The Colgate Comedy Hour
The Colgate Comedy Hour was an American comedy-musical variety series that aired live on the NBC network from 1950 to 1955. The show featured many notable entertainers of the era as guest stars; the program evolved from Four Star Revue, sponsored by Motorola. The "running gag" sketches were dropped in favor of more performing acts; the weekly show was proposed to be hosted by four comedians in a four-week rotation to provide competition for Ed Sullivan's Toast of the Town on CBS. The first episode, starring Hans Conried, Rosemary DeCamp and Dick Foran, was written and produced by the 22-year-old Peggy Webber, who appeared in over 100 episodes of Dragnet with Jack Webb; the new format was backed by its sponsor, Colgate-Palmolive, to the tune of $3 million in the first year, the 8:00 p.m. ET, Sunday evening format show was a spectacular success for Eddie Cantor and the Martin & Lewis and Abbott & Costello duos. In his autobiography, Jerry Lewis wrote that the show premiered Sunday, September 17, 1950, with Martin & Lewis and was telecast from the Park Theatre off Columbus Circle in New York City.
As theatres are known by different names over history, it is possible that this was the now-demolished International Theatre at 5 Columbus Circle, the broadcast location of another NBC show of the era, Your Show of Shows with Sid Caesar and Imogene Coca. In fact, Eddie Cantor hosted the first Colgate Comedy Hour on September 10, 1950. During the 1950-51 season, AT&T put into regular service a coast-to-coast coaxial/microwave interconnection service which allowed live telecasts from across the nation. Three production units were set up, one in New York, one in Chicago, one in Los Angeles. Martin & Lewis and Abbott & Costello anchored the West Coast, broadcasting from the El Capitan Theater in Hollywood, while Eddie Cantor anchored from New York; this gave NBC a substantial edge over Ed Sullivan, since top-grade talent from motion pictures could do network TV on the West Coast Colgate Comedy Hour, while Sullivan had to work with whoever happened to be in New York at the time that a particular episode aired.
During the 1952-53 season, Cantor suffered a heart attack after a Colgate Comedy Hour broadcast in September. Although he recovered and returned in January 1953, he was reluctant to move on with the show. By the fourth season, the sponsor was providing $6,000,000, but the performers were finding difficulty in offering fresh material. Ratings hence began to decline. Cantor had become too ill to continue in the hosting role, the travel was too stressful and painful for him, his final Colgate appearance was in May 1954. Vic Schoen was hired as the musical director in 1954. In 1954, Tony Martinez cast as the farmhand on The Real McCoys, made his television debut on The Colgate Comedy Hour. Hal March and Tom D'Andrea appeared on The Colgate Comedy Hour in what subsequently became in the summer of 1955 the 11-episode NBC live military comedy series, The Soldiers. D'Andrea took leave from his role as Jim Gillis in William Bendix's The Life of Riley for The Soldiers. In June 1955, the show changed its name to the Colgate Variety Hour to reflect a move away from pure comedy.
A number of the earlier hosts had left by the end of the 1953-54 season as the show shifted toward mini-musicals, starring hosts such as Ethel Merman and Frank Sinatra, who paired together in truncated version of Cole Porter's "Anything Goes". The show was performing on the road as well, unlike other seasons where the shows were transmitted from New York or Los Angeles at 8 p.m. Gordon MacRae served as host during this period. However, ratings continued to slide; the final show, emceed by the series' last continuing host Robert Paige, aired as a Christmas special on December 25, 1955, with Fred Waring and his Pennsylvanians choral ensemble. The Colgate Comedy Hour was replaced on January 8, 1956 with the NBC Comedy Hour, hosted by Leo Durocher for the first three shows. After Durocher, the regular hosts changed, after 18 broadcasts, the final show aired in June. Regular supporting casts always co-starred in each of the episodes. Jonathan Winters was featured on the show. On May 11, 1967, NBC broadcast a special Colgate Comedy Hour revival, with guests Nanette Fabray, Kaye Ballard, Edie Adams, Carl Reiner and Mel Brooks, Phyllis Diller, Bob Newhart, Nipsey Russell, Dan Rowan and Dick Martin.
