This is about artist known as Virginia Labuat. For the musical project with The Pinker Tones, Risto Mejide and Virginia Maestro, see LabuatVirginia Maestro Díaz is a Spanish singer-songwriter, she is the winner of the Spanish version of Star Academy. In 2009, she associated herself with Labuat, a musical project with Risto Mejide, one of the judges of OT, The Pinker Tones. Many of her recordings are thus credited to Virginia Labuat. Virgínia has said in various interviews that she was exposed to lots of different kinds of music from an early age those of her parents adolescence. Nowadays, she takes most influence from the 50s and 60s, naming Eva Cassidy, The Beatles, Janis Joplin, Solomon Burke, Otis Redding, Ray Charles and Sam Cooke as her favorite artists. At the age of twelve,influenced by her sisters, she began teaching herself how to play the guitar and she wrote her first songs in a diary, to whom she called "Diario de Sensaciones"; when she was fifteen, she started to participe in jam sessions.
Until her entrance in OT, she had been a part of Fundación Virginia, Little Vicky & the Shout Band, 7Funk, The Flik Flak Duo, Boogie Flu and had shared the stage with such bands as Black Jack Bob & the New Deal and Mingo & The Blues Intruders. Aside from that experiences, she had been a soprano at the University of Seville choir, where she studied music. After being turned down on the castings for the second and third series of the contest in 2008, Virginia Maestro was cast to the sixth series of Operación Triunfo, a talent show in Spain, she differentiated herself from other contestants with her distinctive style and song choices, preferring jazz-blues tunes over pop. She was voted off the show several times but was saved by the public, until she was named the winner in the finale. During the contest, she gained a fan base who began to call her "La Niña Azul". Therefore, her fan base is called "La Marea Azul", she was the first contest in history of Operación Triunfo to reach number one on the Spanish iTunes chart, which she accomplished with covers of "Creep", "My Baby Just Cares For Me" and "Moonlight Shadow".
While in the competition, she received support from Risto Mejide, the most opinionated member of the jury. He would become the producer of Labuat. After winning OT and earning a contract with Sony BMG, she became part of the musical project Labuat, which opened for Beyoncé in Spain in May 2009, her music video of Soy Tu Aire, the first single from the album, is an Internet sensation. On June 2009, "De Pequeño" was released as the second single. " She made an appearance in the sixth gala of OT 2009 singing the song. In June, it was announced that a second album is being prepared and that Risto Mejide would not be involved. Carta de Otoño", the only song composed by her, was released as the third and last single on October 2009; the first album of the band was nominated for best album of the year. In March 2010, during an interview for OperacionTriunfo.com, Maestro announced that, due to time conflicts, the Pinker Tones will not produce the new album, leaving her as the only initial member of the band working on the second album.
She has confirmed the album will include her own compositions, in both Spanish and English. On October 2010, Maestro announced the title of the second album, "Dulce Hogar" and that she would use the moniker Virginia Labuat; the first single debuted on 25 January 2011 in Europa FM and was available for download on 8 February 2011, the whole album was released on 29 March 2011. A limited special edition of the album includes an EP with a few rare songs she had performed live during the previous years, as well some Spanish versions of the English songs. Shortly after the release, the album was on Spanish Top Charts. In Operacion Triunfo, Virginia confessed; when she entered to the academy, she had a boyfriend. There have been rumors she was dating Risto Mejide, denied by both; as part of LabuatSolo as part of LabuatSolo
Province of Jaén (Spain)
Jaén is a province of southern Spain, in the eastern part of the autonomous community of Andalusia. It is bordered by the provinces of Ciudad Real, Granada and Córdoba, its capital is Jaén city. Its area is 13,484 km², its population is 657,387, about one sixth of. It contains 97 municipalities; the highest point of the province is Pico Mágina. One of the less-known provinces of Spain, compared to the heavily-tourist-oriented coast, it has four national parks and many other protected natural areas; the province contains two Renaissance cities, Úbeda and Baeza, both declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The annual chess tournament held; the province is the largest producer of olive oil in the world. It produces around 20 % of world's production. For this reason the province is known as World Capital of Olive Oil. There are more than 66 million of olive trees, spread over a surface of 550,000 hectares; the province alone produces more olive oil than the entire country of Italy. The province's production in 2013 was 749.387 tonnes of olive oil.
List of municipalities in Jaén Despeñaperros Natural Park Sierra de Andújar Natural Park Sierra Mágina Natural Park Sierras de Cazorla, Segura y Las Villas Natural Park Cazorla, Segura y Las Villas Photo album from La Iruela Castle - Jaén - Andalusia
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Chile the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty; the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, features a string of volcanoes and lakes; the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, islands.
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil; this development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.
The modern sovereign state of Chile is among South America's most economically and stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption, it ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, democratic development. Chile is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, joining in 2010, it has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.
Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls". Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile; the Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli". Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such; the older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile". Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating indigenous Peoples settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.
Settlement sites from early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization, they fought against his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile; the next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting; the conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognize
Linares International Chess Tournament
The Linares International Chess Tournament was an annual chess tournament played around the end of February, which takes its name from the city of Linares in the Jaén province of Andalusia, Spain, in which it is held. It is sometimes described as the Wimbledon of chess, being one of the strongest annual tournaments held on the de facto chess tour, along with the "Tata Steel", Tal Memorial and Dortmund events; the Linares tournament began in 1978 and was held annually from 1988 to 2010. Since 2010, the tournament has not been held for financial reasons; the event, sponsored by Spanish businessman Luis Rentero, was first held in 1978. At that time it was not an elite event and was won by the unknown Swede Jaan Eslon). After the following year's event, it was held every other year until 1987 when no tournament took place, that being the year that Linares hosted the Candidates' Final, a match to determine a challenger for Kasparov's world title featuring Anatoly Karpov and Andrei Sokolov; the postponed 1987 event was deferred to 1988 and the tournament from that point onwards became an annual event, with the exception of 1996, when the Women's World Chess Championship was held.
Rentero was a strong opponent of short draws in chess, to the point that he offered cash bonuses for playing longer games. It's said that participants in these so-called "grand master draws" were sometimes penalised with a no invitation for the next year's edition! The 1994 tournament had an average Elo rating of 2685, the highest at that time; the field, in eventual finishing order, consisted of Karpov, Shirov, Kramnik, Anand, Topalov, Gelfand, Judit Polgár, Beliavsky. Karpov won with an undefeated 11/13. Jeff Sonas considered Karpov's performance the best tournament result in history; the 1994 tournament was noted for an incident in which Garry Kasparov "took a move back" against Judit Polgár. Kasparov's fingers released a knight before he realized the move was a blunder. Polgár did not protest and the arbiter did not intervene. Kasparov went on to win the game. In 1998, the format of the tournament changed from a single round-robin tournament to a double round-robin event. Kasparov announced his retirement from chess after the 2005 tournament.
From 2006 through 2008, the first half of the tournament took place in the Mexican city of Morelia. The second half took place in Linares; the event is sometimes referred to as Morelia-Linares. In 2009 and 2010 the whole event took place in Linares; the Linares tournament of 2011 was cancelled, for reasons including general economic problems. The tournament was cancelled again with no return since. 1978 Jaan Eslon 1979 Larry Christiansen 1981 Anatoly Karpov and Larry Christiansen 1983 Boris Spassky 1985 Ljubomir Ljubojević and Robert Hübner 1988 Jan Timman 1989 Vassily Ivanchuk 1990 Garry Kasparov 1991 Vassily Ivanchuk 1992 Garry Kasparov 1993 Garry Kasparov 1994 Anatoly Karpov 1995 Vassily Ivanchuk 1997 Garry Kasparov 1998 Viswanathan Anand 1999 Garry Kasparov 2000 Vladimir Kramnik and Garry Kasparov 2001 Garry Kasparov 2002 Garry Kasparov 2003 Péter Lékó 2004 Vladimir Kramnik 2005 Garry Kasparov 2006 Levon Aronian 2007 Viswanathan Anand 2008 Viswanathan Anand 2009 Alexander Grischuk 2010 Veselin TopalovOnly five players won the Linares Tournament multiple times: Garry Kasparov, Vassily Ivanchuk, Viswanathan Anand, Vladimir Kramnik and Anatoly Karpov.
Final Results of 1998: XV Ciudad de Linares cat. XXI --------------------------------------------------------------- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 --------------------------------------------------------------- 1 Viswanathan Anand g IND ** 1= 0= == 1= =1 =1 7½ 2 Alexei Shirov g ESP 0= ** == =1 10 10 11 7 3 Garry Kasparov g RUS 1= == ** == == == == 6½ 4 Vladimir Kramnik g RUS == =0 == ** =1 == 1= 6½ 5 Peter Svidler g RUS 0= 01 == =0 ** 10 =1 5½ 6 Vassily Ivanchuk g UKR =0 01 == == 01 ** 0= 5 7 Veselin Topalov g BUL =0 00 == 0= =0 1= ** 4 Final Results of 1999: XVI Ciudad de Linares, ii-iii 1999 cat. XX ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1 Garry Kasparov g RUS 2812 ** == =1 == 1= 11 =1 11 10½ 2817 2 Vladimir Kramnik g RUS 2751 == ** == == == == =1 1= 8 2782 3 Viswanathan Anand g IND 2781 =0 == ** == =1 == 1= =1 8 2778 4 Peter Leko g HUN 2694 == == == ** == 1= 0= 0= 6½ 2712 5 Veselin Topalov g BUL 2700 0= == =0 == ** =0 =1 == 6 2690 6 Vassily Ivanchuk g UKR 2714 00 == == 0= =1 ** 1= 0= 6 2688 7 Peter Svidler g RUS 2713 =0 =0 0= 1= =0 0= ** =1 5½ 2658 8 Michael Adams g ENG 2716 00 0= =0 1= == 1= =0 ** 5½ 2657 Final Results of 2000: Garry Kasparov and Vladimir Kramnik finished tied for first on +2, inseparable by the various tie-breaks laid down in the rules.
