A prison known as a correctional facility, gaol, detention center, remand center, or internment facility, is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state. Prisons are most used within a criminal justice system: people charged with crimes may be imprisoned until their trial. In simplest terms, a prison can be described as a building in which people are held as a punishment for a crime they have committed. Prisons can be used as a tool of political repression by authoritarian regimes, their perceived opponents may be imprisoned for political crimes without trial or other legal due process. In times of war, prisoners of war or detainees may be detained in military prisons or prisoner of war camps, large groups of civilians might be imprisoned in internment camps. In American English and jail are treated as having separate definitions; the term prison or penitentiary tends to describe institutions that incarcerate people for longer periods of time, such as many years, are operated by the state or federal governments.
The term jail tends to describe institutions for confining people for shorter periods of time and are operated by local governments. Outside of North America and jail have the same meaning. Common slang terms for a prison include: "the pokey", "the slammer", "the can", "the clink", "the joint", "the calaboose", "the hoosegow" and "the big house". Slang terms for imprisonment include: "behind bars", "in stir" and "up the river"; the use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social organization. Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of written language, which enabled the creation of formalized legal codes as official guidelines for society; the best known of these early legal codes is the Code of Hammurabi, written in Babylon around 1750 BC. The penalties for violations of the laws in Hammurabi's Code were exclusively centered on the concept of lex talionis, whereby people were punished as a form of vengeance by the victims themselves; this notion of punishment as vengeance or retaliation can be found in many other legal codes from early civilizations, including the ancient Sumerian codes, the Indian Manusmriti, the Hermes Trismegistus of Egypt, the Israelite Mosaic Law.
Some Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Plato, began to develop ideas of using punishment to reform offenders instead of using it as retribution. Imprisonment as a penalty was used for those who could not afford to pay their fines. Since impoverished Athenians could not pay their fines, leading to indefinite periods of imprisonment, time limits were set instead; the prison in Ancient Athens was known as the desmoterion. The Romans were among the first to use prisons as a form of punishment, rather than for detention. A variety of existing structures were used to house prisoners, such as metal cages, basements of public buildings, quarries. One of the most notable Roman prisons was the Mamertine Prison, established around 640 B. C. by Ancus Marcius. The Mamertine Prison was located within a sewer system beneath ancient Rome and contained a large network of dungeons where prisoners were held in squalid conditions, contaminated with human waste. Forced labor on public works projects was a common form of punishment.
In many cases, citizens were sentenced to slavery in ergastula. During the Middle Ages in Europe, castles and the basements of public buildings were used as makeshift prisons; the possession of the right and the capability to imprison citizens, granted an air of legitimacy to officials at all levels of government, from kings to regional courts to city councils. Another common punishment was sentencing people to galley slavery, which involved chaining prisoners together in the bottoms of ships and forcing them to row on naval or merchant vessels. From the late 17th century and during the 18th century, popular resistance to public execution and torture became more widespread both in Europe and in the United States. Under the Bloody Code, with few sentencing alternatives, imposition of the death penalty for petty crimes, such as theft, was proving unpopular with the public. Rulers began looking for means to punish and control their subjects in a way that did not cause people to associate them with spectacles of tyrannical and sadistic violence.
They developed systems of mass incarceration with hard labor, as a solution. The prison reform movement that arose at this time was influenced by two somewhat contradictory philosophies; the first was based in Enlightenment ideas of utilitarianism and rationalism, suggested that prisons should be used as a more effective substitute for public corporal punishments such as whipping, etc. This theory, referred to as deterrence, claims tha
York Castle is a fortified complex in the city of York, England. It has comprised a sequence of castles, law courts and other buildings, which were built over the last nine centuries on the south side of the River Foss; the now-ruinous keep of the medieval Norman castle is referred to as Clifford's Tower. Built on the orders of William I to dominate the former Viking city of York, the castle suffered a tumultuous early history before developing into a major fortification with extensive water defences. After a major explosion in 1684 rendered the remaining military defences uninhabitable, York Castle continued to be used as a jail and prison until 1929; the first motte and bailey castle on the site was built in 1068 following the Norman conquest of York. After the destruction of the castle by rebels and a Viking army in 1069, York Castle was rebuilt and reinforced with extensive water defences, including a moat and an artificial lake. York Castle formed an important royal fortification in the north of England.
