A charvet fabric is woven of silk or acetate in warp-faced rib weave, of a reversed reps type with a double ridge effect. The fabric's name derives from its frequent and "clever" use in the 19th century by the Parisian shirtmaker Charvet, it is characterized by shiny appearance. It drapes well; the bindings create a herringbone effect parallel to the warp, which make this weave suitable for creating faint diagonal stripe effects for ties, for which the fabric is cut on the bias. Patterns on this base are made with supplementary weft; the fabric has been used for mufflers and robes. This weave is based on the Régence weave, a kind of reps with all weft raised on the backside, popular during the regency of Philippe II, Duke of Orléans. In the United States, at the end of the 19th century, the term was used in a broader sense, to describe either fabrics "extremely dainty in construction and effect" or silk shirtings. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the weave is rather found in solid fabrics for semi formal wear.
By extension, the term is used in knitting for a certain kind of bias striping, going up from left to right
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, contiguous with its capital, Potsdam; the two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics.
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale, that once constituted, together with the River Elbe, the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city, it is therefore a canting arm. Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a Slavic-derived name: Pankow, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau. Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Buch, Gatow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Marzahn, Prenzlauer Berg, Schmöckwitz, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz and Zehlendorf; the neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from 1192, remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, subsequent members of the Hohenzol
University of Fine Arts of Hamburg
The Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg is the University of Fine Arts in Hamburg. It dates to 1767; the main building, located in the Uhlenhorst quarter of Hamburg-Nord borough, was designed by architect Fritz Schumacher, built between 1911 and 1913. In 1970, it was accredited as an artistic-scientific university; the Hamburger Gewerbeschule was founded in 1767 by the Patriotische Gesellschaft. It was named the Staatliche Kunstgewerbeschule in 1896 the Landeskunstschule. Fritz Schumacher designed the main building for the art school. Located at Am Lerchenfeld 2 in Uhlenhorst, a quarter of Hamburg-Nord, it was built between 1911 and 1913. After World War II, it re-opened as the Landeskunstschule by Friedrich Ahlers-Hestermann, a professor at the Kölner Werkschulen, he was succeeded by architect Gustav Hassenpflug, who changed the institution to the Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg. The school was accredited as a university in 1970. In July 2007, a scandal erupted when the university administration under Martin Köttering came under political pressure to expel students for having protested newly introduced tuition fees.
Joerg Draeger and the Hamburg Senate, dominated by the Christian Democratic Union demanded expulsion of more than half of the art students for having taken part in a tuition boycott. The scandal gained nationwide press coverage. In June 2008, about 680 students were enrolled at HFBK Hamburg. Two stolpersteine – memorials to victims of Nazism – have been laid for two faculty members. Friedrich Adler, who taught at the Kunstgewerbeschule from 1907 until his forced retirement in 1933, was killed in Auschwitz in 1942. Hugo Meier-Thur, who taught from 1910 to 1943, was killed at Fuhlsbüttel concentration camp in 1943. Jutta Koether, painting Matt Mullican, multimedia Anselm Reyle, art Wim Wenders, film Adam Broomberg and Oliver Chanarin, photography Thomas Demand, sculpture Fatih Akin, student 1994–2000, guest professor 2005–2006 Uwe Bahnsen, student Esther Berlin-Joel, student Joseph Beuys, guest professor 1974 Max Bill, professor 1967–1974 Bernhard Blume, professor 1987–2011 Hans Breder, student 1961-1964 Woldemar Brinkmann, student Bazon Brock, professor 1965–1976 Bruno Bruni, student 1960–1965 John Burgan, guest professor 2002 Bernhard Cella, student Bastian Clevé student 1971–1976 Carl Otto Czeschka, professor 1907–1943 Hanne Darboven, student 1962–1965, honorary professor 2000–2009 Isa Genzken, student 1969–1977 Gotthard Graubner, professor 1969- Erich Hartmann Rudolf Hausner, professor Oliver Hirschbiegel Rebecca Horn, student 1963/1964–1970 Francesco_Mariotti, student 1965 – 1969 Alfred Hrdlicka, professor 1973–1975 Friedensreich Hundertwasser, professor 1959 Alfonso Hüppi Horst Janssen, student 1946–1951 Isaac Julien, professor 2006 Martin Kippenberger, student 1972–1976 Vlado Kristl Wolfgang Lauenstein, student "Loriot", student 1947–1949 Alfred Mahlau Gerhard Marcks, 1945–1950 Jonathan Meese, student 1993–1998 Holger Meins, student 1962–1966 Herbert Niebling, student 1930's Albert Oehlen, student 1981–?
