RapidRide is a network of limited-stop bus routes with some bus rapid transit features in King County, operated by King County Metro. The network consists of six routes totaling 64 miles that carried riders on 64,860 trips on an average weekday in 2016, comprising about 17 percent of King County Metro’s total daily ridership. RapidRide lines are faster than a typical local bus routes because they service fewer stops, make extensive use of transit signal priority to preempt traffic lights, on some lines, use special lanes to bypass traffic. RapidRide lines runs no less than every 10 minutes during peak commuting hours and every 15 minutes on weekends and during most off-peak hours. Most lines have night owl service; the creation of the RapidRide network was one of the main elements of King County's "Transit Now" initiative, proposed in April 2006 and approved by voters in November 2006. Funding for the construction and operation of the lines came from a 0.1% sales tax increase included in Transit Now, contributions from local cities and over $80 million in grants from state and federal agencies.
One of the most notable local contributions was from Seattle, which funded traffic signal and roadway improvements with the City's "Bridging the Gap" property tax levy, passed at the same time as Transit Now in November 2006. Transit Now called for a network of routes that included these bus rapid transit features: High-frequency operation Faster, more reliable trip times through exclusive, HOV or Business Access and Transit travel lanes, and/or priority at intersections through transit signal priority and queue jumps Improved shelter waiting areas with real-time information at major stops Low emission hybrid diesel-electric buses Branded buses and facilities with a unique look and feelThese improvements were to be made on five key travel corridors identified in the initiative: Shoreline/Downtown Seattle via Aurora Avenue North West Seattle/Downtown Seattle via West Seattle Bridge Ballard/Seattle Center/south downtown stadium area via 15th Ave Northwest & West Mercer St with service or frequent connections to Ballard High School and the Ballard business district Federal Way-Tukwila via Pacific Highway South Bellevue-Redmond via Crossroads and OverlakePlanning and construction began shortly after approval of the measure.
Along each of the corridors, fiber-optic cable was utilized to enable a Transit Signal Priority system, an automated vehicle location system and the features on "tech pylons" to be installed at certain locations. Every stop along the line received some level of improvement, with the degree of investment determined by the ridership. All stops were enhanced with new concrete, RapidRide signage, a new bus stop flag featuring route information, a solar-powered area light, a stop request strobe light, to signal to drivers that a passenger is waiting. Additionally, moderately busy stops received new shelters and trash cans; the busiest stops were improved into "stations" with large shelters and a "tech pylon" with an electronic real-time arrival sign, audible arrival information, a backlit route map, an ORCA reader for off-board fare payment. Shortly after the approval of Transit Now, Metro's revenues sales tax revenues saw a steep and prolonged decline. To combat the loss of income Metro underwent a series of efficiency measures, including restructuring routes to reduce operating costs.
The RapidRide system was shielded from these cuts because federal and state grant funding helped pay for new buses and infrastructure. In many cases, Metro restructured its network to shift riders to the new faster, high-capacity RapidRide routes; the A Line between Federal Way and Tukwila International Boulevard station was the first to begin service on October 2, 2010, leveraging the pre-existing high-occupancy vehicle lanes on Pacific Highway South and International Boulevard. The line replaced Route 174, that operated along the same corridor and complements the nearby Central Link light rail line that opened just months before the A Line; the A Line has terminals at the Tukwila International Boulevard Link station and the Federal Way Transit Center. One year on October 2, 2011, the B Line opened on the Eastside, connecting Redmond and Bellevue; the opening of the RapidRide corridor enabled a major restructure of most of the bus routes serving the Eastside. In addition to the B Line, three new routes were created, 11 routes received new a routing, 13 routes were deleted.
