SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Liliales

Liliales is an order of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group and Angiosperm Phylogeny Web system, within the lilioid monocots. This order of necessity includes the family Liliaceae; the APG III system places this order in the monocot clade. In APG III, the family Luzuriagaceae is combined with the family Alstroemeriaceae and the family Petermanniaceae is recognized. Both the order Lililiales and the family Liliaceae have had a disputed history, with the circumscription varying from one taxonomist to another. Previous members of this order, which at one stage included most monocots with conspicuous tepals and lacking starch in the endosperm are now distributed over three orders, Liliales and Asparagales, using predominantly molecular phylogenetics; the newly delimited Liliales is monophyletic, with ten families. Well known plants from the order include Lilium, the North American wildflower Trillium, greenbrier, thus circumscribed, this order consists of herbaceous plants, but lianas and shrubs occur.

They are perennial plants, with food storage organs such as corms or rhizomes. The family Corsiaceae is notable for being heterotrophic; the order has worldwide distribution. The larger families are confined to the Northern Hemisphere, or are distributed worldwide, centering on the north. On the other hand, the smaller families are confined to the Southern Hemisphere, or sometimes just to Australia or South America; the total number of species in the order is now about 1768. As with any herbaceous group, the fossil record of the Liliales is rather scarce. There are several species from the Eocene, such as Petermanniopsis anglesaensis or Smilax, but their identification is not definite. Another known fossil is Ripogonum scandens from the Miocene. Due to the scarcity of data, it seems impossible to determine the age and the initial distribution of the order, it is assumed. Fossil aquatic plants from the Cretaceous of northeastern Brazil and a new terrestrial species placed in the new genus Cratosmilax suggest that the first species have appeared around 120 million years ago when the continents formed Pangea, before dispersing as Asia and America.

The initial diversification to the current families took place between 48 million years ago. The order consists of 67 genera and about 1,768 species; the Liliales are a diverse order of predominantly perennial erect or twining herbaceous and climbing plants. Climbers, such as the herbaceous Gloriosa and Bomarea, are common in the Americas in temperate and tropical zones, while most species of the subtropical and tropical genus Smilax are herbaceous or woody climbers and comprise much of the vegetation within the Liliales range, they include woody shrubs, which have fleshy stems and underground storage or perennating organs bulbous geophytes, sometimes rhizomatous or cormous. Leaves are elliptical and straplike with parallel venation or ovate with palmate veins and reticulate minor venation. In Alstroemeria and Bomarea the leaves are resupinate; the flowers are variable, ranging in size from the small green actinomorphic blooms of Smilax to the large showy ones found in Lilium and Calochortus and Lapageria.

Sepals and petals are undifferentiated from each other, known as tepals, forming a perianth. They are large and pointed and may be variegated in Fritillaria. Nectaries may be perigonal but not septal. Perigonal nectaries may be a simple secretory epidermal region at the tepal bases or small, depressed regions fringed with hairs with glandular surface protuberances, at the bases of the inner tepals, while in Tricyrtis the tepals become bulbous or spur-like at the base, forming a nectar-containing sac. Ovaries may be inferior or superior, the style long and stigma capitate. In a number of taxa there are three separate styles some Melanthiaceae s.l. and Chionographis. The outer integument epidermis of the seed coat is cellular, the phytomelanin pigment is lacking; the inner integument is cellular and these features are plesiomorphic. The Liliales are characterised by the presence of nectaries at the base of the tepals or stamen filaments most taxa but the absence of septal nectaries, together with extrorse anthers.

This distinguishes them from the septal nectaries and introrse anthers that are the features of most other monocots. Exceptions are some Melanthiaceae in which nectaries are absent or septal and anthers that are introrse in Campynemataceae and some Alstroemeriaceae, Philesiaceae and Smilacaceae. Tepals are three-traced in net-veined taxa of Liliales, distinguishing them from the single-traced Asparagales, is associated with the presence of tepal nectaries to supply them; the presence of separate styles is a distinguishing feature from Asparagales, where it is rare. Phytomelan is absent in Liliales seed coats, unlike Asparagales, which nearly all contain it; the stems contain fructans, the plants contain Chelidonic acid, while some species contain Velamen. The epicuticular wax is of the Convallaria type; the order includes taxa with some of the largest ge

Rufus M. Rose

Rufus Mathewson Rose, was an American businessman. After growing up and receiving a primary and secondary education in that state, he moved to New York City, where he practiced as a druggist, on to Long Island, where he worked in a sailors' hospital. Before the start of the American Civil War, Rose had studied medicine, received a diploma and moved to Hawkinsville, Georgia; when the war broke out in 1861, Rose joined the Confederate Army's Tenth Georgia Regiment as a foot soldier, but was reassigned to Williamsburg, where he worked in the army's medical department. Due to a personal injury, Rose was honorably discharged in December 1861, but his services in creating medicines for the Confederate army continued until just before the end of the war. After the war, Rose moved to Atlanta. In 1867, he founded the R. M. Rose Co. Distillery known as the Mountain Spring Distillery, in Vinings, Georgia, a then-small community twelve miles north of Atlanta, he sold his corn and rye whiskies to the public from retail outlets he owned and operated in Atlanta.

According to some accounts, his company established the whiskey brand Four Roses in 1888 named in honor of him, his brother Origen, their two sons. The brand is still produced, was the top selling brand of Bourbon in the United States in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s; the brand is owned by the Kirin Brewery Company of Japan and produced at the Four Roses distillery in Lawrenceburg, Kentucky. However, the actual origin of the Four Roses brand is not well established, current brand owners do not mention Rufus M. Rose in their version of its history. In addition to selling liquor, Rose was the owner of a large real estate business known as the Rose Investment Company. Rose died of heart failure on July 21, 1910, in his Victorian mansion - the Rufus M. Rose House - which still stands on Peachtree Street in the SoNo district of Atlanta, his remains are interred in the Rose mausoleum at Oakland Cemetery

Rafael Obligado Castle

The Rafael Obligado Castle is an architecturally significant private residence located between Ramallo and San Pedro, Buenos Aires Province in Argentina. Set along the banks of the Paraná River, the residence was commissioned by Argentine poet Rafael Obligado in 1896; the estate itself had belonged to the Obligado family since the land's 1789 purchase by Antonio Obligado, a Castillian merchant who had relocated from Andalucia and was located within sight of the historic, 1845 Battle of Vuelta de Obligado. The design for the home, commissioned to German Argentine architect Adolfo Büttner, was based on Neo-gothic architecture by request of the client. Obligado wished to evoke the settings described in the works of Scottish writer Sir Walter Scott. Completed in 1898, the three story residence includes nine baths; the floors are connected via three distinct staircases accessed from a grand reception hall, the house possesses numerous secret passageways. Known as the Estancia El Castillo, the property remains in the Obligado family and is one of a number of distinguished estancias located in the surrounding Pampas.