Master of the Rolls
The Keeper or Master of the Rolls and Records of the Chancery of England, known as the Master of the Rolls, is the second-most senior judge in England and Wales after the Lord Chief Justice, serves as President of the Civil Division of the Court of Appeal and Head of Civil Justice. The position dates from at least 1286, although it is believed that the office existed earlier than that; the Master of the Rolls was a clerk responsible for keeping the "Rolls" or records of the Court of Chancery, was known as the Keeper of the Rolls of Chancery. The Keeper was the most senior of the dozen Chancery clerks, as such acted as keeper of the Great Seal of the Realm; the post evolved into a judicial one. With the Judicature Act 1873, which merged the Court of Chancery with the other major courts, the Master of the Rolls joined the Chancery Division of the High Court and the Court of Appeal, but left the Chancery Division by the terms of the Judicature Act 1881; the Master of the Rolls had been warden of the little-used Domus Conversorum for housing Jewish converts, which led to the house and chapel being used to store legal documents and becoming the location of the Public Record Office.
He retained his clerical functions as the nominal head of the Public Record Office until the Public Records Act 1958 transferred responsibility for it to the Lord Chancellor. One residual reminder of this role is the fact that the Master of the Rolls of the day continues to serve, ex officio, as President of the British Records Association; the Master of the Rolls was previously responsible for registering solicitors, the officers of the Senior Courts. One of the most prominent people to hold the position was Thomas Cromwell, a influential figure during the reign of Henry VIII. On 3 October 2016, Sir Terence Etherton succeeded Lord Dyson as Master of the Rolls. Category:Masters of the Rolls Hanworth, Lord. "Some Notes on the Office of Master of the Rolls". Cambridge Law Journal. Cambridge University Press. 5. ISSN 0008-1973. Sainty, John; the Judges of England 1272–1990: a list of judges of the superior courts. Oxford: Selden Society. OCLC 29670782
Newcastle House is a mansion in Lincoln's Inn Fields in central London, England. It was one of the two largest houses built in London's largest square during its development in the 17th century, the other being Lindsey House, it is the northernmost house on the western side of the square. The house had a complex history; the first version was built in 1641-42 for the Earl of Carlisle. In 1672 it was purchased by William Herbert, 1st Marquess of Powis and renamed Powis House, but in 1684 it burned down. Reconstruction of a new house - the one which still stands, albeit altered - to designs by Captain William Winde commenced promptly, but in 1688 the house was ransacked by a mob in consequence of Lord Powis's association with the deposed James II; the following year Lord Powis's estates were attainted and he fled to France. Powis House was designated the official residence of the Lord Keeper of the Great Seal. In 1694 the charter of the newly formed Bank of England was sealed there. By 1705 the house had been returned to the Powis family and in that year they sold it to John Holles, who had alterations made by John Vanbrugh.
Thereafter it was called Newcastle House. The building was a compact block with three main storeys, plus two storeys of basements below and two storeys of attics above, it was built of brick with band courses and cornice. There were two projecting wings to the rear, so a large amount of accommodation was fitted into the compact site. Holles left the house to his nephew Thomas Pelham-Holles, confusingly created 1st Duke of Newcastle; this latter duke was a prominent politician and latterly Prime Minister of Great Britain. He held court at Newcastle House for several decades and died there in 1768, he used it as his premier London residence throughout his life, threw many lavish parties there which were attended by much of London society. The Prime Minister was Newcastle House's last aristocratic occupant, his widow sold the house to the banker Henry Kendall for £8,400. He had it divided in two and in 1790 one half was purchased by James Farrer; the solicitors Farrer & Co who still occupy the building, in the early 20th century they purchased the other half and reunited the building.
In the early 1900s, the rear wings were removed in connection with the construction of Kingsway, a major thoroughfare, driven through the small streets just to the west of Lincoln's Inn Fields. Farrer & Co commissioned alternations by Sir Edwin Lutyens in the 1930s, but the building still retains much of its late 17th and early 18th century fabric and appearance. In the 17th century there was a mansion called Newcastle House in Clerkenwell, which belonged to an earlier Duke of Newcastle. London's Mansions by David Pearce, ISBN 0-7134-8702-X
English Civil War
The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists over, the manner of England's governance. The first and second wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament; the war ended with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651. The overall outcome of the war was threefold: the trial and execution of Charles I. In England, the monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship was ended, while in Ireland the victors consolidated the established Protestant Ascendancy. Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although the idea of Parliament as the ruling power of England was only established as part of the Glorious Revolution in 1688; the term "English Civil War" appears most in the singular form, although historians divide the conflict into two or three separate wars.