Next up were the RapidRide corridors in Seattle, but the nationwide economic downturn forced Metro to create a lower cost routing than was proposed in the Transit Now measure. The connection between Ballard and the south downtown stadium area was scrapped in favor of interlining the West Seattle and Ballard lines. Upon reaching downtown, northbound C Line buses would change signs to continue north as the D Line and southbound D Line buses would change signs to continue south as the C Line. For riders, that meant that instead of running to the south downtown stadium area, the Ballard line would only reach the midtown area of Downtown Seattle; the move allowed King County Metro to save on operations expenses. This interline was broken in March 2016 after the passage of Proposition 1 in the City of Seattle, dedicating additional tax revenue to support the Metro system. After several months of outreach by the Seattle Department of Transportation, it was decided that the C Line would serve the Alaska Junctio
King County Metro
King County Metro the King County Metro Transit Department and shortened to Metro, is the public transit authority of King County, which includes the city of Seattle. It is the eighth-largest transit bus agency in the United States, carrying an average of 395,000 passengers each weekday on 215 routes. Metro operates 1,540 buses, it began operations on January 1, 1973, but can trace its roots to the Seattle Transit System, founded in 1939, Overlake Transit Service, a private operator founded in 1927 to serve the Eastside. Metro is contracted to operate and maintain Sound Transit's Central Link light rail line and eight of the agency's Sound Transit Express bus routes along with the Seattle Streetcar lines owned by the City of Seattle. Metro's services include electric trolleybuses in Seattle, RapidRide enhanced buses on six lines, commuter routes along the regional freeway system, dial-a-ride routes, paratransit services, overnight buses. A horse-drawn streetcar rail system debuted in Seattle in 1884 as the Seattle Street Railway.
In 1918, the city of Seattle bought many parts of the Seattle Street Railway, on terms which left the transit operation in financial trouble. In 1939, a new transportation agency, the Seattle Transit System, was formed, which refinanced the remaining debt and began replacing equipment with "trackless trolleys" and motor buses; the final streetcar ran on April 13, 1941. The Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle was created by a local referendum on September 9, 1958, as a regional authority tasked with management of wastewater and water quality issues in King County; the authority was formed after civic leaders, including those in the Municipal League, noted that solutions to regional issues were complicated by local boundaries and a plethora of existing special districts. The state legislature approved the formation of a combined transportation and planning authority in 1957, but the countywide referendum was rejected by a majority outside of Seattle. Metro, as the authority came to be called, was restricted to sewage management and given a smaller suburban jurisdiction ahead of the successful September referendum.
By 1967, the agency had completed its $125 million sewage treatment system, which diverted 20 million gallons that had contaminated Lake Washington. After two failed attempts to enable it to build a regional rapid transit system, it was authorized to operate a regional bus system in 1972; the bus system was known as Metro Transit and began operations in 1973. Its operations subsumed the Seattle Transit System under the purview of the City of Seattle and the Metropolitan Transit Corporation, a private company serving suburban cities in King County. In the early 1970s, the private Metropolitan faced bankruptcy because of low ridership. King County voters authorized Metro to buy Metropolitan and operate the county's mass transit bus system; the Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle was overseen by a federated board of elected officials, composed of elected officials from cities throughout the region. Its representation structure was ruled unconstitutional in 1990. In 1992, after gaining approval by popular vote, the municipality's roles and authorities were assumed by the government of King County.
The municipality's transit operations was a stand-alone department within the county until 1996, when it became a division of the newly created King County Department of Transportation. In August 2018, the county council approved legislation to separate Metro from the Department of Transportation, creating the King County Metro Transit Department effective January 1, 2019. After completion of the downtown Seattle Transit Tunnel project, attention was drawn again to developing a regional rail system; this interest led to the formation of the Central Puget Sound Regional Transit Authority which holds primary responsibility for planning and building high capacity transit in the counties of King and Snohomish, in western Washington state. Today, King County Metro operates more than 200 routes, providing local and regional transit service within its jurisdictional boundaries. Besides its own transit operations, Metro operates several ST Express bus routes and the Central Link light rail line under a contract with Sound Transit and two streetcar routes under contract with Seattle Streetcar.