In 1190, 150 local Jews were killed in a pogrom in the castle keep. Henry III rebuilt the castle in stone in the middle of the 13th century, creating a keep with a unique quatrefoil design, supported by an outer bailey wall and a substantial gatehouse. During the Scottish wars between 1298 and 1338, York Castle was used as the centre of royal administration across England, as well as an important military base of operations. York Castle fell into disrepair by the 15th and 16th centuries, becoming used as a jail for both local felons and political prisoners. By the time of Elizabeth I the castle was estimated to have lost all of its military value but was maintained as a centre of royal authority in York; the outbreak of the English Civil War in 1642 saw York Castle being repaired and refortified, playing a part in the Royalist defence of York in 1644 against Parliamentary forces. York Castle continued to be garrisoned until 1684, when an explosion destroyed the interior of Clifford's Tower; the castle bailey was redeveloped in a neoclassical style in the 18th century as a centre for county administration in Yorkshire, was used as a jail and debtors' prison.
Prison reform in the 19th century led to the creation of a new prison built in a Tudor Gothic style on the castle site in 1825. By the 20th century the ruin of Clifford's Tower had become a well-known tourist destination and national monument; the other remaining buildings serve as the Crown Court. York was a Viking capital in the 10th century, continued as an important northern city in the 11th century. In 1068, on William the Conqueror's first northern expedition after the Norman Conquest, he built a number of castles across the north-east of England, including one at York; this first castle at York was a basic wooden motte and bailey castle built between the rivers Ouse and Foss on the site of the present-day York Castle. It was built in haste; the motte was around 200 feet wide at the base. As it was built in an urban environment, hundreds of houses had to be destroyed to make way for the development. William Malet, the sheriff of Yorkshire, was placed in charge of the castle and defended it against an immediate uprising by the local population.
In response to the worsening security situation, William conducted his second northern campaign in 1069. He built another castle in York, on what is now Baile Hill on the west bank of the Ouse opposite the first castle, in an effort to improve his control over the city; this second castle was a motte and bailey design, with the Baile Hill motte reached by a horizontal bridge and steps cut up the side of the motte. That year, a Danish Viking fleet sailed up to York along the Humber and the Ouse, attacked both castles with the assistance of Cospatrick of Northumbria and a number of local rebels; the Normans, attempting to drive the rebels back, set fire to some of the city's houses. The fire grew out of control and set fire to York Minster and, some argue, the castles as well; the castles were captured and dismantled, Malet was taken hostage by the Danes. William conducted a widespread sequence of punitive operations across the north of England in the aftermath of the attacks in 1069 and 1070; this "Harrying of the North" restored sufficient order to allow the rebuilding of the two castles, again in wood.
The bailey at York Castle was enlarged in the process. By the time Domesday Book was written in 1086, York Castle was surrounded by a water-filled moat and a large artificial lake called the King's Pool, fed from the river Foss by a dam built for the purpose. More property, including two watermills, had to be destroyed to make way for the water defences. Over time the Baile Hill site was abandoned in favour of the first castle site, leaving only the motte, which still exists. Henry II visited York Castle four times during his reign; the royal chambers at the time were inside the keep for safety, Henry paid £15 for repairs to the keep. During his 1175 visit, Henry used the castle as the base for receiving the homage of William the Lion of Scotland. Castle mills were built close by to support the garrison, the military order of the Knights Templar was granted ownership of the mills in the mid-12th century; the m
Henry III of England
Henry III known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death. The son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême, Henry assumed the throne when he was only nine in the middle of the First Barons' War. Cardinal Guala declared the war against the rebel barons to be a religious crusade and Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich in 1217. Henry promised to abide by the Great Charter of 1225, which limited royal power and protected the rights of the major barons, his early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh and Peter des Roches, who re-established royal authority after the war. In 1230, the King attempted to reconquer the provinces of France that had once belonged to his father, but the invasion was a debacle. A revolt led by William Marshal's son, broke out in 1232, ending in a peace settlement negotiated by the Church. Following the revolt, Henry ruled England rather than governing through senior ministers.