These wars were not restricted to England as Wales was a part of the Kingdom of England and was affected accordingly, the conflicts involved wars with, civil wars within, both Scotland and Ireland. The war in all these countries is known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. In the early 19th century, Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "the Great Civil War". Unlike other civil wars in England, which focused on who should rule, this war was more concerned with the manner in which the kingdoms of England and Ireland were governed; the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica called the series of conflicts the "Great Rebellion", while some historians – Marxists such as Christopher Hill – have long favoured the term "English Revolution". The two sides had their geographical strongholds, such that minority elements were fled; the strongholds of the royalty included the countryside, the shires, the less economically developed areas of northern and western England. On the other hand, all the cathedral cities sided with Parliament.
All the industrial centers, the ports, the economically advanced regions of southern and eastern England were parliamentary strongholds. Lacey Baldwin Smith says, "the words populous and rebellious seemed to go hand in hand". Many of the officers and veteran soldiers of the English Civil War studied and implemented war strategies, learned and perfected in other wars across Europe, namely by the Spanish and the Dutch during the Dutch war for independence which began in 1568; the main battle tactic came to be known as pike and shot infantry, in which the two sides would line up, facing each other, with infantry brigades of musketeers in the centre, carrying matchlock muskets. The brigades would arrange themselves in lines of musketeers, three deep, where the first row would kneel, the second would crouch, the third would stand, allowing all three to fire a volley simultaneously. At times there would be two groups of three lines allowing one group to reload while the other group arranged themselves and fired.
Mixed in among the musketeers were pikemen carrying pikes that were between 12 feet and 18 feet long, whose primary purpose was to protect the musketeers from cavalry charges. Positioned on each side of the infantry were the cavalry, with a right-wing led by the lieutenant-general, a left-wing by the commissary general; the Royalist cavaliers' skill and speed on horseback led to many early victories. Prince Rupert, the leader of the king's cavalry, learned a tactic while fighting in the Dutch army where the cavalry would charge at full speed into the opponent's infantry firing their pistols just before impact. However, with Oliver Cromwell and the introduction of the more disciplined New Model Army, a group of disciplined pikemen would stand their ground in the face of charging cavalry and could have a devastating effect. While the Parliamentarian cavalry were slower than the cavaliers, they were better disciplined; the Royalists had a tendency to chase down individual targets after the initial charge leaving their forces scattered and tired.
Cromwell's cavalry, on the other hand, was trained to operate as a single unit, which led to many decisive victories. The English Civil War broke out less than forty years after the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603. Elizabeth's death had resulted in the succession of her first cousin twice-removed, King James VI of Scotland, to the English throne as James I of England, creating the first personal union of the Scottish and English kingdoms; as King of Scots, James had become accustomed to Scotland's weak parliamentary tradition since assuming control of the Scottish government in 1583, so that upon assuming power south of the border, the new King of England was genuinely affronted by the constraints the English Parliament attempted to place on him in exchange for money. In spite of this, James's personal extravagance meant he was perennially short of money and had to resort to extra-Parliamentary sources of income; this extravagance was tempered by James's peaceful disposition, so that by the su
Berkhamsted Place was an English country house, erected sometime around 1580 in Berkhamsted, England. It was built by Sir Edward Carey, the keeper of the Jewels to Queen Elizabeth I from stones removed from Berkhamsted Castle. Several notable residents of Berkhamsted lived in the house and over the years its owners welcomed guests such as King Charles I and William Gladstone; the house was one of two Elizabethan mansions in the town, the other being Egerton House on the High Street, demolished in 1937. Berkhamsted Place survived fire and renovation for over 380 years before it became derelict and was demolished in 1967. Queen Elizabeth I granted the manor of Berkhamsted, along with the lease of Berkhamsted Castle, to her Keeper of the Jewels, Sir Edward Carey, in 1580. Carey was descended from the Carys of Cockington, an ancient Devon family whose lineage went back to Adam de Karry, the first Lord of Castle Karry in Somerset, in the 13th Century. Berkhamsted Castle had, by this stage, fallen into disrepair and the lease of a ruined castle was intended as some sort of royal joke.