None of the performers who had performed in the original 1950–1956 shows appeared. The special, produced by George Schlatter served as a television pilot for a possible revival of the series, which never happened. In the 1954-1955 season, Donald O'Connor left the show and starred in his own musical situation comedy, The Donald O'Connor Show, which aired on the NBC Saturday schedule alternating with The Jimmy Durante Show. Notable guest stars who went on to find success in entertainment included Vera Miles, costar of Alfred Hitchcock's thriller Psycho, Bob Fosse a noted choreographer and director who won multiple Tonys and an Academy Award for his work, a child-age Christopher Walken, who became an Oscar-winning actor and screen star, appeared alongside Jerry Lewis in a sketch. Kinescopes of the 28 shows hosted by Martin & Lewis have been airing Saturday evenings on the classic television network RTV since June 30, 2012; the episode broadcast on November 22, 1953, hosted by Donald O'Connor, was the first color television broadcast in the NTSC color
Rigoletto is an opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi. The Italian libretto was written by Francesco Maria Piave based on the play Le roi s'amuse by Victor Hugo. Despite serious initial problems with the Austrian censors who had control over northern Italian theatres at the time, the opera had a triumphant premiere at La Fenice in Venice on 11 March 1851, it is considered to be the first of the operatic masterpieces of Verdi's middle-to-late career. Its tragic story revolves around the licentious Duke of Mantua, his hunch-backed court jester Rigoletto, Rigoletto's beautiful daughter Gilda; the opera's original title, La maledizione, refers to a curse placed on both the Duke and Rigoletto by a courtier whose daughter the Duke has seduced with Rigoletto's encouragement. The curse comes to fruition when Gilda falls in love with the Duke and sacrifices her life to save him from the assassin hired by her father. La Fenice of Venice commissioned Verdi in 1850 to compose a new opera, he was prominent enough by this time to enjoy some freedom in choosing texts to set to music.
He asked Francesco Maria Piave to examine the play Kean by Alexandre Dumas, père, but soon came to believe that they needed to find a more energetic subject. That came. Verdi explained that "The subject is grand and there is a character, one of the greatest creations that the theatre can boast of, in any country and in all history." However, Hugo's depiction of a venal, womanizing king was considered unacceptably scandalous. The play had been banned in France following its premiere nearly twenty years earlier; as Verdi wrote in a letter to Piave: "Use four legs, run through the town and find me an influential person who can obtain the permission for making Le Roi s'amuse." Guglielmo Brenna, secretary of La Fenice, promised the duo that they would not have problems with the censors. He was wrong, rumours began to spread in early summer that the production would be forbidden. In August and Piave retired to Busseto, Verdi's hometown, to prepare a defensive scheme as they continued work on the opera.
Despite their best efforts, including frantic correspondence with La Fenice, the Austrian censor De Gorzkowski emphatically denied consent to the production of "La Maledizione" in a December 1850 letter, calling the opera "a repugnant immorality and obscene triviality." Piave set to work revising the libretto pulling from it another opera, Il Duca di Vendome, in which the sovereign was a duke and both the hunchback and the curse disappeared. Verdi was against this proposed solution, preferring to negotiate directly with the censors over each and every point of the work. Brenna, La Fenice's sympathetic secretary, mediated the dispute by showing the Austrians some letters and articles depicting the bad character, but great value, of the artist. By January 1851 the parties had settled on a compromise: the action of the opera would be moved, some of the characters would be renamed. In the new version, the Duke would belong to the Gonzaga family; the scene in which he retired to Gilda's bedroom would be deleted, his visit to the Taverna would no longer be intentional, but the result of a trick.
The hunchbacked jester was renamed Rigoletto from a parody of a comedy by Jules-Édouard Alboize de Pujol: Rigoletti, ou Le dernier des fous of 1835. By 14 January, the opera's definitive title had become Rigoletto. Verdi completed the composition on 5 February 1851, a little more than a month before the premiere. Piave had arranged for the sets to be designed while Verdi was still working on the final stages of Act 3; the singers were given some of their music to learn on 7 February. However, Verdi kept at least a third of the score at Busseto, he brought it with him when he arrived in Venice for the rehearsals on 19 February, would continue refining the orchestration throughout the rehearsal period. For the première, La Fenice had cast Felice Varesi as Rigoletto, the young tenor Raffaele Mirate as the Duke, Teresa Brambilla as Gilda. Due to a high risk of unauthorised copying, Verdi demanded extreme secrecy from all his singers and musicians Mirate: the "Duke" had the use of his score for only a few evenings before the première, was made to swear that he would not sing or whistle the tune of "La donna è mobile" except during rehearsal.