He travelled less than previous monarchs, investing in a handful of his favourite palaces and castles. He married Eleanor of Provence, with. Henry was known for his piety, holding lavish religious ceremonies and giving generously to charities, he extracted huge sums of money from the Jews in England crippling their ability to do business, as attitudes towards the Jews hardened, he introduced the Statute of Jewry, attempting to segregate the community. In a fresh attempt to reclaim his family's lands in France, he invaded Poitou in 1242, leading to the disastrous Battle of Taillebourg. After this, Henry relied on diplomacy, cultivating an alliance with Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry supported his brother Richard in his bid to become King of the Romans in 1256, but was unable to place his own son Edmund on the throne of Sicily, despite investing large amounts of money, he was prevented from doing so by rebellions in Gascony. By 1258, Henry's rule was unpopular, the result of the failure of his expensive foreign policies and the notoriety of his Poitevin half-brothers, the Lusignans, as well as the role of his local officials in collecting taxes and debts.
A coalition of his barons probably backed by Eleanor, seized power in a coup d'état and expelled the Poitevins from England, reforming the royal government through a process called the Provisions of Oxford. Henry and the baronial government enacted a peace with France in 1259, under which Henry gave up his rights to his other lands in France in return for King Louis IX recognising him as the rightful ruler of Gascony; the baronial regime collapsed but Henry was unable to reform a stable government and instability across England continued. In 1263, one of the more radical barons, Simon de Montfort, seized power, resulting in the Second Barons' War. Henry mobilised an army; the Battle of Lewes occurred in 1264, where Henry was taken prisoner. Henry's eldest son, escaped from captivity to defeat de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham the following year and freed his father. Henry enacted a harsh revenge on the remaining rebels, but was persuaded by the Church to mollify his policies through the Dictum of Kenilworth.
Reconstruction was slow and Henry had to acquiesce to various measures, including further suppression of the Jews, to maintain baronial and popular support. Henry died in 1272, he was buried in Westminster Abbey, which he had rebuilt in the second half of his reign, was moved to his current tomb in 1290. Some miracles were declared after his death. Henry was born in Winchester Castle on 1 October 1207, he was the eldest son of King Isabella of Angoulême. Little is known of Henry's early life, he was looked after by a wet nurse called Ellen in the south of England, away from John's itinerant court, had close ties to his mother. Henry had four legitimate younger brothers and sisters – Richard, Joan and Eleanor – and various older illegitimate siblings. In 1212 his education was entrusted to the Bishop of Winchester. Little is known about Henry's appearance. Henry grew up to show flashes of a fierce temper, but as historian David Carpenter describes, he had an "amiable, easy-going, sympathetic" personality.
He was unaffected and honest, showed his emotions easily being moved to tears by religious sermons. At the start of the 13th century, the Kingdom of England formed part of the Angevin Empire spreading across Western Europe. Henry was named after his grandfather, Henry II, who had built up this vast network of lands stretching from Scotland and Wales, through England, across the English Channel to the territories of Normandy, Brittany and Anjou in north-west France, onto Poitou and Gascony in the south-west. For many years the French Crown was weak, enabling first Henry II, his sons Richard and John, to dominate France. In 1204, John lost Normandy, Brittany and Anjou to Philip II of France, leaving English power on the continent limited to Gascony and Poitou. John raised taxes to pay for military campaigns to regain his lands, but unrest grew among many of the English
The River Witham is a river entirely in the county of Lincolnshire in the east of England. It rises south of Grantham close to South Witham at SK8818, passes Lincoln at SK9771 and at Boston, TF3244, flows into The Haven, a tidal arm of The Wash, near RSPB Frampton Marsh; the name "Witham" seems to be old and of unknown origin. Archaeological and documentary evidence shows the importance of the Witham as a navigable river from the Iron Age onwards. From Roman times it was navigable to Lincoln, from where the Fossdyke was constructed to link it to the River Trent; the mouth of the river moved in 1014 following severe flooding, Boston became important as a port. From 1142 onwards, sluices were constructed to prevent flooding by the sea, this culminated in the Great Sluice, constructed in 1766, it maintained river levels above Boston, helped to scour the channel below it. The land through which the lower river runs has been the subject of much land drainage, many drains are connected to the Witham by flood doors, which block them off if river levels rise rapidly.
