click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Lilith

Lilith is a figure in Jewish mythology, developed earliest in the Babylonian Talmud. From c. 700–1000 CE onwards Lilith appears as Adam's first wife, created at the same time and from the same clay as Adam—compare Genesis 1:27. The figure of Lilith may relate in part to a earlier class of female demons in ancient Mesopotamian religion, found in cuneiform texts of Sumer, the Akkadian Empire and Babylonia. In Jewish folklore, from the Alphabet of Sirach The legend of Lilith developed extensively during the Middle Ages, in the tradition of Aggadah, the Zohar, Jewish mysticism. For example, in the 13th-century writings of Isaac ben Jacob ha-Cohen, Lilith left Adam after she refused to become subservient to him and would not return to the Garden of Eden after she had coupled with the archangel Samael. Interpretations of Lilith found in Jewish materials are plentiful, but little information has survived relating to the Sumerian, Akkadian and Babylonian view of this class of demons. While researchers universally agree that a connection exists, recent scholarship has disputed the relevance of two sources used to connect the Jewish lilith to an Akkadian lilītu—the Gilgamesh appendix and the Arslan Tash amulets.

"Other scholars, such as Lowell K. Handy, agree that Lilith derives from Mesopotamian demons but argue against finding evidence of the Hebrew Lilith in many of the epigraphical and artifactual sources cited as such."In Hebrew-language texts, the term lilith or lilit first occurs in a list of animals in Isaiah 34:14, either in singular or plural form according to variations in the earliest manuscripts. Commentators and interpreters envision the figure of Lilith as a dangerous demon of the night, sexually wanton, who steals babies in the darkness. In the Dead Sea Scrolls 4Q510-511, the term first occurs in a list of monsters. Jewish magical inscriptions on bowls and amulets from the 6th century CE onwards identify Lilith as a female demon and provide the first visual depictions of her; the resulting Lilith legend continues to serve as source material in modern Western culture, occultism and horror. In the Akkadian language of Assyria and Babylonia, the terms lili and līlītu mean spirits; some uses of līlītu are listed in The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, in Wolfram von Soden's Akkadisches Handwörterbuch, Reallexikon der Assyriologie.

The Sumerian female demons lili have no etymological relation to Akkadian lilu, "evening". Archibald Sayce considered that Hebrew lilit לילית and the earlier Akkadian līlītu are from proto-Semitic. Charles Fossey has this translating to "female night being/demon", although cuneiform inscriptions from Mesopotamia exist where Līlīt and Līlītu refers to disease-bearing wind spirits. Another possibility is association not with "night", but with "wind", thus identifying the Akkadian Lil-itu as a loan from the Sumerian lil "air" — from Ninlil, "lady air", goddess of the south wind — and itud, "moon". Samuel Noah Kramer translated ki-sikil-lil-la-ke as Lilith in "Tablet XII" of the Epic of Gilgamesh dated c.600 BCE. "Tablet XII" is not part of the Epic of Gilgamesh, but is a Assyrian Akkadian translation of the latter part of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. The ki-sikil-lil-la-ke is associated with a zu bird. In Gilgamesh and the Netherworld, a huluppu tree grows in Inanna's garden in Uruk, whose wood she plans to use to build a new throne.

After ten years of growth, she comes to harvest it and finds a serpent living at its base, a Zu bird raising young in its crown, that a ki-sikil-lil-la-ke made a house in its trunk. Gilgamesh is said to have killed the snake, the zu bird flew away to the mountains with its young, while the ki-sikil-lil-la-ke fearfully destroys its house and runs for the forest. Identification of ki-sikil-lil-la-ke as Lilith is stated in Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. According to a new source from Late Antiquity, Lilith appears in a Mandaic magic story where she is considered to represent the branches of a tree with other demonic figures that form other parts of the tree, though this may include multiple "Liliths". Suggested translations for the Tablet XII spirit in the tree include ki-sikil as "sacred place", lil as "spirit", lil-la-ke as "water spirit", but simply "owl", given that the lil is building a home in the trunk of the tree. A connection between the Gilgamesh ki-sikil-lil-la-ke and the Jewish Lilith was rejected by Dietrich Opitz and rejected on textual grounds by Sergio Ribichini.