They had the same number of black wins. The next tie-break was for the worst score aga
The Maule Region is one of Chile's 16 first order administrative divisions. Its capital is Talca; the region derives its name from the Maule River which, running westward from the Andes, bisects the region and spans a basin of about 20,600 km2. The Maule river is of considerable historic interest because, among other reasons, it marked the southern limits of the Inca Empire; the region is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean. There are a number of fauna species present in Maule. For example, the endangered Chilean Wine Palm is found in a limited distribution that includes the Maule Region; the limited distribution Nothofagus allesandri is found in the region. According to the 2017 census, the population of the region was 1,033,197. With one third of its population living in rural areas, Maule has a greater proportion of rural inhabitants than any other region of Chile, its most populated city is the regional capital, with 235,000 inhabitants, followed by Curicó and Linares. Other important cities are: Constitución, Cauquenes and San Javier.
The average density of the Maule Region is 34.1 inhabitants per km2, with less dense areas towards the mountains, dense areas in the central valley. According to the composition pyramid of the population of the Region, those younger than fifteen years old are becoming greater in number than the adult population; the annual growth rate of the population of the Maule Region is 1.06%. The average life expectancy in the Region is 76.3 years. Forestry and agriculture, led by wine grape plantations, are the main economic activities; the Maule region is Chile’s leading wine-making region, producing 50% of all the country’s fine export wines, a number of the largest vineyards are located here. Owing to its high concentration of vineyards, the Curicó valley, which means "black water" in Mapudungun – is considered the core of Chile’s wine industry. Wine-making is a traditional activity, some vineyards dating back to 1830; the increased wine-growing area is matched by the development of the industry’s infrastructure and equipment.
In addition to wine, two export-oriented agricultural items have emerged dynamically: fruit and flowers. Electricity and water are the second most important economic activity; the Maule River feeds five hydroelectric power plants, including the Colbún-Machicura complex. The 4 provinces of the Maule Region are divided into 30 communes; the Maule Region has produced a remarkable number of famous men and women, in particular writers and poets but statesmen and presidents and naturalists, churchmen and folklorists, journalists and historians. Thus, the Maule river, the long and wide artery that runs through the region, has been considered Chile's literary river par excellence. Many novels and short stories have had the river as their main protagonist. Several anthologies, author's dictionaries and essays have given their account of the cultural wealth of the region; the region boasts of many small towns and villages with well-preserved colonial rural architecture, both in the religious as well as the civil fields.
The Talca and Linares dioceses have several parish churches of particular beauty and architectural and historic value. At 03:34 local time, an 8.8 magnitude earthquake occurred off the Maule coast 11 km southwest of Curanipe and 100 km north-northeast of Chile's second largest city, Concepción. The earthquake lasted nearly four minutes affected the region through its action and the resultant tsunami. Cauquenes was damaged by the earthquake. Constitución was damaged by subsequent tsunami. Restoring power in both cities in the immediate aftermath was impossible because of damage from the tsunami. Rodrigo Galilea Vial Curicó Province: Gloria Rojas Talca Province: María Elena Villagrán Linares Province: Luis Suazo Cauquenes Province: María Angélica Sáez The Maule Region is divided into five parliamentary districts; each one of these returns two members of parliament or deputies. The table shows the district number, the municipalities encompassed in each district and the names of the respective members of parliament.
The Maule Region is divided into two senatorial circumscriptions. One is composed of the provinces of Curicó and Talca and the other by the provinces of Linares and Cauquenes. Thus, senatorial circumscription North encompasses parliamentary districts 36, 37 and 38, senatorial circumscription South encompasses parliamentary districts 39 and 40; each circumscription elects two senators. The table shows the circumscription name, the municipalities encompassed in each district and the names of the respective senators. Ranked list of Chilean regions C. Michael Hogan Chilean Wine Palm: Jubaea chilensis, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas Stromberg Julian Evans. 2001. The Forests Handbook: Applying forest science for sustainable management. 816 pages Gobierno Regional del Maule Official website
Second Punic War
The Second Punic War referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second of three wars between Carthage and the Roman Republic, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides. It was one of the deadliest human conflicts of ancient times. Fought across the entire Western Mediterranean region for 17 years and regarded by ancient historians as the greatest war in history, it was waged with unparalleled resources and hatred, it saw hundreds of thousands killed, some of the most lethal battles in military history, the destruction of cities, massacres and enslavements of civilian populations and prisoners of war by both sides. The war began with the Carthaginian general Hannibal's conquest of the pro-Roman Iberian city of Saguntum in 219 BC, prompting a Roman declaration of war on Carthage in the spring of 218. Hannibal surprised the Romans by marching his army overland from Iberia to cross the Alps and invade Roman Italy, followed by his reinforcement by Gallic allies and crushing victories over Roman armies at Trebia in 218 and on the shores of Lake Trasimene in 217.