For 40 years, until 2012, most of downtown Seattle was designated as a zero-fare zone, an area in which all rides on Metro vehicles were free, known as the "Ride Free" Area. Intended to encourage transit usage, improve accessibility and encourage downtown shopping, the zone was created in September 1973 and was called the "Magic Carpet" zone, it was renamed the Ride Free Area. The RFA extended from the north at Battery St. to S. Jackson St. on the south and east at 6th Avenue to the waterfront on the west. Until 1987, the zone was in effect 24 hours a day, but in October of that year Metro began requiring fare payment within the zone during night-time hours, between 9 p.m. and 4 a.m. to reduce fare-related conflicts that sometimes led to assaults on drivers. A King County Auditor’s Office report released in September 2009 found that Metro "can neither explain nor provide backup documentation for the operating cost savings that offset the fare revenues in the calculation of the annual charges to the City of Seattle for the city’s Ride Free Area" and that some assumptions in the methodology Metro used to calculate the amount of lost fares were "questionable" and have not been updated to reflect changes to the fare structure a
Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
A rush hour or peak hour is a part of the day during which traffic congestion on roads and crowding on public transport is at its highest. This happens twice every weekday; the term is used for a period of peak congestion that may last for more than one hour. The term is broad, but refers to private automobile transportation traffic when there is a large volume of cars on a road but not a large number of people, or if the volume is normal but there is some disruption of speed. By analogy to vehicular traffic, the term Internet rush hour has been used to describe periods of peak data network usage, resulting in delays and slower delivery of data packets; the name is sometimes a misnomer, as the peak period lasts more than one hour and the "rush" refers to the volume of traffic, not the speed of its flow. Rush hour may be 6 -- 4 -- 8 pm. Peak traffic periods may vary from city to city, from region to region, seasonally; the frequency of public transport service is higher in the rush hour, longer trains or larger vehicles are used.
However, the increase in capacity is less than the increased number of passengers, due to the limits on available vehicles, staff and, in the case of rail transport, track capacity including platform length. The resulting crowding may force many passengers to stand, others may be unable to board. If there is inadequate capacity, this can make public transport less attractive, leading to higher car use and shifting the congestion to roads. Transport demand management, such as road pricing or a congestion charge, is designed to induce people to alter their travel timing to minimize congestion. Public transport fares may be higher during peak periods. Season tickets or multi-ride tickets, sold at a discount, are used in rush hours by commuters, may or may not reflect rush hour fare differentials. Staggered hours have been promoted as a means of spreading demand across a longer time span—for example, in Rush Hour and by the International Labour Office. In the morning, evening, Sydney and Melbourne, Auckland and Christchurch are the most congested cities in Australia and New Zealand respectively.
In Melbourne the Monash Freeway, which connects Melbourne's suburban sprawl, to the city is heavily congested each morning and evening. In Perth, Mitchell Freeway, Kwinana Freeway and various arterial roads are congested between peak hours, making movement between suburbs and the city quite slow. Efforts to minimise traffic congestion during peak hour vary on a state by state and city by city basis. In Melbourne, congestion is managed by means including: Inbound transit lanes on busy freeways which are limited to motorcycles and other vehicles with more than one occupant during busy periods. Free travel on metropolitan trains before 7am. Passengers must exit the system at their destination station before 7am. Dedicated bus lanes on major inner city roads such as Hoddle Street. Introduction of dedicated bicycle lanes in the inner city area to encourage cyclists and deter dual-track vehicles. Prohibition of parking along busy roads during peak traffic periods to create an extra lane for traffic.