Rather than live in the castle grounds, Sir Edward built for himself a mansion house on top of the hill overlooking the castle, purloined stonework from the castle ruins to build his house. Berkhamsted Place was a two-storey building with attics above; the plan of the house was with wings to the north and south-east. The walls were faced with 7-inch square stone chequers of flint and Totternhoe stone with brick additions and a tiled roof. An avenue of lime trees led up the hill to the house. A survey of the house in 1650 by parliamentary commissioners held by the office of the Duchy of Cornwall, described the house thus: According to a survey by the Royal Commission on Historical Monuments in 1910, the house was said to be in "fairly good" condition, although it noted some decay around the stonework of the original windows; the house retained part of the original courtyard house built by Sir Edward Carey, c. 1580, hall on the south-eastern side, built after the 1662 fire, occupied part of the old courtyard between the wings.
The front of the house was brick with an embattled parapet and a porch with a Tudor-style four-centred arched doorway. The survey noted that a commemorative stone could be seen below the drawing-room windows on facing south-east, bearing the inscription "1611" marking the alterations made for Prince Henry when he purchased the house; the rest of the south-eastern side was covered in cement, had several small projections and gables. Much of the original decorative stonework was lost after the 1662 fire but that, preserved could be seen on the north-western side of the house. Here, there were two brick buttresses and two projecting octagonal brick chimneys, added to the building in the 17th Century. At each end of the north side was a plain gable which had a three-light window, stone mullions and a transom, topped with a small stone pediment; the other windows were modern sash windows At the north-eastern end of the house was a stone oriel window. The interior of the house had been altered, but a number of 17th-century features had been retained, including a decoratively carved oak fireplace, another fireplace with plaster decoration, a panelled ceiling, a decorated plaster ceiling with moulded ribs, vine ornaments, heads.
There was an ornate 17th-century wooden staircase with square newels, turned balusters and moulded handrail. Sir Edward Carey's occupation of Berkhamsted Place was brief, he was the first of many tenants of Berkhamsted Place, passing the tenancy on to his son, Sir Henry Carey, to become Lord Falkland and Lord Deputy of Ireland. Various members of the Carey family used the house until 1612, when it was bought by Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales for the sum of £4000. Henry, who died that year, passed the house to his brother, crowned King Charles I. Prince Charles leased the property to his tutor Thomas Murray, Mary Murray, his nurse and had been Lady of the Privy Chamber to the prince's mother, Anne of Denmark, it is known that the young Prince Charles aged sixteen, paid a visit to the Murrays on 14 August 1616, when they spent an afternoon hunting in the estate, Berkhamsted Park. During the reign of Charles I, it is known that some alterations were made to the house, supervised by David Cunningham, 1st Baronet of Auchinhervie.
One of Cunningham's letters to his cousin describes a royal command for him to supervise building work at Berkhamsted Place in 1629 and his account for this survives counter-signed by Thomas Trevor, on behalf of Sir John Trevor, surveyor of works at Windsor Castle. The turbulent events of the English Civil War came to Berkhamsted Place in the 1640s when the Murrays' daughter, Ann Murray, became in a Royalist plot to protect the life of the King's second surviving son, the young Duke of York (who was to become King James II of England, from the Parliamentarian forces. King Charles was executed in 1648, Ann, fearing for her life as a Royalist, fled from Berkhamsted Place. Possession of the house was taken by a Berkhamsted-born soldier in Cromwell's Army, Lieutenant Colonel Daniel Axtell. Aged only 26, Axtell was known for his ruthlessness and had risen in the ranks, having served as Captain of the Parliamentary Guard at the execution of King Charles. Axtell's political fortunes rev
Bank of England
The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based. Established in 1694 to act as the English Government's banker, still one of the bankers for the Government of the United Kingdom, it is the world's eighth-oldest bank, it was owned by stockholders from its foundation in 1694 until it was nationalised in 1946. The Bank became an independent public organisation in 1998, wholly owned by the Treasury Solicitor on behalf of the government, but with independence in setting monetary policy; the Bank is one of eight banks authorised to issue banknotes in the United Kingdom, has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in England and Wales and regulates the issue of banknotes by commercial banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland. The Bank's Monetary Policy Committee has a devolved responsibility for managing monetary policy; the Treasury has reserve powers to give orders to the committee "if they are required in the public interest and by extreme economic circumstances", but such orders must be endorsed by Parliament within 28 days.
