Limerick is a city in County Limerick, Ireland. It is located in the Mid-West Region and is part of the province of Munster. With a population of 94,192 at the 2016 census, Limerick is the third-most populous urban area in the state, the fourth-most populous city on the island of Ireland; the city lies on the River Shannon, with the historic core of the city located on King's Island, bounded by the Shannon and Abbey Rivers. Limerick is located at the head of the Shannon Estuary, where the river widens before it flows into the Atlantic Ocean. Limerick City and County Council is the local authority for the city. At the 2016 census, the Metropolitan District of Limerick had a population of 104,952. On 1 June 2014 following the merger of Limerick City and County Council, a new Metropolitan District of Limerick was formed within the united council, which extended the city area; the Metropolitan District includes the city urban area and extends outwards towards Patrickswell in the west and Castleconnell in the east.
The City Metropolitan Area however excludes city suburbs located within County Clare. Limerick is one of the constituent cities of the Cork–Limerick–Galway corridor, which has a population of 1 million people, it is located at a strategic position on the River Shannon with four main crossing points near the city centre. To the south of the city is the Golden Vale, an area of rich pastureland. Much of the city's industry was based on this rich agricultural hinterland, it is noted for Limerick ham. Luimneach referred to the general area along the banks of the Shannon Estuary known as Loch Luimnigh; the earliest settlement in the city, Inis Sibhtonn, was the original name for King's Island during the pre-Viking and Viking eras. This island was called Inis an Ghaill Duibh, "The Dark- Foreigner's Island"; the name is recorded in Viking sources as Hlymrekr. The city dates from 812, the earliest probable settlement. Antiquity's map-maker, produced in 150 the earliest map of Ireland, showing a place called "Regia" at the same site as King's Island.
History records an important battle involving Cormac mac Airt in 221 and a visit by St. Patrick in 434 to baptise an Eóganachta king, Carthann the Fair. Saint Munchin, the first bishop of Limerick died in 652, indicating the city was a place of some note. In 812 the Vikings sailed up the Shannon and pillaged the city, burned the monastery of Mungret but were forced to flee when the Irish attacked and killed many of their number; the Normans redesigned the city in the 12th century and added much of the most notable architecture, such as King John's Castle and St Mary's Cathedral. In early medieval times Limerick was at the centre of the Kingdom of Thomond which corresponds to the present day County Clare, the Kingdom included North Kerry and parts of South Offaly. One of the kingdom's most notable kings was ancestor of the O'Brien Clan of Dalcassians; the word Thomond is synonymous with the region and is retained in place names such as Thomondgate, Thomond Bridge and Thomond Park. Limerick in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was called the most beautiful city in Ireland.
The English-born judge Luke Gernon, a resident of Limerick, wrote in 1620 that at his first sight of the city he had been amazed at its magnificence: "lofty buildings of marble, like the Colleges in Oxford". During the civil wars of the 17th century the city played a pivotal role, besieged by Oliver Cromwell in 1651 and twice by the Williamites in the 1690s; the Treaty of Limerick ended the Williamite war in Ireland, fought between supporters of the Catholic King James II and the Protestant King William of Orange. The treaty offered toleration to Catholicism and full legal rights to Catholics that swore an oath of loyalty to William III and Mary II; the Treaty was of national significance as it ensured closer British and Protestant dominance over Ireland. The articles of the Treaty protecting Catholic rights were not passed by the Protestant Irish Parliament which rather updated the Penal Laws against Catholics which had major implications for Irish history. Reputedly the Treaty was signed on the Treaty Stone, an irregular block of limestone which once served as a mounting block for horses.
This stone is now displayed on a pedestal at Clancy Strand. Because of the treaty, Limerick is sometimes known as the Treaty City; this turbulent period earned the city its motto: urbs antiqua fuit studisque asperrima belli. The peaceful times that followed the turmoil of the late 17th century allowed the city to prosper through trade in the late 18th century. During this time Limerick Port established itself as one of Ireland's major commercial ports exporting agricultural produce from one of Ireland's most fertile areas, the Golden Vale, to Britain and America; this increase in trade and wealth amongst the city's merchant classes saw a rapid expansion of the city as Georgian Limerick began to take shape. This gave the city its present-day look including the extensive terraced streets of Georgian townhouses which remain in the city centre today; the Waterford and Limerick Railway linked the city to the Dublin–Cork railway line in 1848 and to Waterford in 1853. The opening of a number of secondary railways in the subsequent decades developed Limerick as a regional centre of communications.
Dundry Hill is south of Bristol, England: it includes farmland, a small number of houses and a church. It stretches east-west for some two miles. Most of the hill is within the district of North Somerset. At the hill's eastern end the southern slopes are within Bath and North East Somerset, the northern slopes are within the city and county of Bristol, including the highest point in that county; the village of Dundry, with its prominent church, is near the summit. At the eastern end is Maes Knoll, near Norton Malreward, an Iron Age hillfort and the start of Wansdyke. To the South lies the Chew Valley. On the western side of the hill is a spring which becomes the Land Yeo. Dundry Main Road South Quarry is a 0.7 hectare geological Site of Special Scientific Interest near the village of East Dundry, because of the number of fossils in the inferior oolite. The Main Road Quarry exposes a fine section in the Middle and Upper Inferior Oolite, with the rocks lying stratigraphically below them visible at Barns Batch Spinney.
The former characterised by a southern English-Normandy fauna, including the rich ammonite occurrences of the "Brown iron-shot", the latter by contrasting faunas of Cotswold aspect. This contrast is direct evidence for movements of the Mendip Axis in Middle Jurassic times, making this an outstanding site for its bearing on studies of palaeogeography. Dundry Hill Group
Henri Hamm was an arts and button designer and sculptor. Apart from buttons, for which he was best known in Paris, he designed belt buckles, horn combs, decorative boxes and furniture, he created using multiple materials, like ivory, celluloid, mother of pearl, wood. His designs include floral and geometric forms, use sculpture as the main technique; the buttons from his workshop are in rich colours. A huge collection of Hamm's buttons, designed between 1910 and 1920 were on display at Louvre special exhibition, Déboutonner a la mode; the catalogue from the exhibition can be purchased here. Henri Hamm was born in 1871 in France, he became famous in the early 20th century for his Perfume bottles designs. In 1897, when he was 26 he founded the Societé d'Art Moderne de Bordeaux. At the age of 54, in 1926, he became a professor at L'Ecole des Arts Appliqués. Throughout his life he worked with numerous designers, of which Jacques Doucet deserves a mention