Rigoletto premiered on 11 March 1851 in a sold-out La Fenice as the first part of a double bill with Giacomo Panizza's ballet Faust. Gaetano Mares conducted, the sets were designed and executed by Giuseppe Bertoja and Francesco Bagnara; the opening night was a complete triumph the scena drammatica and the Duke's cynical aria, "La donna è mobile", sung in the streets the next morning. Many years Giulia Cora Varesi, the daughter of Felice Varesi (th
Lucia di Lammermoor
Lucia di Lammermoor is a dramma tragico in three acts by Gaetano Donizetti. Salvadore Cammarano wrote the Italian-language libretto loosely based upon Sir Walter Scott's historical novel The Bride of Lammermoor. Donizetti wrote Lucia di Lammermoor in 1835, a time when several factors led to the height of his reputation as a composer of opera. Gioachino Rossini had retired and Vincenzo Bellini had died shortly before the premiere of Lucia leaving Donizetti as "the sole reigning genius of Italian opera". Not only were conditions ripe for Donizetti's success as a composer, but there was a European interest in the history and culture of Scotland; the perceived romance of its violent wars and feuds, as well as its folklore and mythology, intrigued 19th century readers and audiences. Sir Walter Scott dramatized these elements in his novel The Bride of Lammermoor, which inspired several musical works including Lucia; the story concerns the fragile Lucy Ashton, caught in a feud between her own family and that of the Ravenswoods.
The setting is the Lammermuir Hills of Scotland in the 17th century. The opera premiered on 26 September 1835 at the Teatro di San Carlo in Naples. However, John Black notes that "the surprising feature of its subsequent performance history is that it established so in the Neapolitan repertoire", noting that while there were 18 performances in the rest of 1835, there were only four in 1836, 16 in 1837, two in 1838, continuing in this manner with only two in each of 1847 and 1848. London saw the opera on 5 April 1838 and, for Paris, Donizetti revised the score for a French version which debuted on 6 August 1839 at the Théâtre de la Renaissance in Paris, it reached the United States with a production in New Orleans on 28 December 1841. The opera was never absent from the repertory of the Metropolitan Opera for more than one season at a time from 1903 until 1972. After World War II, a number of sopranos were instrumental in giving new life to the opera, including Maria Callas and Dame Joan Sutherland.
It has remained a staple of the operatic repertoire. The instrumentation is: Woodwinds: piccolo, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets and 2 bassoons Brass: 4 horns, 2 trumpets and 3 trombones Percussion: timpani, bass drum and campana Strings: harp, first violins, second violins, violas and double basses. Additionally an off-stage wind band is used; the glass harmonica is substituted for solo flute in Lucia’s mad scene, per Donizetti’s original score. Time: Early 18th century Place: Scotland Scene 1: The gardens of Ravenswood Castle Normanno, captain of the castle guard, other retainers are searching for an intruder, he tells Enrico that he believes that the man is Edgardo of Ravenswood, that he comes to the castle to meet Enrico's sister, Lucia. It is confirmed. Enrico reaffirms his determination to end the relationship. Scene 2: By a fountain at the entrance to the park, beside the castle Lucia waits for Edgardo. In her famous aria "Regnava nel silenzio", Lucia tells her maid Alisa that she has seen the ghost of a girl killed on the same spot by a jealous Ravenswood ancestor.
Alisa tells Lucia that she must give up her love for Edgardo. Edgardo enters, he hopes to marry Lucia. Lucia tells him this is impossible, instead they take a sworn vow of marriage and exchange rings. Edgardo leaves. Scene 1: Lord Ashton's apartments Preparations have been made for the imminent wedding of Lucia to Arturo. Enrico worries about whether Lucia will submit to the wedding, he shows his sister a forged letter proving that Edgardo has forgotten her and taken a new lover. Enrico leaves Lucia to further persuasion, this time by Raimondo, Lucia's chaplain and tutor, that she should renounce her vow to Edgardo, for the good of the family, marry Arturo. Scene 2: A hall in the castle Arturo arrives for the marriage. Lucia acts strangely. Arturo signs the marriage contract, followed reluctantly by Lucia. At that point Edgardo appears in the hall. Raimondo prevents a fight. Edgardo curses her, he tramples his ring before being forced out of the castle. Scene 1: Wolfcrag Enrico visits Edgardo to challenge him to a duel.