The Bank's Financial Policy Committee held its first meeting in June 2011 as a macroprudential regulator to oversee regulation of the UK's financial sector. The Bank's headquarters have been in London's main financial district, the City of London, on Threadneedle Street, since 1734, it is sometimes known as The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street, a name taken from a satirical cartoon by James Gillray in 1797. The road junction outside is known as Bank junction; as a regulator and central bank, the Bank of England has not offered consumer banking services for many years, but it still does manage some public-facing services such as exchanging superseded bank notes. Until 2016, the bank provided personal banking services as a privilege for employees. England's crushing defeat by France, the dominant naval power, in naval engagements culminating in the 1690 Battle of Beachy Head, became the catalyst for England rebuilding itself as a global power. England had no choice. No public funds were available, the credit of William III's government was so low in London that it was impossible for it to borrow the £1,200,000 that the government wanted.
To induce subscription to the loan, the subscribers were to be incorporated by the name of the Governor and Company of the Bank of England. The Bank was given exclusive possession of the government's balances, was the only limited-liability corporation allowed to issue bank notes; the lenders would give the government cash and issue notes against the government bonds, which can be lent again. The £1.2m was raised in 12 days. As a side effect, the huge industrial effort needed, including establishing ironworks to make more nails and advances in agriculture feeding the quadrupled strength of the navy, started to transform the economy; this helped the new Kingdom of Great Britain – England and Scotland were formally united in 1707 – to become powerful. The power of the navy made Britain the dominant world power in the late 18th and early 19th centuries; the establishment of the bank was devised by Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax, in 1694. The plan of 1691, proposed by William Paterson three years before, had not been acted upon.
58 years earlier, in 1636, Financier to the king, Philip Burlamachi, had proposed the same idea in a letter addressed to Sir Francis Windebank. He proposed a loan of £1.2m to the government. The royal charter was granted on 27 July through the passage of the Tonnage Act 1694. Public finances were in such dire condition at the time that the terms of the loan were that it was to be serviced at a rate of 8% per annum, there was a service charge of £4,000 per annum for the management of the loan; the first governor was Sir John Houblon, depicted in the £50 note issued in 1994. The charter was renewed in 1742, 1764, 1781; the Bank's original home was in Walbrook, a street in the City of London, where during reconstruction in 1954 archaeologists found the remains of a Roman temple of Mithras. The Bank moved to its current location in Threadneedle Street in 1734, thereafter acquired neighbouring land to create the site necessary for erecting the Bank's original home at this location, under the direction of its chief architect Sir John Soane, between 1790 and 1827.
When the idea and reality of the national debt came about during the 18th century, this was managed by the Bank. During the American war of independence, business for the Bank was so good that George Washington remained a shareholder throughout the period. By the charter renewal in 1781 it was the bankers' bank – keeping enough gold to pay its notes on demand until 26 February 1797 when war had so diminished gold reserves that – following an invasion scare caused by the Battle of Fishguard days earlier – the government prohibited the Bank from paying out in gold by the passing of the Bank Restriction Act 1797; this prohibition lasted until 1821. The 1844 Bank Charter Act tied the issue of notes to the gold reserves and gave the Bank sol
Wilton House is an English country house at Wilton near Salisbury in Wiltshire. It has been the country seat of the Earls of Pembroke for over 400 years; the first recorded building on the site of Wilton House was a priory founded by King Egbert circa 871. Through the munificence of King Alfred, the priory was granted lands and manors until it became wealthy and powerful. However, by the time Wilton Abbey was dissolved in the Dissolution of the Monasteries set in motion by King Henry VIII, its prosperity was on the wane. Following the seizure of the abbey, Henry presented it and its attached estates to William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke c. 1544. William Herbert, the scion of a distinguished family in the Welsh marches, was a favourite of the king. Following a recommendation to King Henry by King Francis I of France, whom Herbert had served as a soldier of fortune, Herbert was granted arms after only two years. In 1538, Herbert married Anne Parr, daughter of Sir Thomas Parr of Kendal and sister of the future queen consort Catherine Parr and Sir William Parr, 1st Baron Parr of Kendal.
