Limburg is the southernmost of the 12 provinces of the Netherlands. The province is in the southeastern part of the country, stretched out from the north, where it touches the province of Gelderland, its northern part has the province of North Brabant to its west. Its long eastern boundary is the international border with the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Much of the west border runs along the River Maas. On the south end it has borders with the Walloon province of Liège; the Vaalserberg is on the extreme south-eastern point, marking the tripoint of the Netherlands and Belgium. Limburg's major cities are the provincial capital Maastricht, as well as Venlo in the Northeast, Sittard-Geleen and Heerlen in the south. More than half of the population 650,000 people, live in the south of Limburg, which corresponds to one-third of the province's area proper. In South Limburg, most people live in the urban agglomerations of Maastricht and Sittard-Geleen. Limburg has a distinctive character; the social and economic trends that have affected the province in recent decades have generated a process of change and renewal which has enabled Limburg to transform its peripheral location into a globalized regional nexus, linking the Netherlands to the Ruhr metro area in Germany and the southern part of the Benelux region.
A less appreciated consequence of this international gateway location is rising international crime drug-related in the southernmost part of the province. Limburg's name derives from the fortified town of the same name, situated on the river Vesdre near the High Fens, now in the nearby Belgian province of Liège, its name is derived from the Germanic elements *lindo, "lime tree," and burg, "fortification." Limburg town was the seat of the medieval Duchy of Limburg. None of present-day Limburg was part of this duchy, which had its northern border along what is the modern southern border of South Limburg. South Limburg in the Middle Ages was made up of the lands of Valkenburg and Herzogenrath. All of these lands came to be united with the Duchy of Limburg, under the rule of the Duchy of Brabant, when they were known collectively as the Lands of Overmaas; the Duchy of Limburg and its dependencies first came under Brabantian control in 1288, as a result of the Battle of Worringen in the 15th century under the Duchy of Burgundy.
By 1473, the Lands of Overmaas and the Duchy of Limburg formed one unified delegation to the States General of the Burgundian Netherlands. Both the terms Overmaas and Limburg came to be used loosely to refer to this sparsely populated province of the so-called Seventeen Provinces. Maastricht was never part of this polity; the central and northern part of present-day Limburg belonged to different political entities, notably the Duchy of Jülich and the Duchy of Guelders. After 1794, the French unified the region, along with Belgian Limburg, removed all ties to the old feudal society; the new name, as with all the names of the départements, was based on natural features, in this case Meuse-Inférieure or Neder-Maas. After the defeat of Napoleon the newly-created United Kingdom of the Netherlands desired a new name for this province, it was decided that the historic connection to the town and duchy of Limburg was to be restored, albeit only in name. It is important to note that the history given below is that of the region, the current province Limburg of the Netherlands.
There existed no polity or other entity going by that name covering this territory until 1815. For centuries, the strategic location of the current province made it a much-coveted region among Europe's major powers. Romans, Habsburg Spaniards, Habsburg Austrians and French have all ruled parts of Limburg. For long periods of history the region was not united under the same rule; the first inhabitants of whom traces have been found were Neanderthals. In Neolithic times flint was mined in underground mines, including one at Rijckholt, open to visitors. Just after the Roman conquest the Eburones, the inhabitants of most of the area of current Limburg, were annihilated by the legions of Julius Caesar with help of neighbour tribes, this as a punishment for a successful ambush set by their leader Ambiorix. After this genocide the area was repopulated with a diverse set of peoples that under Roman rules, amalgated in the Tungri; the southern part of current Limburg, along the Via Belgica was Romanized and a few still existing towns and cities were founded in this period, including Mosa Trajectum and Coriovallum.
Bishop Servatius introduced Christianity in Roman Maastricht, where he died in 384. As Roman authority in the area weakened, Franks took over from the Romans, the area, now called Austrasia, flourished under their rule; the middle and southern part of the current province formed an important part of the heartland of Austrasia. In 714 Susteren Abbey was founded, as far as is known the first proprietary abbey in the current Netherlands. Main benefactor was the consort of Pepin of Herstal. Charles Martel was born in nearby Herstal and Charlemagne had close links with the area, he made Aachen the capital of the Frankish empire. In 870 the treaty of Meerssen, the third partition treaty of the Frankish empire, was signed in Meerssen, just north of Maastricht. Th
Clusia is the type genus of the flowering plant family Clusiaceae. Comprising 300-400 species, it is native to tropical America; the genus is named by Carl Linnaeus in honor of the botanist Charles de l’Écluse. The closest relatives of Clusia are the neotropical genera Chrysochlamys, Tovomita and Tovomitopsis. Together with Clusia, these genera form the tribe Clusieae, where the fruit is a fleshy capsule with arillate seeds; the distribution ranges from the Florida Keys and southern Mexico to southernmost Brazil, from near sea level to at least 3500 m altitude in the northern Andes. Species of Clusia are a characteristic component of a number of Neotropical vegetation types, may be dominant, as is seen in montane forests of the Greater Antilles. Most species are found in lowland or montane rainforests, but some occur in drier habitats such as the restingas of Brazil, caribbean coastal scrub and dry interandean valleys. A number of species are confined to rocky habitats, such as granitic inselbergs.