He tells him that Lucia is enjoying her bridal bed. Edgardo agrees to fight him, they will meet by the graveyard of the Ravenswoods, near the Wolf's Crag. Scene 2: A Hall Raimondo interrupts the marriage celebrations to tell the guests that Lucia has gone mad and killed her bridegroom Arturo. Lucia enters. In the aria "Il dolce suono" she imagines being with Edgardo, soon to be married. Enrico enters and at first threatens Lucia but softens when he realizes her condition. Lucia collapses. Raimondo blames Normanno for precipitating the whole tragedy. Scene 3: The graveyard of the Ravenswood family Edgardo is resolved to kill himself on Enrico's sword, he learns that Lucia is dying and Raimondo comes to tell him that she has died. Edgardo stabs himself with a dagger; the aria "Spargi d'amaro pianto" following the more recitative "Il dolce suono" from the "mad scene", has been a vehicle for severa
Opera is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers, but is distinct from musical theater. Such a "work" is a collaboration between a composer and a librettist and incorporates a number of the performing arts, such as acting, scenery and sometimes dance or ballet; the performance is given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor. Opera is a key part of the Western classical music tradition. Understood as an sung piece, in contrast to a play with songs, opera has come to include numerous genres, including some that include spoken dialogue such as musical theater, Singspiel and Opéra comique. In traditional number opera, singers employ two styles of singing: recitative, a speech-inflected style and self-contained arias; the 19th century saw the rise of the continuous music drama. Opera originated in Italy at the end of the 16th century and soon spread through the rest of Europe: Heinrich Schütz in Germany, Jean-Baptiste Lully in France, Henry Purcell in England all helped to establish their national traditions in the 17th century.
In the 18th century, Italian opera continued to dominate most of Europe, attracting foreign composers such as George Frideric Handel. Opera seria was the most prestigious form of Italian opera, until Christoph Willibald Gluck reacted against its artificiality with his "reform" operas in the 1760s; the most renowned figure of late 18th-century opera is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who began with opera seria but is most famous for his Italian comic operas The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, Così fan tutte, as well as Die Entführung aus dem Serail, The Magic Flute, landmarks in the German tradition. The first third of the 19th century saw the high point of the bel canto style, with Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti and Vincenzo Bellini all creating works that are still performed, it saw the advent of Grand Opera typified by the works of Auber and Meyerbeer. The mid-to-late 19th century was a golden age of opera and dominated by Giuseppe Verdi in Italy and Richard Wagner in Germany; the popularity of opera continued through the verismo era in Italy and contemporary French opera through to Giacomo Puccini and Richard Strauss in the early 20th century.
During the 19th century, parallel operatic traditions emerged in central and eastern Europe in Russia and Bohemia. The 20th century saw many experiments with modern styles, such as atonality and serialism and Minimalism. With the rise of recording technology, singers such as Enrico Caruso and Maria Callas became known to much wider audiences that went beyond the circle of opera fans. Since the invention of radio and television, operas were performed on these mediums. Beginning in 2006, a number of major opera houses began to present live high-definition video transmissions of their performances in cinemas all over the world. Since 2009, complete performances are live streamed; the words of an opera are known as the libretto. Some composers, notably Wagner, have written their own libretti. Traditional opera referred to as "number opera", consists of two modes of singing: recitative, the plot-driving passages sung in a style designed to imitate and emphasize the inflections of speech, aria in which the characters express their emotions in a more structured melodic style.
Vocal duets and other ensembles occur, choruses are used to comment on the action. In some forms of opera, such as singspiel, opéra comique and semi-opera, the recitative is replaced by spoken dialogue. Melodic or semi-melodic passages occurring in the midst of, or instead of, are referred to as arioso; the terminology of the various kinds of operatic voices is described in detail below. During both the Baroque and Classical periods, recitative could appear in two basic forms, each of, accompanied by a different instrumental ensemble: secco recitative, sung with a free rhythm dictated by the accent of the words, accompanied only by basso continuo, a harpsichord and a cello. Over the 18th century, arias were accompanied by the orchestra. By the 19th century, accompagnato had gained the upper hand, the orchestra played a much bigger role, Wagner revolutionized opera by abolishing all distinction between aria and recitative in his quest for what Wagner termed "endless melody". Subsequent composers have tended to follow Wagner's example, though some, such as Stravinsky in his The Rake's Progress have bucked the trend.