Kramer's translation of the Gilgamesh fragment was used by Henri Frankfort and Emil Kraeling to support identification of a woman with wings and bird-feet in the Burney Relief as related to Lilith, but this has been rejected by sources, including the British Museum, in current possession of the piece. The terracotta plaque depicts a beautiful, naked goddess-like sylph with bird-like features who stands atop two lions and between two owls. Although once believed to be the actual image of Lilith, it is now thought to represent Inanna, the Sumerian goddess of love, beauty and sexual desire; the depiction of the nocturnal and predatory owls, howev

Solar eclipse of February 26, 2017

An annular solar eclipse took place on February 26, 2017. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby or obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. An annular solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is smaller than the Sun's, blocking most of the Sun's light and causing the Sun to look like an annulus. An annular eclipse appears as a partial eclipse over a region of the Earth thousands of kilometres wide. February 26 is the 57th day of the year in Gregorian Calendar, it was visible across southern South America in the morning and ended in south-western Africa at sunset. In Argentina, the best places to see the eclipse were located in the south of the Chubut Province, in the towns of Facundo and Camarones. Eclipse Magnitude: 0.99223 Eclipse Obscuration: 0.98451 Gamma: -0.45780 Saros Series: 140th Greatest Eclipse: 26 Feb 2017 14:53:24.5 UTC Ecliptic Conjunction: 26 Feb 2017 14:58:23.4 UTC Equatorial Conjunction: 26 Feb 2017 14:38:46.0 UTC Sun right ascension: 22.66 Sun declination: -8.5 Sun diameter: 1938.0 arcseconds Moon right ascension: 22.66 Moon declination: -8.9 Moon diameter: 1895.6 arcseconds Latitude: 5.1 degrees south Longitude: 0.6 degrees east Direction: 336.5 A penumbral lunar eclipse on February 11.

An annular solar eclipse on February 26. A partial lunar eclipse on August 7. A total solar eclipse on August 21. Saros 120: Total Solar Eclipse March 20, 2015 Saros 130: Total Solar Eclipse March 8–9, 2016 Saros 140: Annular Solar Eclipse February 26, 2017 Saros 150: Partial Solar Eclipse February 15, 2018 This eclipse is a member of a semester series. An eclipse in a semester series of solar eclipses repeats every 177 days and 4 hours at alternating nodes of the Moon's orbit, it is a part of Saros cycle 140, repeating 11 days, containing 71 events. The series started with partial solar eclipse on April 16, 1512, it contains total eclipses from July 21, 1656 through November 9, 1836, hybrid eclipses from November 20, 1854 through December 23, 1908, annular eclipses from January 3, 1927 through December 7, 2485. The series ends at member 71 as a partial eclipse on June 1, 2774; the longest duration of totality was 4 minutes, 10 seconds on August 12, 1692. This eclipse is a part of the long period inex cycle, repeating at alternating nodes, every 358 synodic months.

Their appearance and longitude are irregular due to a lack of synchronization with the anomalistic month. However, groupings of 3 inex cycles comes close; the metonic series repeats eclipses every 19 years. Eclipses occur in nearly the same calendar date. In addition, the octon subseries repeats 1/5 of every 3.8 years. All eclipses in this table occur at the Moon's descending node. www.solar-eclipse.de - The annular solar eclipse of 02/26/2017 NASA graphics Interactive map of the eclipse from NASA NASA Besselian Elements - Annular Solar Eclipse of 2017 February 26 hermet.org: Annular Solar Eclipse: February 26 2017 www.solar-eclipse.de - Average cloud coverage and cities along the eclipse path

Old Irontown, Utah

Old Irontown, Old Iron Town, or Irontown Iron City, is an unincorporated community and near-ghost town in Iron County, United States. It is located about 22 miles from Cedar City; the settlement was founded in 1868 as a second attempt to mine iron from Iron Mountain after a disappointing yield from Cedar City. The colony lasted until 1876, when strife from the Edmunds–Tucker Act and the Panic of 1873 forced its closure; the site was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971. Brigham Young left Nauvoo, Illinois to establish Salt Lake City in 1847. Young realized that the fastest way to an independent Mormon state was to make the new colony self-sufficient. One important resource in this regard was iron, expensive to ship from the eastern United States; the city of Parowan was founded in 1851 to provide iron for the settlers, mined in nearby Iron Mission. Mismanagement plagued these new settlements, only 400 short tons of iron were produced over a six-year period. Iron was nonetheless needed for continued Mormon prosperity, so a second attempt at mining the region was made in 1868.

The newly formed Union Iron Works organized an establishment at the southern base of Iron Mountain on Pinto Creek, west of Cedar City. By the third year, over 2,500 pounds of iron was mined every day; the company continued to mine ore for three more years. At its peak, the settlement included a schoolhouse, charcoal furnaces, a foundry; the city was abandoned in 1876. An attempt was made to revive mining from Iron Mountain, but the church was struggling with litigation over the Edmunds–Tucker Act and the Panic of 1873. Today, the ruins feature a preserved beehive style charcoal oven and a furnace known as an "Arastra", which prepared sands for molds. Parts of the original foundry remain, including the chimney; the site was fenced off by the Sons of Utah Pioneers. It is within grounds designated as the Dixie National Forest; the Frontier Homestead State Park Museum in Cedar City provides information about and artifacts from the site. The ruins are found on Iron Town Road, which intersects with Utah State Route 56.