Sigmar Polke, professor Hans Jürgen Press, student 1948–? Astrid Proll, student Dieter Rams, professor 1981−1997 Daniel Richter Helke Sander, professor 1981–2003 Edwin Scharff Eran Schaerf, professor Thomas Scheibitz Nicolaus Schmidt, student Paul Schneider-Esleben, professor 1961–1972 Santiago Sierra, student 1989–1991 Cornelia Sollfrank, student 1990–1994 Annegret Soltau, studentin 1967–1972 Carl Vogel, professor 1962–1989, president 1976–1989 Otto Waalkes, student 1970–?? Paul Wallat, student 1899–1902 Paul Wunderlich, professor 1963–1968 Yüksel Yavuz, student Official website Hochschule für Bildende Künste Hamburg eastchance.com Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg wissenschaft.hamburg.de Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg Das Bildungs- und Studenten-Portal Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg kulturkarte.de
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
1929 Barcelona International Exposition
The 1929 Barcelona International Exposition was the second World Fair to be held in Barcelona, the first one being in 1888. It took place from 20 May 1929 to 15 January 1930 in Barcelona, Spain, it was held on Montjuïc, the hill overlooking the harbor, southwest of the city center, covered an area of 118 hectares at an estimated cost of 130 million pesetas. Twenty European nations participated in the fair, including Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Norway and Switzerland. In addition, private organizations from the United States and Japan participated. Latin American countries as well as the United States were represented in the Ibero-Americana section in Sevilla; the previous 1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition had led to a great advance in the city's economic and technological growth and development, including the reconstruction of the Parc de la Ciutadella, the city's main public park. A new exposition was proposed to highlight the city's further technological progress and increase awareness abroad of modern Catalan industry.
This new exhibition required the urban planning of Montjuïc and its adjacent areas and the renovation of public spaces, principally Plaça d'Espanya. The exposition called for a great deal of urban development within the city, became a testing-ground for the new architectural styles developed in the early 20th century. At a local level, this meant the consolidation of Noucentisme, a classical style that replaced the Modernisme predominating in Catalonia at the turn of the 20th century. Furthermore, it marked the arrival in Spain of international avant-garde tendencies rationalism, as seen in the design of the Barcelona Pavilion, created by German Bauhaus architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe; the Exposition allowed for the erection of several emblematic buildings and structures, including the Palau Nacional de Catalunya, the Font màgica de Montjuïc, the Teatre Grec, Poble Espanyol, the Estadi Olímpic. The idea of a new exhibition began to take shape in 1905, promoted by the architect Josep Puig i Cadafalch, as a way of bringing out the new Plan of links designed by Léon Jaussely.
It was proposed that the Exposition should be constructed in the area of the Besòs River, but instead, in 1913, planners selected Montjuïc as the site. While planned for 1917, the exposition was delayed due to World War I. Puig i Cadafalch's project was supported by the Fomento del Trabajo Nacional Francesc d'Assis, one of its leaders, who took charge of negotiations with the various agencies involved in the project. Thus, in 1913 the organization created a joint committee for organizing the event, consisting of representatives of the National Labor Development and the City Council, be appointed commissioners of the organization Josep Puig i Cadafalch, Francesc Cambo and Joan Pitch i Pon. In 1915, the committee presented a first draft by Puig i Cadafalch, divided into three specific projects, each commissioned to a team of architects. Puig i Cadafalch and Guillem Busquets reserved the area at the base of the mountain, Lluis Domenech i Montaner and Manuel Vega i March planned the area atop the mountain—designated the International Section, Enric Sagnier and August Font i Carreras Miramar developed a Maritime Section.
The principal difficulty of the project was the amount of land required. The exposition would need at least 110 hectares, the Barcelona City Council had only 26 by 1914. Thus, using an 1879 law, they resorted to land-expropriation. In 1917, development work began with assistant engineer Marià Rubio i Bellver. Landscaping was done by Jean-Claude Nicolas Forestier, assisted by Maria Rubio i Tudurí Nicolau, their design was distinctly Mediterranean, with classical influences, combining the gardens with the construction of pergolas and terraces. A funicular was built to allow access to the top of the mountain, as well as an aerial tram, which connected the mountain with the Port of Barcelona. However, the aerial tram did not open until 1931. Construction, while somewhat delayed, was completed in 1923, but the introduction that year of the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera delayed the actual exposition, which occurred in 1929, coinciding with the Ibero-American Exhibition in Seville; the delay made obsolete the goal of promoting electrical industry, so that in 1925 the event was renamed the International Exhibition in Barcelona.