The river is navigable from Brayford Pool in Lincoln to Boston. Its locks are at Lincoln and the Grand/Great Sluice. Passage through the latter is restricted to 12-hour intervals during daylight when the tidal levels are suitable; the river provides access for boaters to the Witham Navigable Drains, to the north of Boston, to the South Forty-Foot Drain to the south, reopened as part of the Fens Waterways Link, a project to link the river to the Nene flowing through the city of Peterborough. From Brayford Pool the Fossdyke Navigation links to the Trent; the Witham's course is one of the strangest of British rivers, the result of glaciation redirecting older rivers. The source of the river is on high ground near South Witham, from whence it flows north close to and parallel with the Trent around the outskirts of Newark, before turning east towards Lincoln; the upper waters are important for agricultural water extraction, for coarse fish such as roach, common bream and pike. A gap in the limestone scarp near Ancaster may represent an earlier course of the River Trent towards Boston, but is now occupied by the River Slea.
For about 3 miles from near Claypole to Beckingham, the river forms the boundary between Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire. From North Witham to Long Bennington, the A1 road follows the line of the river, which it crosses near Easton. In Lincoln, the river flows into Brayford Pool and exits along a narrow channel that passes under the medieval High Bridge; the bridge not only restricts navigation due to its small size, but the volume of water that can pass through the gap is limited in times of flood. This is alleviated by the Sincil Dyke, which leaves the main channel at Bargate Weir and runs for 1.5 miles through the industrial areas to the south of the main city centre. It used to rejoin the main channel at Stamp End, but was re-routed into the South Delph, a drainage ditch constructed by John Rennie in the early 19th century that joins the main channel below Bardney lock; the origins of the Sincil Dyke are unknown, but it is known to have been used as a drainage channel in the mid-13th century and is thought to be pre-medieval or Roman.
Parts of it were culverted in 1847 to allow the construction of Lincoln Central railway station. From Lincoln, the river again turns first east south, making a cut through a belt of upland known as the Lincoln Gap; this section has again been suggested as a lower course of the Trent during and before periods of glaciation. From Dogdyke near Coningsby to Boston, the north bank of the river was used by a section of the Great Northern Railway from Lincoln to Boston. A long-distance footpath, the Water Rail Way, follows the course of the river from Lincoln to Boston; the path uses sections of the river towpath and abandoned railway tracks, has been opened in stages, with the final 2 miles being completed in September 2008. The path is now part of Route 1 of the National Cycle Network and features a number of sculptures along its length, each commissioned from local artists, they include Lincoln longwool sheep at Stixwould, Lincoln Red cows at Washingborough, Lincoln curly pigs, which became extinct in 1972, at Southrey.
The name "Witham" seems to be old predating Anglo-Saxon and Celtic influence. The meaning is not known. Archaeological evidence points to river navigation as far back as the Iron Age. Artefacts such as the Witham Shield and Fiskerton Boat have been recovered and are on display at the British Museum in London or The Collection in Lincoln; the Witham, tidal up to Lincoln, was an important navigation in Roman times. Lincoln —the meeting point of Ermine Street, joining London to York, Fosse Way, leading to Leicester and Bath—was an important Roman fort that became one of only four colonia in Britain. Most important Roman cities were situated near navigable water, which enabled goods to be transported in bulk, but Lincoln did not possess this advantage, so the Romans constructed the Fossdyke from Lincoln to Torksey on the River Trent, improved the River Witham from Lincoln to The Wash, built the Car Dyke from Lincoln to the River Cam near Cambridge; the Witham thus gave Lincoln access to the east coast, while the Fossdyke gave access to the Trent and further on to the Humber.