The granting of an estate such as the Abbey of Wilton to Herbert was an accolade and evidence of his position at court. The first grants dated March and April 1542, include the site of the late monastery, the manor of Washerne adjoining the manors of Chalke; these were given to "William Herbert and Anne his wife for the term of their lives with certain reserved rents to King Henry VIII." When Edward VI re-granted the manors to the family, it was explicitly "to the aforenamed Earl, by the name of Sir William Herbert and the Lady Anne his wife and the heirs male of their bodies between them lawfully begotten." Lady Anne had been a joint creator of the enterprise. Herbert began to transform the deserted abbey into a fine house and symbol of his wealth, it had been thought that the old abbey had been demolished. It has long been claimed, without proof, that Hans Holbein the Younger re-designed the abbey as a rectangular house around a central courtyard, the core of the present house. Holbein died in 1543, so his designs for the new house would have had to be speedily executed.
However, the great entrance porch to the new mansion, removed from the house and transformed into a garden pavilion in the 19th century, is to this day known as the "Holbein Porch" — a perfect example of the blending of the older Gothic and the brand-new Renaissance style. If not by Holbein, it is by the hand of a great master. Whoever the architect, a great mansion arose. Today only one other part of the Tudor mansion survives: the great tower in the centre of the east facade. With its central arch and three floors of oriel windows above, the tower is reminiscent of the entrance at Hampton Court. Flanked today by two wings in a loose Georgian style – each topped by an Italianate pavilion tower, this Tudor centrepiece of the facade appears not in the least incongruous displaying the accepted appearance of a great English country house, which has evolved over the centuries; the Tudor house built by William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke, in 1551 lasted 80 years. On the succession of the 4th Earl in 1630, he decided to pull down the southern wing and erect a new complex of staterooms in its place.
It is now that the second great name associated with Wilton appears: Inigo Jones. The architecture of the south front is in severe Palladian style, described at the time as in the "Italian Style. While the remainder of the house is on three floors of equal value in the English style, the south front has a low rusticated ground floor suggesting a semi-basement. Three small porches project at this level only, one at the centre, one at each end of the facade, providing small balconies to the windows above; the next floor is the piano nobile, at its centre the great double-height Venetian window, ornamented at second floor level by the Pembroke arms in stone relief. This central window is flanked by four tall sash windows on each side; these windows have low flat pediments. Each end of the facade is defined by "corner stone" decoration giving a suggestion that the single-bay wings project forward; the single windows here are topped by a true pointed pediment. Above this floor is a further mezzanine floor, its small unpedimented windows aligning with the larger below, serve to emphasise the importance of the piano nobile.
The roofline is hidden by a balustrade. Each of the terminating'wings' is crowned by a one-storey, pedimented tower resembling a Palladian pavilion. At the time, his style was an innovation. Just thirty years earlier, Montacute House, exemplifying the English Renaissance, had been revolutionary. Attributing the various architectural stages can be difficult, the degree to which Inigo Jones was involved has been questioned. Queen Henrietta Maria, a frequent guest at Wilton, interrogated Jones about his work there. At the time he was employed by her, it seems at this time Jones was too busy with his royal clients and did no more than provide a few sketches for a mansion, which he delegated for execution to an assistant Isaac de Caus, a Frenchman and landscape gardener from Diepp
Duke of Newcastle
Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne is a title, created three times. The related title Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme has been created once to provide a more remote special remainder; the title first was conferred in 1665. He was a prominent Royalist commander in the Civil War, he had been elevated as Viscount Mansfield in 1620, Baron Cavendish of Bolsover and Earl of Newcastle upon Tyne in 1621 and Marquess of the latter in 1643, was created Earl of Ogle as main subsidiary title to the dukedom to be used as a courtesy style for his heir presumptive. The titles became extinct in 1988, a year that saw the deaths of the distantly related ninth and tenth Dukes of Newcastle under Lyme. Family backgroundCavendish was the son of Sir Charles Cavendish, third son of Sir William Cavendish and his wife Bess of Hardwick. William Cavendish, 1st Earl of Devonshire, was his uncle. Sir Charles Cavendish married as his second wife Catherine Ogle, 8th Baroness Ogle, daughter of Cuthbert Ogle, 7th Baron. Details of first creationIn 1629 their namesake succeeded as ninth Baron Ogle.