The change of objective led to the reorganization of the exhibition, so that it was devoted to three aspects: industry, the sports, art. In this new period, the organization fell into the hands of Pere Domènech i Roura, the Marquis de Foronda, Director of Works. Further development of the event allowed for a great stylistic diversity in the buildings of various architects, some loyal to the Noucentisme prevailing at the time, others reflecting recurring historicist and eclectic trends that persisted since the late 19th century, with particular influence from the Spanish Baroque, in particular the architecture of Santiago de Compostela, in Galicia. Despite this diversity, most buildings—at least the official ones—had a common theme of monumentality and grandiosity. In contrast, buildings in the International Section, home to pavilions representing other countries and institutions, had a more contemporary aspect, parallel to the current state of the art of the period; this included Art Deco and rationalism.
The exposition was opened by King Alfonso XIII on 19 May 1929. Led by Mayor Darius Rumeu y Fre
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was a German-American architect. He was referred to as Mies, his surname. Along with Alvar Aalto, Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius and Frank Lloyd Wright, he is regarded as one of the pioneers of modernist architecture. Mies was a director of a seminal school in modern architecture. After Nazism's rise to power, with its strong opposition to modernism, Mies went to the United States, he accepted the position to head the architecture school at the Armour Institute of Technology, in Chicago. Mies sought to establish his own particular architectural style that could represent modern times just as Classical and Gothic did for their own eras, he created his own twentieth-century architectural style, stated with extreme clarity and simplicity. His mature buildings made use of modern materials such as industrial steel and plate glass to define interior spaces, as conducted by other modernist architects in the 1920's and 1930's such as Richard Neutra. Mies strove toward an architecture with a minimal framework of structural order balanced against the implied freedom of unobstructed free-flowing open space.
He called his buildings "bones" architecture. He sought an objective approach that would guide the creative process of architectural design, but was always concerned with expressing the spirit of the modern era, he is associated with his fondness for the aphorisms, "less is more" and "God is in the details". Mies was born March 1886 in Aachen, Germany, he worked in his father's stone carving shop and at several local design firms before he moved to Berlin, where he joined the office of interior designer Bruno Paul. He began his architectural career as an apprentice at the studio of Peter Behrens from 1908 to 1912, where he was exposed to the current design theories and to progressive German culture, he worked alongside Le Corbusier and Walter Gropius, also involved in the development of the Bauhaus. Mies served as construction manager of the Embassy of the German Empire in Saint Petersburg under Behrens. Ludwig Mies renamed himself as part of his transformation from a tradesman's son to an architect working with Berlin's cultural elite, adding "van der" and his mother's maiden name "Rohe" and using the Dutch "van der", because the German form "von" was a nobiliary particle restricted to those of genuine aristocratic lineage.
He began his independent professional career designing upper-class homes. In 1913, Mies married the daughter of a wealthy industrialist; the couple separated in 1918, after having three daughters: Dorothea, an actress and dancer, known as Georgia and Waltraut, a research scholar and curator at the Art Institute of Chicago. During his military service in 1917, Mies fathered a son out of wedlock. In 1925 Mies began a relationship with designer Lilly Reich that ended when he moved to the United States. Mies carried on a romantic relationship with sculptor and art collector Mary Callery for whom he designed an artist's studio in Huntington, Long Island, New York, he was rumored to have a brief relationship with Edith Farnsworth, who commissioned his work for the Farnsworth House. Marianne's son Dirk Lohan studied under, worked for, Mies. After World War I, Mies began, while still designing traditional neoclassical homes, a parallel experimental effort, he joined his avant-garde peers in the long-running search for a new style that would be suitable for the modern industrial age.
The weak points of traditional styles had been under attack by progressive theorists since the mid-nineteenth century for the contradictions of hiding modern construction technology with a facade of ornamented traditional styles. The mounting criticism of the historical styles gained substantial cultural credibility after World War I, a disaster seen as a failure of the old world order of imperial leadership of Europe; the aristocratic classical revival styles were reviled by many as the architectural symbol of a now-discredited and outmoded social system. Progressive thinkers called for a new architectural design process guided by rational problem-solving and an exterior expression of modern materials and structure rather than what they considered the superficial application of classical facades. While continuing his traditional neoclassical design practice, Mies began to develop visionary projects that, though unbuilt, rocketed him to fame as an architect capable of giving form, in harmony with the spirit of the emerging modern society.