The site was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 1971 as Old Iron Town. There are a number of newer, occupied homes at the town's location. Utah portal National Register of Historic Places portal List of ghost towns in Utah National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Old Irontown Media related to Old Iron Town, Utah at Wikimedia Commons

Huntingdon and Godmanchester

Huntingdon and Godmanchester was a municipal borough in Huntingdonshire from 1961 to 1974. It was formed in 1961 by the merger of the boroughs of Godmanchester. In 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972 the borough was abolished, a successor parish formed within Huntingdon District, in the non-metropolitan county of Cambridgeshire; the parish had the status of a town, by resolution of the parish council. The borough was granted a coat of arms in 1963; the shield was divided horizontally in a dovetail pattern to show the joining of two municipalities. At the top of the shield were two hunting horns for Huntingdon, at the base a fleur-de-lis from the common seal of Godmanchester; the supporters on either side of the shield were described as a "medieval huntsman" and a "medieval oxherd", they stood upon a representation of the old bridge at Huntingdon that linked the two towns. The motto was United. In 1982 the union of the two towns ended, with the formation of two separate civil parishes of Huntingdon and Godmanchester, each governed by a town council

Paul Dickopf

Paul Dickopf was a member of the NSDAP and SS in the Security Service and a secret agent in Switzerland, who became a member of the German Federal Criminal Police Office. Between 1965 and 1971, he was the 4th president of the BKA and a paid "unilateral agent" of the CIA. Under the Nazi government of Adolf Hitler, he was a member of the Sturmabteilung and the Schutzstaffel. Dickopf and during World War II had been an active Nazi officer in the Schutzstaffel with SS number 337259. Dickopf's SS personnel file reveals that he became a member in 1935 of the National Socialist German Students' League having the same status and membership requirements of the official Nazi Party, the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei. After voluntary army service he began his police career in 1937 at the Kriminal-Polizei as a criminal commissar candidate serving the last three months in the Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers-SS. In 1938 he volunteered for the Führerschule of'Sipo'. Fifteen SS officers of the rank of lieutenant upwards sponsored him.

Dickopf was recommended for officer rank by the commandant of the SD school and graduated as an SS Untersturmführer became a criminal commissar and member of the SD. Dickopf enrolled in the general SS in 1939, any record of his war activities are obscure since his SS file for that period is incomplete. Dickopf was elected as the president of Interpol in 1968. While his former Nazi connections were known, he maintained his post until 1972. Throughout his tenure as president of Interpol he was regarded as a conscientious and diligent professional, always stressing the organization's political neutrality, he was praised for his work by Hans-Dietrich Genscher as a "role model for the German police". Dickopf died from a brief but fatal illness on September 19, 1973 in Germany. On June 25, 2012, the "Paul-Dickopf-Straße", a street in Meckenheim, seat of the BKA, bearing Dickopf's name as a remembrance for his presidency of the BKA, was renamed "Gerhard-Boeden-Straße" as a symbolic act following the revelations about Dickopf's masterminding the recruiting of former Nazi officials into the BKA.

After his death it was revealed that Dickopf had made the Federal Criminal Police a safe haven for former Nazi and SS officials, a large number of them war criminals. Under his leadership some concepts of National Socialism were still upheld and practised, for example in the way members of Sinti and Roma were treated. According to documents in the National Archives in Washington, which were released in 2007, the CIA made payments to Dickopf from 1965 to 1971, while he was president of the BKA, he is categorized in the files as a "unilateral agent". One note about Dickopf by the head of the CIA says:'"Our relationship with Mr Dickopf is of a secret nature, the official contacts being used as a cover up for meetings". Dickopf passed on to the CIA information on leading officials as well as on internal affairs of the BKA and other authorities

La Superestación

La Superestación is a Colombian pop-rock radio station, broadcasting from Bogotá since 19 March 1982, owned by Cadena Super. In 2005, it became an online-only station. Before the inception of Super Stereo, the only rock-pop station in Bogotá was Stereo 95-1, though youth AM stations like Radio 15 and Radio Fantasía existed in the 1970s. Most of the programming of La Superestación consisted in pop hits in English and Spanish, its flagship morning programme, El zoológico de la mañana, was inspired on the United States Morning Zoo format. It started in 1986. Other shows were its countdowns Los 20 superéxitos and Los 11 superéxitos. Super Stereo held the broadcasting rights of the American Top 40. La Superestación expanded to Cali; the success of La Superestación inspired the creation of competing stations, such as Caracol Radio's Radioacktiva and Los 40 Principales, RTVC's Radionica, or RCN Radio's La Mega. After declining ratings in the 2000s, Cadena Super decided to lease La Superestación's frequencies to Radio Uno, at the time an AM vallenato station owned by RCN Radio, turning it into an online radio station.

Its former callsign, HJJO, is now assigned to a small AM station in Sucre. Radio Uno's current callsign is HJHR. Official website