Moving to southern Italy in 216, Hannibal at Cannae annihilated the largest army the Romans had assembled. After the death or imprisonment of 130,000 Roman troops in two years, 40% of Rome's Italian allies defected to Carthage, giving her control over most of southern Italy. Macedon and Syracuse joined the Carthaginian side after Cannae and the conflict spread to Greece and Sicily. From 215–210 the Carthaginian army and navy launched repeated amphibious assaults to capture Roman Sicily and Sardinia but were repulsed. Against Hannibal's skill on the battlefield, the Romans adopted the Fabian strategy – the avoidance of battle against Hannibal and defeating his allies and the other Carthaginian generals instead. Roman armies recaptured all of the great cities that had joined Carthage and defeated a Carthaginian attempt to reinforce Hannibal at Metaurus in 207. Southern Italy was devastated by the combatants, with hundreds of thousands of civilians killed or enslaved. In Iberia, which served as a major source of silver and manpower for the Carthaginian army, a Roman expeditionary force under Publius Cornelius Scipio captured Carthago Nova, Carthage's capital city in Iberia, in 209.
Scipio's destruction of a Carthaginian army at Ilipa in 206 permanently ended Carthaginian rule in Iberia. He invaded Carthaginian Africa in 204, inflicting two severe defeats on Carthage and her allies at Utica and the Great Plains that compelled the Carthaginian senate to recall Hannibal's army from Italy; the final engagement between Scipio and Hannibal took place at Zama in Africa in 202 and resulted in Hannibal's defeat and the imposition of harsh peace conditions on Carthage, which ceased to be a great power and became a Roman client state until its final destruction by the Romans in 146 BC during the Third Punic War. The Second Punic War overthrew the established balance of power of the ancient world and Rome rose to become the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin for the next 600 years. Carthage's defeat in the First Punic War meant the loss of Carthaginian Sicily to Rome under the terms of the Roman-dictated 241 BC Treaty of Lutatius. Rome exploited Carthage's distraction during the Truceless War against rebellious mercenaries and Libyan subjects to break the peace treaty and annex Carthaginian Sardinia and Corsica to Rome in 238 BC.
Under the leadership of Hamilcar Barca and his family, Carthage defeated the rebels and began the Barcid conquest of Hispania from 237 BC onward. Control over Spain gave Carthage the silver mines, agricultural wealth, military facilities such as shipyards and territorial depth to stand up to future Roman demands with confidence; the Second Punic War was ignited by the dispute over the hegemony of Saguntum, a Hellenized Iberian coastal city with diplomatic contacts with Rome. After great tension within the city government, culminating in the assassination of the supporters of Carthage, Hannibal laid siege to the city of Saguntum in 219 BC; the city called for Roman aid. Following a prolonged siege of eight months and a bloody struggle, in which Hannibal himself was wounded, the Carthaginians took control of the city. Many of the Saguntians chose to commit suicide rather than face subjugation by the Carthaginians; the loss of Saguntum as a potential base of operations in Carthaginian Iberia was a serious setback to the main Roman strategic objective in Spain: the eviction of the Carthaginians from the peninsula.
The Roman Senate sent an embassy to the Carthaginian Senate that declared war on Carthage in early 218 BC over the attack on Rome's Saguntine ally. Before the war and Hasdrubal the Fair had made a treaty. Livy reports that it was agreed that the Iber should be the boundary between the two empires and that the liberty of the Saguntines should be preserved; the highest priority in Carthaginian strategy was to keep the war away from Carthage's agricultural heartland in Africa and protect the property of the wealthy Carthaginian landowners who controlled Carthaginian politics. Spanish mines and sources of manpower comprised the second pillar of the Carthaginian power base and their protection was essential to maintaining Carthage's status as an independent continental great power. Hannibal's invasion of Italy forced the Romans to abandon their intended invasion of Africa and de-prioritize the reinforcement of Roman armies in Spain. Most Roman troops during the war fought in Italy, which became the main theater of the war as a result of Hannibal's offensive.
Africa remained undisturbed by a Roman invasion army until 204 BC and the Roman military presence in Spain was confined to its northeastern corn