 83 72 61 52 62
Mean monthly sunshine hours 259.9 229.7 248.4 233.4 225.1 156.7 134.2 155.0 138.8 195.2 226.6 260.3 2,463.3
Percent possible sunshine 79 73 67 61 54 38 32 38 38 55 70 80 56
Source #1: China Meteorological Data Service Center
Source #2: China Meteorological Administration(precipitation days, sunshine hours 1971-2000)

Administrative divisions[edit]

The government of Lijiang City sits in Gucheng District.

Lijiang City comprises one district and four counties:

Map
# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2003 est.) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
1 Gucheng District 古城区 Gǔchéng Qū 140,000 1,127 124
2 Yongsheng County 永胜县 Yǒngshèng Xiàn 380,000 5,099 75
3 Huaping County 华坪县 Huápíng Xiàn 150,000 2,266 66
4 Yulong Nakhi Autonomous County 玉龙纳西族自治县 Yùlóng Nàxīzú Zìzhìxiàn 210,000 6,521 32
5 Ninglang Yi Autonomous County 宁蒗彝族自治县 Nínglàng Yízú Zìzhìxiàn 240,000 6,206 39

Local culture[edit]

National culture[edit]

  • Naxi (纳西族)

The Naxi people have their own language. The Naxi language belongs to the Tibetan-Burmese language branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. It is roughly divided into two dialects by the Jinsha River. The dialects cannot talk to each other. The standard language of Naxi language is based on the dialect of the western dialect of Naxi language, and the voice of Dayan Town of Lijiang County is the standard sound. In the long history of the Naxi people, there have been Dongbawen and Gobawen characters. "Dongbawen" is a hieroglyph created by the Naxi people more than a thousand years ago (before the Tang Dynasty). It consists of pictographic symbols, phonetic symbols and additional symbols. It is the only living hieroglyph in the world that is still circulating in the folk.The Naxi people generally live in dam areas, river valleys and half-mountain areas. The private housing in the dam area is mostly a tiled house with civil structures. The pattern is mostly "three rooms and one wall", and the mountainous areas are mostly low wooden raft houses, which are covered with wooden boards.The Naxi people can sing and dance, and there are often mass songs and dances in production labor and national festivals. The "Three Festivals" at the beginning of the lunar calendar in early February is the most traditional festival of the people of Lijiang Naxi.[6]

  • Mosuo

Mosuo is used to living in the mountains and waters. The houses are all made of wood. The traditional festivals of the Mosuo people include the Spring Festival, the Dragon Boat Festival, the Chaoshan Festival, the Ancestor Festival, the Sacrifice God Festival, and the Festival of Land Festival. Among them, the Spring Festival and the Chaoshan Festival are the most solemn. Mosuo people can sing and dance.[7]

  • The Yi Nationality (彝族)

The Yi people have a long history, and their ancestors are "Kunming" people who have a relationship with them. They were called "Wu Man" in the Tang and Song Dynasties. The Yi people have their own language and words. The language belongs to the Tibetan-Burmese language branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. There are six dialects. The Xiaoliangshan Yi people belong to the northern dialect Shizha. Originally an ancient ideogram, some people think it is a pictographic syllable. In the history of the Yi people, they wrote historical, literary, astronomical and medical books, religious classics and so on. Most of the Yi villages are surrounded by mountains and waters, and the environment is beautiful. Generally, there are two or 30 households, and three or five households or single households are rare. The people living in Xiaoliangshan are generally low in order to avoid the cold of the mountains. Mostly, it is a timber frame with a multi-column landing structure. The four walls are made of wood or fenced with bamboo and wood. There are many festivals for the Yi people, such as the Lunar Festival, the 15th Festival, the February 8th, and the March 3rd Festival, especially the Torch Festival.[8]

  • The Lisu Nationality (傈粟族)