Boldly abandoning ornament altogether, Mies made a dramatic modernist debut in 1921 with his stunning competition proposal for the faceted all-glass Friedrichstraße skyscraper, followed by a taller curved version in 1922 named the Glass Skyscraper. He continued with a series of pioneering projects, culminating in his two European masterworks: the temporary German Pavilion for the Barcelona exposition in 1929 and the elegant Villa Tugendhat in Brno, Czech Republic, completed in 1930, he joined the German avant-garde, working with the progressive design magazine G, which started in July 1923. He developed prominence as architectural director of the Werkbund, organizing the influential Weissenhof Estate prototype modernist housing exhibition, he was one of the founders of the architectural association De
Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne
The Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne was held from 25 May to 25 November 1937 in Paris, France. Both the Palais de Chaillot, housing the Musée de l'Homme, the Palais de Tokyo, which houses the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, were created for this exhibition, sanctioned by the Bureau International des Expositions. At first the centerpiece of the exposition was to be a 2,300-foot tower, to have a spiraling road to a parking garage located at the top and a hotel and restaurant located above that; the idea was abandoned as far too expensive. The Pavillon des Temps Nouveaux was a tent pavilion designed by Pierre Jeanneret. Fitting in the architectural master-plan of the master architect Jacques Gréber at the foot of the Eiffel Tower, inspired by the shape of a grain elevator, the Canadian pavilion included Joseph-Émile Brunet's 28-foot sculpture of a buffalo. Paintings by Brunet, sculpted panels on the outside of the structure, several thematic stands inside the Canadian pavilion depicted aspects of Canadian culture.
The Spanish pavilion attracted attention. The Spanish pavilion was built by the Spanish architect Josep Lluis Sert; the pavilion, set up by the Republican government, included Pablo Picasso's famous painting Guernica, a depiction of the horrors of war, Alexander Calder's sculpture Mercury Fountain and Joan Miró's painting Catalan peasant in revolt. Two of the other notable pavilions were those of the Soviet Union; the organization of the world exhibition had placed the German and the Soviet pavilions directly across from each other. Hitler had desired to withdraw from participation, but his architect Albert Speer convinced him to participate after all, showing Hitler his plans for the German pavilion. Speer revealed in his autobiographies that he had had a clandestine look at the plans for the Soviet pavilion, had designed the German pavilion to represent a bulwark against Communism; the preparation and construction of the exhibits were plagued by delay. On the opening day of the exhibition, only the German and the Soviet pavilions had been completed.
This, as well as the fact that the two pavilions faced each other, turned the exhibition into a competition between the two great ideological rivals. Speer's pavilion was culminated by a tall tower crowned with the symbols of the Nazi state: an eagle and the swastika; the pavilion was conceived as a monument to "German pride and achievement". It was to broadcast to the world that a new and powerful Germany had a restored sense of national pride. At night, the pavilion was illuminated by floodlights. Josef Thorak's sculpture Comradeship stood outside the pavilion, depicting two enormous nude males, clasping hands and standing defiantly side by side, in a pose of mutual defense and "racial camaraderie"; the architect of the Soviet pavilion was Boris Iofan. Vera Mukhina designed the large figurative sculpture on the pavilion; the grand building was topped by Worker and Kolkhoz Woman, a large momentum-exerting statue, of a male worker and a female peasant, their hands together, thrusting a hammer and a sickle.
The statue was meant to symbolize the union of peasants. Italy was vying for attention as one of three totalitarian nations: Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia presented themselves as great forces to be reckoned with. Italy was the benevolent dictatorship: sunny and Mediterranean it was founded on discipline and unity. Marcello Piacentini was given the job of designing the pavilion exterior, he used a modern reinforced concrete frame combined with traditional elements such as colonnades, terraces and galleries, the tower form, Classical rhythms and the use of Mediterranean marble and stucco. The pavilion was nestled under the Eiffel tower looking out over the Seine to the main part of the Exposition site. Giuseppe Pagano was responsible for the overall co-ordination of the exhibtis and was the first impact on entering the building, its large courtyard garden and its hall of honour; the main entry was through the Court of Honour that showcased life size examples of Italy’s most important contribution to the history of technology.
Arturo Martini’s Victory of the Air presided over the space, her dark bronze form standing out against a infinite backdrop of blue-grey Venetian mosaic tiles. From there visitors could visit the Colonial Exhibits by Mario Sironi and the Gallery of Tourism before enjoying a plate of real spaghetti on the restaurant terrace; the courtyard garden was designed a respite from the exhibits with a symphony of green grass and green-glazed tiles set against red flowers and burgundy porphyry. The Hall of Honour was the pavilion's most evocative space, it ‘repurposed’ an existing artwork: Mario Sironi’s Corporative Italy mosaic from the 1936 Triennale that had now been completed with numerous figures engaged in different types of work and the figure of the imperial Roman eagle flying in from the right hand side. The 8m x 12 m work towered over the two-storey height space that occupied the top of the pavilion’s tower, making it the centre piece of the pavilion’s decorative and propaganda program; the enthroned figure of Italy represented Corporatism – the successful economic policy that merged the best of Capitalism and the best of Communism – and that had, up until proved a success.
The room was a celebration of all those aspects of Fascist society that Pagano wholeheartedly believed in: social harmony, government input to generate industrial innovation and support for artists and craftsmen as well as worker