Trading continued throughout the medieval period evidenced by the importance of Torksey, a flourishing town, now only a small village. However, the Fossdyke needed much maintenance to keep it clear of silt. Henry I had overseen the scouri
Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln Minster, or the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln and sometimes St Mary's Cathedral, in Lincoln, England, is the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Lincoln. Construction continued in several phases throughout the medieval period. Like many of the medieval cathedrals of England it was built in the Gothic style, it was the tallest building in the world for 238 years, the first building to hold that title after the Great Pyramid of Giza. The central spire was not rebuilt. For hundreds of years the cathedral held one of the four remaining copies of the original Magna Carta, now securely displayed in Lincoln Castle; the cathedral is the fourth largest in the UK at around 5,000 square metres, after Liverpool, St Paul's and York Minster. It is regarded by architectural scholars. Remigius de Fécamp, the first Bishop of Lincoln, moved the episcopal seat there "some time between 1072 and 1092" About this, James Essex writes that "Remigius... laid the foundations of his Cathedral in 1072" and "it is probable that he, being a Norman, employed Norman masons to superintend the building... though he could not complete the whole before his death."
Before that, writes B. Winkles, "It is well known that Remigius appropriated the parish church of St Mary Magdalene in Lincoln, although it is not known what use he made of it." Up until St. Mary's Church in Stow was considered to be the "mother church" of Lincolnshire. However, Lincoln was more central to a diocese. Remigius built the first Lincoln Cathedral on the present site, finishing it in 1092 and dying on 7 May of that year, two days before it was consecrated. In 1124, the timber roofing was destroyed in a fire. Alexander rebuilt and expanded the cathedral, but it was destroyed by an earthquake about forty years in 1185; the earthquake was one of the largest felt in the UK: it has an estimated magnitude of over 5. The damage to the cathedral is thought to have been extensive: the Cathedral is described as having "split from top to bottom"; some have suggested that the damage to Lincoln Cathedral was exaggerated by poor construction or design. After the earthquake, a new bishop was appointed.
He was Hugh de Burgundy of Avalon, who became known as St Hugh of Lincoln. He began a massive expansion programme. With his appointment of William de Montibus as master of the cathedral school and chancellor, Lincoln became one of the leading educational centres in England, producing writers such as Samuel Presbiter and Richard of Wetheringsett, though it declined with importance after William's death in 1213. Rebuilding began with the choir and the eastern transepts between 1192 and 1210; the central nave was built in the Early English Gothic style. Lincoln Cathedral soon followed other architectural advances of the time — pointed arches, flying buttresses and ribbed vaulting were added to the cathedral; this allowed support for incorporating larger windows. There are thirteen bells in the south-west tower, two in the north-west tower, five in the central tower. Accompanying the cathedral's large bell, Great Tom of Lincoln, is a quarter-hour striking clock; the clock was installed in the early 19th century.
The two large stained glass rose windows, the matching Dean's Eye and Bishop's Eye, were added to the cathedral during the late Middle Ages. The former, the Dean's Eye in the north transept dates from the 1192 rebuild begun by St Hugh being completed in 1235; the latter, the Bishop's Eye, in the south transept was reconstructed a hundred years in 1330. A contemporary record, “The Metrical Life of St Hugh”, refers to the meaning of these two windows: "For north represents the devil, south the Holy Spirit and it is in these directions that the two eyes look; the bishop the dean the north in order to shun. With these Eyes the cathedral's face is on watch for the candelabra of Heaven and the darkness of Lethe." After the additions of the Dean's eye and other major Gothic additions it is believed some mistakes in the support of the tower occurred, for in 1237 the main tower collapsed. A new tower was soon started and in 1255 the Cathedral petitioned Henry III to allow them to take down part of the town wall to enlarge and expand the Cathedral, including the rebuilding of the central tower and spire.
They replaced the small rounded chapels with a larger east end to the cathedral. This was to handle the increasing number of pilgrims to the Cathedral, who came to worship at the shrine of Hugh of Lincoln. In 1290 Eleanor of Castile died and King Edward I of England decided to honour her, his Queen Consort, with an elegant funeral procession. After her body had been embalmed, which in the 13th century involved evisceration, Eleanor's viscera were bur
A paddle steamer is a steamship or riverboat powered by a steam engine that drives paddle wheels to propel the craft through the water. In antiquity, paddle wheelers followed the development of poles and sails, where the first uses were wheelers driven by animals or humans. In the early 19th century, paddle wheels were the predominant way of propulsion for steam-powered boats. In the late 19th century, paddle propulsion was superseded by the screw propeller and other marine propulsion systems that have a higher efficiency in rough or open water. Paddle wheels continue to be used by small pedal-powered paddle boats and by some ships that operate tourist voyages; the latter are powered by diesel engines. The paddle wheel is a large steel framework wheel; the outer edge of the wheel is fitted with regularly-spaced paddle blades. The bottom quarter or so of the wheel travels underwater. An engine rotates the paddle wheel in the water to produce backward as required. More advanced paddle wheel designs feature feathering methods that keep each paddle blade closer to vertical while in the water to increase efficiency.