A few grow as scattered shrubs in paramo. The apomictic Clusia rosea is an invasive alien in Hawaii and Sri Lanka, elsewhere, its species are shrubs and small to medium-size trees up to 20 m tall, with evergreen foliage. Some species start life as epiphytes which grow long roots that descend to the ground and strangle and kill the host tree in a manner similar to strangler figs. Many Clusia species have Crassulacean acid metabolism, which can be considered an adaptation to the dry habitats of the genus; the plants contain variously coloured latex in stems and fruit. The leaves are opposite, 5–20 cm long and 2–10 cm broad, with a leathery texture and an entire margin. Flower size varies from ca 5 mm; the 4-9 petals are white, yellow, red, blackish or green. Flowers are unisexual and plants are dioecious. Stamen number ranges from four to several hundred. Shape and size of stamens are variable. Sterile stamens are present, both in pistillate and staminate flowers. Stigmas are four to 16 in number and sessile.
The fruit is a leathery valvate capsule which splits open to release several red or orange, fleshy-coated seeds. Pollination involves a range of different animals, several types of rewards. Floral resin occurs in many most species of Clusia; the resin is collected by bees that use it in nest construction. Nectar is most common in montane species, e.g. Clusia clusioides, these flowers are visited by insects such as moths and wasps, sometimes by bats or hummingbirds. In flowers lacking nectar or resin, pollination may be carried out by pollen-eating beetles, which visit the rewardless pistillate flowers, as observed in Clusia criuva. Clusia blattophila is pollinated by male cockroaches attracted by a pheromone-containing fluid produced by the flowers. Seeds are dispersed by birds and in some cases, by small mammals. Clusia plants provide excellent nesting sites for some insects. For instance, Clusia grandiflora, a common species in Guianese forests, is an attractive place for Polistes pacificus wasps to build their paper nests because arboreal ants, which prey on these wasps, do not reside in this species of tree.
The wood of Clusia is durable, is sometimes used for roof construction. The latex and the floral resin have been used to seal wounds. Dry latex is sometimes burned like incense in churches. A few species are grown as house plants, or, in tropical areas, as ornamental shrubs. Examples are C. major and C. orthoneura. Clusia alata Clusia amazonica Clusia blattophila Clusia bracteosa Clusia carinata Clusia caudata Clusia celiae Clusia clarendonensis Clusia clusioides Clusia cochlitheca Clusia croatii Clusia colombiana Clusia columnaris Clusia congestiflora Clusia crenata Clusia cuneifolia Clusia cupulata Clusia decussata Clusia dixonii Clusia ducu Clusia ducuoides Clusia duidae Clusia elliptica Clusia flava Clusia flavida Clusia fluminensis Planch. & Triana Clusia fockeana Clusia frigida Clusia fructiangusta Clusia garciabarrigae Clusia gardneri Clusia grandiflora Clusia gundlachii Clusia hammeliana Clusia haugtii Clusia hilariana Clusia hydrogera Clusia hyleae Clusia insignis Clusia lanceolata Clusia latipes Clusia laurifolia Clusia laxiflora Clusia leprantha Clusia lineata Clusia longipetiolata Clusia longistyla Clusia loretensis Clusia magnoliiflora Clusia major Clusia melchiorii Clusia mexiensis Clusia minor Clusia minutiflora Clusia nemorosa Clusia nubium Clusia octandra Clusia orthoneura Clusia osseocarpa Clusia pallida Clusia palmicida Clusia panapanari Clusia penduliflora Clusia pernambucensis Clusia platystigma Clusia plurivalvis Clusia polystigma Clusia portlandiana Clusia pseudomangle Clusia pulcherrima Clusia renggerioides Clusia rigida Clusia rosea – Scotch attorney, autograph tree, pitch-apple Clusia schomburgkiana Clusia sellowiana Clusia skotaster Clusia sphaerocarpa Clusia spiritu-sanctensis Clusia stenophylla Clusia tarmensis Clusia thurifera Clusia triflora Clusia trochiformis Clusia uvitana Clusia valerioi Clusia venusta Clusia viscida Clusia weberbaueri Clusia weddelliana Correia MCR, Ormond WT, Pinheiro MCB, Lima HA Estudos da biologia floral de Clusia criuva Camb.