In Sydney, congestion is managed by many means including: Buses increase frequency from 4 per hour to 12 per hour on the Metrobus network, other routes increase limited and express services The CityRail network runs double-decker electric multiple unit trains that allowed many more passengers to board the trains compared to the 1950s single-level'Red Rattlers', and'Silver Ghosts'. Time-of-day ticket prices allow train commuters to board trains before 6 am or after 7 pm at a cheaper rate on single or day return tickets Transit and/or HOV Lanes are installed on many major arterial roads, The ClearWays project, which allows for broken-down trains on the Sydney Trains network to not affect the running of trains on separate lines due to building bypasses, loop-backs alongside the existing track The Sydney Light Rail Dulwich Hill Line, the only operational light rail line in Sydney, increases headways during peak hour, providing services up to every eight minutes. Traffic congestion is managed through the Traffic Management Centre via a network of Closed Circuit TV's, with operators able to change the timing of traffic signals to reduce wait times Most major motorways have the ability for Contra-flow to allow continuing flow of traffic in case of a major accident Older motor ways have been upgraded from two lanes in each direction, to three lanes in each direction Motor way toll booths have been replaced with electronic toll systems.
In São Paulo, each vehicle is assigned a certain day of the week in which it cannot travel the roads during rush hour. The day of the week for each vehicle is derived from the last digit in the licence plate number and the rule is enforced by traffic police; this policy is aimed at reducing the number of vehicles on the roads and encouraging the use of buses and the urban train systems. In Toronto, rush hour lasts from 8:00-9:00 in the morning and from 2 pm until at least 7:30–8 pm. Montreal, has rush hour times from 6:30–8:30 am and 3:30–6 pm. In the cities of Edmonton and Calgary, rush hour typicall
Totnes railway station
Totnes railway station serves the towns of Totnes and Dartington in Devon, England. It was opened by the South Devon Railway Company in 1847. Situated on the Exeter to Plymouth Line, it is 28 miles 74 chains down the line from Exeter St Davids and 222 miles 66 chains measured from London Paddington via Bristol Temple Meads, it is served by Great Western CrossCountry train services. Totnes railway station was built by the South Devon Railway Company and opened on 20 July 1847 when trains started to run on the line from Newton, as Newton Abbot was known at the time, it was a terminus until 5 May 1848 when trains started to run through to Plymouth using a temporary terminus at Laira. The line was intended to be operated by atmospheric power and an engine house to provide power was built behind the eastbound platform, although it was never brought into use; the two platform tracks were covered by wooden train sheds, an engine shed was built south of the line beyond the westbound platform, a goods shed was erected between this platform and the River Dart which the line crossed on a viaduct just to the east of the platforms.
Totnes became the junction for the Buckfastleigh and South Devon Railway's line to Ashburton when it opened on 1 May 1872. The South Devon Railway was amalgamated with the Great Western Railway on 1 February 1876 and the Buckfastleigh company was absorbed in 1897. Trains were suspended on 21 and 22 May 1892 while the original 7 ft broad gauge tracks were replaced by those of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge; the engine shed. There was a freight only branch line which ran down to the quay at Totnes wharf, the bridge which carried this line can still be seen adjacent to the footpath which leads from the BR station towards the riverside walk; the line crossed over the main road at the bottom of Bridgetown bridge via a level crossing to access The Plains. Some of the track formation can still be seen on The Plains; the westbound platform was damaged during an air raid in World War II on 21 October 1942. The Ashburton branch train was damaged in two people killed and two more injured. On 1 January 1948 the Great Western Railway was nationalised to become the Western Region of British Railways.
Passenger services to Ashburton were withdrawn on 3 November 1958 and the line closed on 10 September 1962. A few months earlier, on 14 April 1962, a fire destroyed the main buildings situated on the westbound platform at Totnes. General goods traffic was withdrawn on 14 June 1965 although coal continued to be handled until 4 December 1967 and milk until 1980, from the dairy that incorporates the building intended for the atmospheric engines. A new station building was opened on 21 October 1983 to replace the temporary buildings that had served the station since the fire in 1962. From 5 April 1985 to 2 September 1987 trains on the Buckfastleigh line, now the South Devon Railway heritage line, operated into the station. A footbridge across the River Dart was opened on 30 September 1993 which now allows people to walk to Totnes railway station to join the heritage trains to Buckfastleigh; the 1887-built footbridge that spanned the station and gave access to the operating floor of the signal box was destroyed on 18 October 1987 when hit by a crane engaged in track renewals.