The changing role of the orchestra in opera is described in more detail below. The Italian word opera means "work", both in the sense of the labour done and the result produced; the Italian word derives from the Latin opera, a singular noun meaning "work" and the plural of the noun opus. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Italian word was first used in the sense "composition in which poetry and music are combined" in 1639. Dafne by Jacopo Peri was the earliest composition considered opera, it was writt
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is
Jacques Offenbach was a German-French composer and impresario of the romantic period. He is remembered for his nearly 100 operettas of the 1850s–1870s and his uncompleted opera The Tales of Hoffmann, he was a powerful influence on composers of the operetta genre Johann Strauss, Jr. and Arthur Sullivan. His best-known works were continually revived during the 20th century, many of his operettas continue to be staged in the 21st; the Tales of Hoffmann remains part of the standard opera repertory. Born in Cologne, the son of a synagogue cantor, Offenbach showed early musical talent. At the age of 14, he was accepted as a student at the Paris Conservatoire but found academic study unfulfilling and left after a year. From 1835 to 1855 he earned his living as a cellist, achieving international fame, as a conductor, his ambition, was to compose comic pieces for the musical theatre. Finding the management of Paris' Opéra-Comique company uninterested in staging his works, in 1855 he leased a small theatre in the Champs-Élysées.
There he presented a series of his own small-scale pieces. In 1858, Offenbach produced his first full-length operetta, Orphée aux enfers, exceptionally well received and has remained one of his most played works. During the 1860s, he produced at least 18 full-length operettas, as well as more one-act pieces, his works from this period included La belle Hélène, La Vie parisienne, La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein and La Périchole. The risqué humour and gentle satiric barbs in these pieces, together with Offenbach's facility for melody, made them internationally known, translated versions were successful in Vienna and elsewhere in Europe. Offenbach became associated with the Second French Empire of Napoleon III. Napoleon III granted him French citizenship and the Légion d'Honneur. With the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, Offenbach found himself out of favour in Paris because of his imperial connections and his German birth, he remained successful in London, however. He re-established himself in Paris during the 1870s, with revivals of some of his earlier favourites and a series of new works, undertook a popular U.
S. tour. In his last years he strove to finish The Tales of Hoffmann, but died before the premiere of the opera, which has entered the standard repertory in versions completed or edited by other musicians. Offenbach was born Jacob or Jakob Offenbach to a Jewish family, in the German city of Cologne, a part of Prussia, his birthplace in the Großen Griechenmarkt was a short distance from the square, now named after him, the Offenbachplatz. He was the second son and the seventh of ten children of Isaac Juda Offenbach né Eberst and his wife Marianne, née Rindskopf. Isaac, who came from a musical family, had abandoned his original trade as a bookbinder and earned an itinerant living as a cantor in synagogues and playing the violin in cafés, he was known as "der Offenbacher", after his native town, Offenbach am Main, in 1808 he adopted Offenbach as a surname. In 1816 he settled in Cologne, where he became established as a teacher, giving lessons in singing, violin and guitar, composing both religious and secular music.
When Jacob was six years old, his father taught him to play the violin. As he was by the permanent cantor of the local synagogue, Isaac could afford to pay for his son to take lessons from the well-known cellist Bernhard Breuer. Three years the biographer Gabriel Grovlez records, the boy was giving performances of his own compositions, "the technical difficulties of which terrified his master", Breuer. Together with his brother Julius and sister Isabella, Jacob played in a trio at local dance halls and cafés, performing popular dance music and operatic arrangements. In 1833, Isaac decided that the two most musically talented of his children and Jacob needed to leave the provincial musical scene of Cologne to study in Paris. With generous support from local music lovers and the municipal orchestra, with whom they gave a farewell concert on 9 October, the two young musicians, accompanied by their father, made the four-day journey to Paris in November 1833. Isaac had been given letters of introduction to the director of the Paris Conservatoire, Luigi Cherubini, but he needed all his eloquence to persuade Cherubini to give Jacob an audition.
The boy's age and nationality were both obstacles to admission. Cherubini had several years earlier refused the 12-year-old Franz Liszt admission on similar grounds, but he agreed to hear the young Offenbach play, he listened to his playing and stopped him, saying, "Enough, young man, you are now a pupil of this Conservatoire." Julius was admitted. Both brothers adopted French forms of Julius becoming Jules and Jacob becoming Jacques. Isaac failed to do so and returned to Cologne. Before leaving, he found a number of pupils for Jules. At the conservatoire, Jules was a diligent student. By contrast, Jacques was bored by ac
Draguignan is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, in southeastern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department and self-proclaimed "capital of Artillery" and "Porte du Verdon"; the city is 42 km from St. Tropez, 80 km from Nice. According to legend, the name of the city is derived from the Latin name "Draco/Draconem": a bishop, called Saint Hermentaire, killed a dragon and saved people; the Latin motto of Draguignan is meos devoro. The elevation is 200 m; the highest hill near Draguignan is Malmont. The main river near Draguignan is the Nartuby; the city is set in a valley NW-SE, about 2 km wide. Draguignan's climate is the same as the normal conditions of the Mediterranean climate; the nights of frost are rare and the negative temperatures occur only a few days a year. Thus the winters are mild and wet, the summers warm and dry, the town is protected from the winds by the Malmont and the western massif of the Selves. During the summer the precipitation is low whereas autumn is subjected to frequent rains.