Um caso de mimetismo. Bradea 24:209–219 Gustafsson, M. H. G. and V. Bittrich Evolution of morphological diversity and resin secretion in flowers of Clusia L.: insights from ITS sequence variation. Nordic Journal of Botany 22: 183-203. Gustafsson, M. H. G. A new xeromorphic species of Clusia (Clusiace
Hélène "Hella" Serafia Haasse was a Dutch writer referred to as "the Grand Old Lady" of Dutch literature, whose novel Oeroeg was a staple for generations of Dutch schoolchildren. Her internationally acclaimed magnum opus is "Heren van de Thee", translated to "The Tea Lords". In 1988 Haasse was chosen to interview the Dutch Queen for her 50th birthday after which celebrated Dutch author Adriaan van Dis called Haasse "the Queen among authors". Haasse has the first Dutch digital online museum dedicated to the work of an author; the museum was opened in 2008 on her 90th birthday. Haasse has an asteroid named after her. Hélène Serafia Haasse was born on 2 February 1918 in the capital of the Dutch East Indies, she was the daughter of civil servant and author Willem Hendrik Haasse and concert pianist Katharina Diehm Winzenhöhler. She had a brother Wim, born in 1921; the Haasse family was not religious. Before Haasse's first birthday, the family moved from Batavia to Buitenzorg, because her mother's health would benefit from the milder climate.
In 1920, the family moved to Rotterdam in the Netherlands, where her father got a temporary job at the city hall. In 1922, the family moved back to the Indies to Soerabaja. Here Haasse went to kindergarten and to a Catholic primary school, because this was the nearest school; when her mother became ill and went to a sanatory in Davos, Haasse was first sent to her maternal grandparents in Heemstede and her paternal grandparents in Baarn, she stayed at a boarding school in Baarn. In 1928, her mother was recovered and all family members moved back to the Indies to Bandoeng. In 1930, the Haasse family moved again to Buitenzorg, a year again to Batavia. Here she went to the secondary school Bataviaas Lyceum, where Haasse became an active member of the literary club Elcee. In 1935, the family visited the Netherlands, after which Haasse became aware of differences between the Dutch and East Indian society. Haasse graduated from the Lyceum in 1938. Haasse moved to the Netherlands to study Dutch, she abandoned this plan, studied Scandinavian language and literature at the University of Amsterdam.
In Amsterdam, she joined a student theater group and met her future husband Jan van Lelyveld, who invited her to become an editor for the satirical magazine Propria Cures in 1940. An important segment of her literary work consists of Dutch Indies literature, her debut Oeroeg, is set in the Dutch East Indies, where Haasse was born and lived for most of the first 20 years of her life. More autobiographical texts and books about her life in the East Indies, includes books such as The East Indies continued to play an important part in her work: Krassen op een rots and her last novel Sleuteloog, which has the same theme as Oeroeg: is a friendship between a Dutch colonial and an Indonesian child possible and can they understand each other? This Oeroeg was well received and reprinted, but did experience some controversy due to the critical reception by the older author Tjalie Robinson; the Indo Tjalie Robinson pointed out. Moreover, as Tjalie Robinson himself was still living in the Dutch East Indies at that time, hoping for and working towards fraternization between the Dutch and Indonesians his sharp criticism was directed against what he considered the defeatist nature of the book.
The movie Oeroeg based on the book premiered in 1993. Her internationally acclaimed "Heren van de Thee" was translated to'The Tea Lords' in 2010, it is a colonial historical novel set in the Dutch East Indies of the 19th and 20th century, based on family archives of the heirs and relations of the tea plantation owners featuring in the book. Her great commercial success and critical acclaim is reflected in the numerous prizes she has been awarded over the years, she has won prizes for both her first novel in 1948 as well as her last novel in 2003. Prestigious awards for her entire oeuvre up to that time include the Constantijn Huygens Prize in 1981 and the P. C. Hooft Award in 1984. Various other prizes include the ‘’Annie Romein Prize’’and the ‘’Dirk Martens Prize’’, she has won the ‘’Prize of the Public of the NS’’ twice and is the only author who has written the prestigious annual "Boekenweekgeschenk" thrice, in 1948, 1959 and 1994 respectively. Haasse lived in France for many years, much of her work has been translated into French.
The'‘Académie Française’' awarded Haasse the Diplôme de médaille Argent in 1984. The next year she delivered a presentation on colonial literature at the University of Dakar, she was awarded the Officier dans l’Ordre de la Légion d'Honneur in 2000. Haasse received an honorary literary doctorate from the University of Utrecht in 1988 and from the Belgian University of Leuven in 1995. In 1987 she had been given an honorary membership of the Belgian Royal Literary Academy in Gent; the Chilean Ministry of Education awarded her a prize for her “universal contribution to culture” in 1996. In 1989 the city of Boston awarded her the'Boston Certificate of Recognition', for her book ″In a Dark Wood Wandering″: “In recognition and appreciation of your outstanding contributions to the City of Boston and its residents.” In 1992 Haasse attended the opening of the IKAPI'International Book Fair' in Jakarta. It was the last time she would visit her birthplace and the year her Dutch Indies literature masterpiece Heren van de Thee was published.
Oeroeg - 1948 Het woud der v