It was replaced by a new bridge but that in turn will be replaced a newer footbridge and lifts in 2018. The signals were controlled by "policemen" who walked to each signal to change it, but from 1894 they were controlled from a wooden signal box at the west end of the westbound platform; this was replaced in 1923 by a brick-built signal box towards the opposite end of the eastbound platform. From 17 December 1973 this was a "fringe box" to the Panel Signal Box at Plymouth railway station, when the signal boxes at Brent and other intermediate locations were closed. Totnes itself was closed on 9 November 1987 when new multiple-aspect signals were brought into use, controlled from the new signalling centre at Exeter; the signal box, a Grade II listed building, is now used as a café. On 13 March 1860 the boiler of the locomotive Tornado exploded while standing at Totnes, killing the driver; the railway approaches from Newton Abbot in the north-east runs south-westerly through the station and swings to the west on a right-hand curve, the start of the steep climb up to Rattery.
There are four tracks through the station with platforms alongside the outer pair. The modern brick-built station building is on the south-east side nearest the town; this is the platform for trains to Penzance. Trains to Newton Abbot and beyond depart from the opposite platform, which can be reached by a footbridge on the north-east side of the entrance to the platform; the footbridge gives access to the café in the old signal box on the platform used by trains to Newton Abbot. There is level access to the station from the car park on the south-east side and from the area in front of the milk factory on the north-west side which can be reached by the road bridge that spans the tracks just to the south-west of the station. Buses to Dartmouth operate from the car park on the south-east side. A footpath from here leads under the viaduct at the north-east end of the station to a footbridge that crosses the River Dart alongside the railway to reach Totnes Riverside station, from where trains run to Buckfastleigh railway station.
The industrial complex on the north-west side of the station houses the milk factory. The opposite side of the station is dominated on the hill. About half of
Seattle is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of Washington. With an estimated 730,000 residents as of 2018, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. According to U. S. Census data released in 2018, the Seattle metropolitan area’s population stands at 3.87 million, ranks as the 15th largest in the United States. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In July 2016, Seattle was again the fastest-growing major U. S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle is the northernmost large city in the United States; the city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015; the Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers.
Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, Oregon, on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851; the settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named "Seattle" in 1852, in honor of Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Today, Seattle has high populations of Native, Scandinavian and Asian Americans, as well as a thriving LGBT community that ranks 6th in the United States for population. Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century, the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Growth after World War II was due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing; the Seattle area developed into a technology center from the 1980s onwards with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region. Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle in 1994, major airline Alaska Airlines is based in SeaTac, serving Seattle's international airport, Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.
The stream of new software and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Owing to its increasing population in the 21st century and the state of Washington have some of the highest minimum wages in the country, at $15 per hour for smaller businesses and $16 for the city's largest employers. Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District; the jazz scene nurtured the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, others. Seattle is the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix, as well as the origin of the bands Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains, Foo Fighters and the alternative rock movement grunge. Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay.
The first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest. In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River. Thirteen days members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party. Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851; the rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851. After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square, naming this new settlement Duwamps. Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and reestablished their old land claim and called it "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning "by and by" or "someday". For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.
David Swinson "Doc" Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement after Chief Seattle of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The name "Seattle" appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city; the Town of Seattle was disincorporated on January 18, 1867, remained a mere precinct of King County until late 1869, when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated December 2, 1869, with a mayor–council government. The corporate seal of the City of Seattle carries the date "1869" and a likeness of Chief Sealth in left profile. Seattle has a history of boom-and-bust cycles, like many other cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically gone into precipitous decline, but it has used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure
Great Western Railway (train operating company)
First Greater Western Limited, trading as Great Western Railway, is a British train operating company owned by FirstGroup that operates the Greater Western railway franchise. It manages 197 stations and its trains call at over 270. GWR operates long-distance inter-city services along the Great Western Main Line to and from South West England and South Wales, as well as the Night Riviera sleeper service between London and Penzance, it provides commuter/outer-suburban services from its London terminus at Paddington to West London, the Thames Valley region including parts of Berkshire, parts of Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire. GWR was due to begin operating the Heathrow Express service under a management contract on behalf of Heathrow Airport Holdings from August 2018; the company began operating in February 1996 as Great Western Trains, as part of the privatisation of British Rail. In December 1998 it became First Great Western after FirstGroup bought out its partners' shares in Great Western Holdings.
