Lime kiln

A lime kiln is a kiln used for the calcination of limestone to produce the form of lime called quicklime. The chemical equation for this reaction is CaCO3 + heat → CaO + CO2This reaction takes place at 900 °C, but a temperature around 1000 °C is used to make the reaction proceed quickly. Excessive temperature is avoided because it produces "dead-burned" lime. Slaked lime can be formed by mixing quicklime with water; because it is so made by heating limestone, lime must have been known from the earliest times, all the early civilizations used it in building mortars and as a stabilizer in mud renders and floors. Knowledge of its value in agriculture is ancient, but agricultural use only became possible when the use of coal made it cheap in the coalfields in the late 13th century, an account of agricultural use was given in 1523; the earliest descriptions of lime kilns differ little from those used for small-scale manufacture a century ago. Because land transportation of minerals like limestone and coal was difficult in the pre-industrial era, they were distributed by sea, lime was most manufactured at small coastal ports.

Many preserved kilns are still to be seen on quaysides around the coasts of Britain. Permanent lime kilns fall into two broad categories: "flare kilns" known as "intermittent" or "periodic" kilns. In a flare kiln, a bottom layer of coal was built up and the kiln above filled with chalk; the fire was alight for several days, the entire kiln was emptied of the lime. In a draw kiln a stone structure, the chalk or limestone was layered with wood, coal or coke and lit; as it burnt through, lime was extracted through the draw hole. Further layers of stone and fuel were added to the top; the common feature of early kilns was an egg-cup shaped burning chamber, with an air inlet at the base, constructed of brick. Limestone was crushed to uniform 20–60 mm lumps – fine stone was rejected. Successive dome-shaped layers of limestone and wood or coal were built up in the kiln on grate bars across the eye; when loading was complete, the kiln was kindled at the bottom, the fire spread upwards through the charge.

When burnt through, the lime was raked out through the base. Fine ash dropped out and was rejected with the "riddlings". Only lump stone could be used; this limited the size of kilns and explains why kilns were all much the same size. Above a certain diameter, the half-burned charge would be to collapse under its own weight, extinguishing the fire. So kilns always made 25–30 tonnes of lime in a batch; the kiln took a day to load, three days to fire, two days to cool and a day to unload, so a one-week turnaround was normal. The degree of burning was controlled by trial and error from batch to batch by varying the amount of fuel used; because there were large temperature differences between the center of the charge and the material close to the wall, a mixture of underburned, well-burned and dead-burned lime was produced. Typical fuel efficiency was low, with 0.5 tonnes or more of coal being used per tonne of finished lime. Lime production was sometimes carried out on an industrial scale. One example at Annery in North Devon, near Great Torrington, was made up of three kilns grouped together in an'L' shape and was situated beside the Torrington canal and the River Torridge to bring in the limestone and coal, to transport away the calcined lime in the days before properly metalled roads existed.

Sets of seven kilns were common. A loading gang and an unloading gang would work the kilns in rotation through the week. A used kiln was known as a "lazy kiln"; the large kiln at Crindledykes near Haydon Bridge, was one of more than 300 in the county. It was unique to the area in having four draw arches to a single pot; as production was cut back, the two side arches were blocked up, but were restored in 1989 by English Heritage. The development of the national rail network made the local small-scale kilns unprofitable, they died out through the 19th century, they were replaced by larger industrial plants. At the same time, new uses for lime in the chemical and sugar industries led to large-scale plants; these saw the development of more efficient kilns. A lime kiln erected at Dudley, West Midlands in 1842 survives as part of the Black Country Living Museum which opened in 1976, although the kilns were last used during the 1920s, it is now among the last in a region, dominated by coalmining and limestone mining for generations until the 1960s.