Source= Météo France The hills downstream of Draguignan date from the Middle Triassic, while those that rise upstream belong to the Upper Triassic. Up North, we can see a long bar of stony plateau, with summits made of Jurassic limestones, sometimes intersected by deep canyons; this northern region of the "baous" or called massive mountainous barriers wrinkled and fractured, reveals successive basins in the east-west direction. There is no highway going through the city of Draguignan but the town is directly connected by the D 1555 to a major highway, the A8. A bypass route makes it possible to avoid the city center from the south when arriving from Trans-en-Provence and to get to the hospital in the north of the city more quickly; the city is located 869 km away from Paris, 141 km from Marseille, 89 km from Nice, 86 km from Toulon, 30 km from Fréjus, 105 km from Digne-les-Bains and about 35 km from the Gulf of Saint-Tropez. The closest railway station is les Arcs-Draguignan, served by the TGV and is located twelve kilometers from the city center.
Bus shuttles have been set by the agglomeration community of Draguignan railway station. Now it has been converted into a classic bus station. Draguignan train station features two turnstiles: one for SNCF and another for the transport of the agglomeration. Urban transports are managed by the TED community, which offers three urban lines as well as lines to other municipalities such as Les Arcs-Draguignan, Flayosc, Le Muy and Lorgues; the buses of the General Council of the Var serve from Draguignan the cities of Toulon, Aups, Fayence, Fréjus and Le Luc. A project by BHNS is being studied, to connect Draguignan city center to Les Arcs-Draguignan station in 17 minutes instead of 25 minutes currently. There are three zones of seismicities in the Var: Area 0: Negligible risk; this is the case for many municipalities on the Var coast, as well as part of the communes of the Var center. These communes are not immune from a tsunami effect, linked to an earthquake at sea. Area Ia: Very low risk, it concerns the municipalities included in a strip from the Montagne Sainte-Victoire to the Massif de l'Esterel.
Area Ib: Low risk. This highest risk of the department, concerns 21 communes in the north of the department; the commune of Draguignan, is in the seismic zone of low risk "Ia3". Source= The name of Draguignan appeared for the first time in 909. During the Middle-Ages, Draguignan was a small village whose people lived from olive and grape cultivation. Draguignan became the "prefecture" of the Var at the beginning of the French Revolution; this was despite the town by far not being the biggest city in the department. It remained the seat of the prefecture until 1974. In the 19th century and during a large part of the 20th century, the people of Draguignan voted for liberal parties; the town was occupied by the Wehrmacht in 1942-44 and freed in August 1944, after Operation Dragoon. The city welcomed the "Ecole nationale d'artillerie" in 1976 the "Ecole nationale d'infanterie" in 2010; the arrival of the military involved the development of the city: the small town became a city in the second part of the 20th century: 13 400 citizens in 1954, 33 000 in 2000, 38 000 in 2010.
On June 15, 2010, the city was flooded. Torrential rain caused the deaths of 12 people in 25 in the neighborhoods. Museum of Artillery Museum of "Arts et traditions populaires" Rhone American Cemetery and Memorial The Eglise St Michel Eglise Notre-Dame du Peuple The Dolmen Pierre de la fée known as the fruit rock. Georges Clemenceau, was a politician of Draguignan: deputy of the district of Draguignan and senator of the same district, French prime minister in 1906-1909 and 1917–1920 Émile Ollivier, was a politician of Draguignan: deputy of the district of Draguignan prime minister in 1870 Maximin Isnard, was a politician of Draguignan Georges Thill, died in Draguignan Lily Pons, born in Draguignan Claude Gay, born in Draguignan Abel Douay, born in Draguignan Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès, born in Draguignan Alain Connes, born in Draguignan Ivan Pavlak, born in Draguignan Michaël Fabre, born in Draguignan Nicolas Agnesi, born in Draguignan Charlotte Morel, born in Draguignan Michel Constantin, died in Draguignan Jean-Marie Auberson, died in Draguignan Louis Moréri, studied i