In April 2006, First Great Western, First Great Western Link and Wessex Trains were combined into the new Greater Western franchise and brought under the First Great Western brand. The company adopted its current name and a new livery in September 2015 to coincide with the start of an extended franchise, due to run until April 2020; as part of the privatisation of British Rail, the Great Western InterCity franchise was awarded by the Director of Passenger Rail Franchising to Great Western Holdings in December 1995 and began operations on 4 February 1996. Great Western Holdings was owned by some former British Rail FirstBus and 3i. In March 1998, FirstGroup bought out its partners' stakes to give it 100% ownership. In December 1998, the franchise was rebranded as First Great Western. On 1 April 2004, First Great Western Link commenced operating the Thames Trains franchise, it operated local train services from Paddington to Slough, Henley-on-Thames, Didcot, Newbury, Worcester, Hereford and Stratford upon Avon.
It operated services from Reading to Gatwick Airport, from Reading to Basingstoke. On 1 April 2006, the Great Western, Great Western Link and Wessex Trains franchises were combined into a new Greater Western franchise. FirstGroup, National Express and Stagecoach were shortlisted to bid for this new franchise. On 13 December 2005, it was announced. First planned to subdivide its services into three categories based on routes. Following feedback from staff and stakeholders, the decision was taken to re-brand and re-livery all services as'First Great Western'. In May 2011, FirstGroup announced that it had decided not to take up the option to extend its franchise beyond the end of March 2013. FirstGroup stated that, in the light of the £1bn plan to electrify the Great Western route from London via Bristol to Cardiff, it wanted to try to negotiate a longer-term deal. CEO Tim O'Toole said: "We believe we are best placed to manage these projects and capture the benefits through a longer-term franchise."By not taking up the option to extend its original franchise contract for a further three years, FirstGroup avoided having to pay £826.6m to the government.
In March 2012 Arriva, FirstGroup, National Express and Stagecoach were shortlisted to bid for the new franchise. The winner was expected to be announced in December 2012, with the new franchisee taking over in April 2013; the ITT ran from the end of July until October 2012. The winner would have been announced in March 2013, taken on the franchise from 21 July 2013 until the end of July 2028; the new franchise would include the introduction of new Intercity Express Trains, capacity enhancements and smart ticketing. The award of the franchise was again delayed in October 2012, while the Department for Transport reviewed the way rail franchises are awarded. In January 2013, the government announced that the current competition for the franchise had been terminated, that FirstGroup's contract had been extended until October 2013. A two-year franchise extension until September 2015 was agreed in October 2013, subsequently extended until March 2019. A further extension to April 2019 was granted in March 2015.
The refurbishment of first class carriages in 2014 included interiors that featured a new GWR logo and no First branding. The whole company was rebranded as Great Western Railway on 20 September 2015 and introduced a green livery in recognition of the former Great Western Railway; the new livery was introduced when HST interiors were refurbished, on sleeper carriages and Class 57/6 locomotives. Great Western Railway is the primary train operator in Devon, Somerset, Berkshire, Wiltshire and Oxfordshire. Great Western Railway operates commuter services between London and destinations such as Slough, Reading, Oxford, Bedwyn, Hereford and Banbury. There are services between Reading and Basingstoke. Trains run on various north-south routes from Cardiff and Worcester to Taunton, Salisbury, Southampton and Brighton. Many of these run via Bristol; the company runs trains on local routes including branch lines in Devon and Cornwall, such as the Looe, Newq