Limeburning kilns in Great Britain In the late 19th and early 20th centuries the town of Waratah in Gippsland, Australia produced a majority of the quicklime used in the city of Melbourne as well as around other parts of Gippsland. The town, now called Walkerville, was set on an isolated part of the Victorian coastline and exported the lime by ship; when this became unprofitable in 1926 the kilns were shut down. The present-day area, though having no town amenities as such, markets itself as a tourist destination; the ruins of the lime kilns can still be seen today. Limeburning kilns in Australia A lime kiln existed in Wool Bay, South Australia. Lime kiln, Wool Bay The theoretical heat of reaction required to make high-calcium li

Santos Cabrera

Santos Dagoberto Cabrera Luzo is a retired Salvadoran footballer who played for Luis Ángel Firpo, internationally for the El Salvador national team. Santos Cabrera only played for Municipal Limeño and luis Angel Firpo. Cabrera played with Pasaquina of the "Liga de Ascenso" at El Salvador in 1994, he returned to El Salvador and found himself playing with Municipal Limeño in 1996. Santos Cabrera debuted at the Salvadoran Premier League on February 22, 1996 in a game where Limeño won El Roble by 5–1. After 2 seasons at Municipal Limeño, Cabrera played for Firpo. Cabrera started playing as an alternate. On, he held as a starter in Firpo and therefore was called by Carlos Recinos to El Salvador. In 2000, after a tour with Firpo in New York, he received an invitation from MetroStars to try out, he convinced the team but a groin injury left him out. That same incident left him out of the final against ADET. Before his retirement, he was claimed for Águila and San Salvador but did not want to establish conversations with all due respect to Firpo.

"While I had contract, I respected the institution where I played", he said. He played both with Firpo and El Salvador with number 8. Dagoberto Santos Cabrera Lazo started his playing career when he was in the El Salvador U-20, coached by Raul Magaña. Cabrera played a pre-tournament World category in Honduras in 1994. Cabrera Lazo debuted with the El salvador national football team, with a goal, on March 6, 1997 at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum against Atlético Celaya; the games was tied 1–1. In the Apertura 2004 with Firpo, Cabrera played with damaged meniscus. After that year he underwent two surgeries. By 2005, Cabrera moved to the United States with his family, he has worked selling new cars. In 2006, he moved to Texas, his next step, according to Cabrera, will be to prepare himself as a coach because he dreams of returning to El Salvador. Santos Cabrera at Santos Cabrera at Soccerway

Wind Cradle

Wind Cradle is an outdoor 1976 stainless steel sculpture by Alison Baudoin, installed at the Seattle Central College campus in Seattle, Washington, in the United States. Alison Baudoin's Wind Cradle is an abstract, allegorical sculpture installed near the intersection of Broadway and Pine on the Seattle Central College campus; the stainless steel piece, "inspired by the winds that blow off Elliott Bay and up Pine Street past the college", measures 11 feet tall and 10 feet wide. It rests on a base that measures 6 inches tall and 11 feet wide. An inscription reads, "ALI BAUDOIN WIND CRADLE / STAINLESS STEEL 1976", it was surveyed and deemed "treatment needed" by the Smithsonian Institution's "Save Outdoor Sculpture!" program in 1994. The piece is administered by the Washington State Arts Commission's Art in Public Places Program. Seattle Weekly's David Stoesz said of the sculpture: Wind Cradle looks like six giant blades of grass, or the magnified cartoon facial hairs of a razor commercial; the thrill of the piece is seeing something so small and delicate rendered as a monument in stainless steel.

But indestructible as it looks, fashion has conspired against Wind Cradle. The work of New Mexico native and UW MFA grad Ali Baudoin, it was installed in 1976, when earnestly rendered organic forms in the Henry Moore tradition weren’t the latest thing, and it has a brushed steel surface of the kind that has since become emblematic of tacky condo facades. It’s an unfortunate association for this lustrous, durable material that changes colors with the sky after thirty years of being left out in the rain. Battleship gray when it’s overcast, Wind Cradle is bluish silver on sunny afternoons. Scandalously overlooked by Brian Miller in his recent survey of local public art, it seems these days to serve as a kiosk for stickers and fliers. Wind Cradle doesn’t look like it cares about the neglect, or the mockery its dippy name might attract. Making little effort to assert itself against the open space, it continues in its impervious way to be pushed inward by some unseen force. 1976 in art Wind Cradle – Seattle Central Community College, Seattle, WA at Waymarking