He was succeeded by his son, the second Duke a politician. His only son and heir apparent Henry Cavendish, Earl of Ogle, predeceased him. On the latter's death in 1691 all the titles became extinct, except the barony of Ogle which fell into abeyance between his four daughters. Details of second creationOne of these daughters, Lady Margaret, married John Holles, 4th Earl of Clare. In 1694 the dukedom was revived when he was created Marquess of Clare and Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne; the Holles family descended from John Holles, created Baron Haughton, of Haughton in Nottinghamshire, in 1616, Earl of Clare in 1624. His second son was a politician Denzil Holles, 1st Baron Holles. Lord Clare was succeeded by the second Earl, he served as Lord Lieutenant. His son, the third Earl, was MP for Nottinghamshire in 1660, he was succeeded by his son, the aforementioned fourth Earl, raised to Duke in 1694. Third creation and Newcastle-under-Lyne additional title with special remainder The Duke's sister, Lady Grace Holles, married Thomas Pelham, 1st Baron Pelham.
On his uncle's death in 1711 their eldest son succeeded to the substantial Holles estates and assumed by Royal Licence the additional surname and arms of Holles. In 1714 the earldom of Clare was revived when he was created Viscount Haughton, Earl of Clare, with remainder to his younger brother Henry Pelham, the following year the dukedom was revived when he was made Marquess of Clare and Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne, with like special remainder; these titles were in the Peerage of Great Britain. In 1756 when his brother died without male issue and it was evident that the Duke would have no children the Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne was additionally created Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne in Staffordshire with a different special remainder: to his nephew-by-marriage Henry Clinton, 9th Earl of Lincoln who took on the additional surname Pelham. For history of this title from the 1768 inheritance upon the 1st Duke's death, see Earl of Lincoln, his other titles became extinct except for the Pelham baronetcy and the barony of Pelham, which devolved to his first cousin once-removed, Thomas Pelham.
Extensive personal and estate papers of the Dukes are held in the Portland and Newcastle collections at the University of Nottingham's Department of Manuscripts and Special Collections. Also Marquess of Newcastle upon Tyne, Earl of Newcastle upon Tyne, Viscount Mansfield and Baron Ogle William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle was a Cavalier commander in the English Civil War Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle, only surviving son of the 1st Duke, died without surviving male issue Baron Haughton John Holles, 1st Earl of Clare was Comptroller of the Household to Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales John Holles, 2nd Earl of Clare, eldest son of the 1st Earl Gilbert Holles, 3rd Earl of Clare, second son of the 2nd Earl John Holles, 4th Earl of Clare, eldest son of the 3rd Earl, was created Duke in 1694 married Lady Margaret Cavendish, daughter of Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of the first creation Earl of Clare and Baron Haughton John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle died without male issue, his titles became extinct Earl of Clare, Baron Pelham of Laughton, Baron Pelham of Stanmer and Pelham Baronet, of Laughton Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, Prime Minister twice, a nephew of John Holles, 1st Duke of the second creation, died without male issue.
At this point his father's baronetcy and barony of 1706, his own earldom and dukedom of 1715 became extinct. 1st Duke: Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Earl of Clare, Baron Pelham of Laughton, Baron Pelham of Stanmer and Pelham Baronet, of Laughton Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme was granted this second Newcastle dukedom, with remainder to his nephew Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, 9th Earl of Lincoln, 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme, nephew of the 1st Duke Geo