The Lisu language belongs to the Sino-Tibetan language family. The Lisu people live in a high-slope area. Due to the influence of the terrain and habits, there are no villages that live in dozens of houses. Generally, there are dozens of households on two or three hills as a village. The villages are far apart, and the houses are mainly wooden rafts. The Lisu people have oral songs and long poems, as well as many myths and legends. Every December, the people of Huaping and other places will hold a grand ceremony to celebrate the "Wide Season" (New Year's Day). There are also the Dragon Boat Festival "Hangshan Festival" and Lixia "Holy Water Festival" in Lijiang Dawn Township.[9]

  • Pumi (普米族)

The language of the Pumi people belongs to the Yi language branch of the Tibetan-Burmese language group of the Sino-Tibetan language family. The local dialects have little difference and generally can talk to each other. There are no words in the Pumi people. The Pumi people in Ninglang (宁蒗) and Muli (木里) used to spell the Pumi language in Tibetan language to record historical legends and songs, but they are not popular and are now widely used in Chinese. The Pumi people live in a multi-clan, mostly on the mountainside, and the houses are mostly the layout of the wooden courtyard. The Pumi people have their own unique culture and art. Among them, the myths, legends and stories are the most numerous. The Pumi people can sing and dance. In the event of a wedding or funeral festival, a "song to the song" competition is held. Pumi men also like sports such as shooting, archery, wrestling, and martial arts. The most popular national traditional festival of the Pumi is the "Ohwa Festival" (the New Year) on the eighth day of the twelfth lunar month. In addition, there is the "Turning Sea Festival" on the 15th of the first month, and the "Taste of the New Festival" in the spring and autumn harvest season.[10]

Special eating custom[edit]

  • Salad of Jidou Pea Jelly (鸡豆凉粉)

Salad of Jidou pea jelly is a traditional food that Naxi loves. It is produced in Lijiangba and belongs to the yellow bean family. Because it is shaped like a chicken head, it is called chicken pea powder. The beans are milled into vermicelli, the color is gray-green, fried, the salad is very tasty, and the fragrance is delicious. It is a dish on the Naxi table.[11]

  • Lijiang Baba (丽江粑粑)

Lijiang Baba is the local fine wheat noodles, plus ham, chemical oil, sugar and other condiments, and mix thoroughly to form a layer. Eat a golden crisp, sweet and delicious, oily but not greasy.[12]

  • Naxi Barbecue (纳西烧烤)

Naxi barbecue is a traditional carbace dish popular on Lijiang Tea Horse Road. The main ingredient is pork pork belly. The skin is golden and crisp, fat but not greasy, thin and not firewood, and the taste is crisp.[13]

Transport[edit]

  • Lijiang Airport (LJG); Lijiang Airport is located in the south of Lijiang city, 28 km (17 mi) away from downtown. There is an airport shuttle bus service in downtown Lijiang. The airport was opened in July 1995 and has flights to Kunming, Chengdu, Xishuangbanna, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Wuhan, Shenzhen, Xiamen via Chongqing and Guiyang. It also offers chartered airplane service. There are flights from Kunming to Lijiang every day and is about 30 minutes flight time.
  • There are bus services to, amongst others, Kunming (8 hrs), Dali (3 hrs), the Tiger Leaping Gorge and Shangri-La.
  • There is a train service to Kunming with one overnight and two day trains, and one day train to Dali.
  • Lijiang has several bridges over the Jinsha River, including the Jinlong Bridge, built in 1936, the oldest over the Yangtze.

Major tourist attractions[edit]

Old Town of Lijiang[edit]

Old Town of Lijiang (丽江古镇) is a national historical and cultural city. It was built in the late Song Dynasty (late 13th century AD). It is located in the middle of Lijiang Dam. It is the most preserved and most Naxi-style ancient town in China. It is located in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. At an altitude of 2,416 meters, the city covers an area of 3.8 square kilometers. In December 1997, it was included in the “World Cultural Heritage” list by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee.[14]

Old Town by night
Anti-Japanese banner in Lijiang

Lugu Lake[edit]

Lugu Lake (泸沽湖) is 2,680 meters above sea level, with an area of more than 50 square kilometers. The average lake depth is 45 meters and the deepest is 93 meters. The lake is clear and blue, with a visibility of 12-14 meters. It is one of the deepest freshwater lakes in China.[15]

Jade Dragon Snow Mountain[edit]

Jade Dragon Snow Mountain (玉龙雪山) is located between 100°4′2”-100°16’30” east longitude and 27°3’2”-27°18’57” north latitude. The scenic area is 415 square kilometers. The main peak fan is 5,596 meters above sea level. It has snow all year round and develops the temperate maritime glaciers closest to the equator in the Eurasian continent. Jade Dragon Snow Mountain is called "Oulu" in Naxi, meaning silvery mountain rock. Its silver-packed, 13 snow peaks are endless, just like a "dragon" flying over the clouds, it is called "Jade Dragon." Because its lithology is mainly limestone and basalt, it is black and white, so it is also called "black and white snow mountain". She is the mountain of the hearts of the Naxi people. It is said that the Naxi people protect the gods of the "three more" incarnation.[16]

The Laojun Mountain[edit]

The Laojun Mountain (老君山) is a combination of the three national-level scenic spots in the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain, the Three Rivers Concurrent, and the Cangshan Erhai Lake. It is an important part of the Yulong Snow Mountain Scenic Area. This scenic spot is mainly composed of Laojunshan Jiujiu Longtan, Jinsi Factory Jinshan Yuhu, Dawn Meile Danxia Landform, New Main Natural Alpine Botanical Garden and other areas (attractions), with a total area of 715 square kilometers, which is under planning and development. Ecotourism resort. It echoes with the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain and forms the east and west wings of Lijiang's tourism resources.[17]

Nearby[edit]

Some 35 kilometers north of Lijiang is the Baishui Terrace (白水台 Baishuitai, literally "White Water Terrace"), an area where spring water flows over a sinter terrace, leaving behind travertine.

Fifteen kilometers north of Lijiang is the village of Baisha, famous for the Baisha Fresco and the Naxi Hand-made Embroidery Institute.The Fresco was built in the Ming Dynasty 600 years ago, the Naxi Hand-made Embroidery Institute was built 800 years ago, it is the headquarters of the Naxi embroideries and also, a school for the Naxi embroiderers. There are many Naxi embroidery masters, teachers, students and local farmers there. Their embroidery arts can be found there.

Sister Cities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 丽江名字的由来:路因江名
  2. ^ 一千个人有一千个丽江,你所不知道的丽江
  3. ^ 丽江木氏土司与滇川藏交角区域历史文化研讨会综述
  4. ^ Forbes, Andrew ; Henley, David (2011). China's Ancient Tea Horse Road. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN: B005DQV7Q2
  5. ^ 丽江市人民政府网站
  6. ^ 云南省丽江市中级人民法院
  7. ^ 云南省丽江市中级人民法院
  8. ^ 云南省丽江市中级人民法院
  9. ^ 云南省丽江市中级人民法院
  10. ^ 云南省丽江市中级人民法院
  11. ^ 新浪网
  12. ^ 新浪网
  13. ^ 新浪网
  14. ^ 丽江古镇
  15. ^ 泸沽湖
  16. ^ 玉龙雪山
  17. ^ 老君山
  18. ^ Successful use of heritage is the pledge of prosperous future of Euro-Asia Cities (DOC file). II International Conference of World Heritage Cities of Euro-Asia. Lijiang. 15–18 October 2006 Archived February 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  19. ^ 刘蓉 (2012-05-01). "丽江市与柬埔寨柏威夏省缔结为国际友好城市" [Lijiang establish international friendly city with Preah Vihear Province of Cambodia]. yndaily.yunnan.cn. Yunnan Daily Newspaper. Retrieved 2018-05-14. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 26°53′N 100°14′E / 26.883°N 100.233°E / 26.883; 100.233