The upper part of a paddle wheel is enclosed in a paddlebox to minimise splashing. There are two types of paddle wheel steamer, a sternwheeler with a single wheel on the rear, a sidewheeler with one on each side. Both were used as riverboats in the United States; some still operate for example on the Mississippi River. Although the first sternwheelers were invented in Europe, they saw the most service in North America on the Mississippi River. Enterprise was built at Brownsville, Pennsylvania, in 1814 as an improvement over the less efficient side wheelers; the second sternwheeler built, Washington of 1816, had two decks and served as the prototype for all subsequent steamboats of the Mississippi, including those made famous in Mark Twain's book Life on the Mississippi. Sidewheelers are used as coastal craft. Though the side wheels and enclosing sponsons make them wider than sternwheelers, they may be more maneuverable, since they can sometimes move the paddles at different speeds, in opposite directions.
This extra maneuverability makes sidewheelers popular on the narrower, winding rivers of the Murray-Darling system in Australia, where a number still operate. European sidewheelers, such as PS Waverley, connect the wheels with solid drive shafts that limit maneuverability and give the craft a wide turning radius; some were built with paddle clutches that disengage one or both paddles so they can turn independently. However, wisdom gained from early experience with sidewheelers deemed that they be operated with clutches out, or as solid shaft vessels. Crews noticed that as ships approached the dock, passengers moved to the side of the ship ready to disembark; the shift in weight, added to independent movements of the paddles, could lead to imbalance and potential capsizing. Paddle tugs were operated with clutches in, as the lack of passengers aboard meant that independent paddle movement could be used safely and the added maneuverability exploited to the full. In a simple paddle wheel, where the paddles are fixed around the periphery, power is lost due to churning of the water as the paddles enter and leave the water surface.
Ideally, the paddles should remain vertical while under water. This ideal can be approximated by use of linkages connected to a fixed eccentric; the eccentric is fixed forward of the main wheel centre. It is coupled to each paddle via a lever; the geometry is designed such that the paddles are kept vertical for the short duration that they are in the water. The use of a paddle wheel in navigation appears for the first time in the mechanical treatise of the Roman engineer Vitruvius, where he describes multi-geared paddle wheels working as a ship odometer; the first mention of paddle wheels as a means of propulsion comes from the 4th–5th century military treatise De Rebus Bellicis, where the anonymous Roman author describes an ox-driven paddle-wheel warship: The Italian physician Guido da Vigevano, planning for a new crusade, made illustrations for a paddle boat, propelled by manually turned compound cranks. One of the drawings of the Anonymous Author of the Hussite Wars shows a boat with a pair of paddle-wheels at each end turned by men operating compound cranks.
The concept was improved by the Italian Roberto Valturio in 1463, who devised a boat with five sets, where the parallel cranks are all joined to a single power source by one connecting-rod, an idea adopted by his compatriot Francesco di Giorgio. In 1704, the French physicist Denis Papin constructed the first ship powered by his steam engine, mechanically linked to paddles; this made him the first to construct a steam-powered boat. He has poured the first steam cylinder of the world in the iron foundry Veckerhagen. In 1787 Patrick Miller of Dalswinton invented a double-hulled boat, propelled on the Firth of Forth by men working a capstan that drove paddles on each side. One of the firsts functioning steamships, Palmipède, the first paddle steamer, was built in France in 1774 by Marquis Claude de Jouffroy and his colleagues; the 13-metre steamer with rotating paddles sailed on the Doubs River in June and July 1776. In 1783 a new paddle steamer by de Jouffroy, Pyroscaphe steamed up the river Saône for fifteen minutes before the engine failed.
Bureaucracy and the French Revolution thwarted further progress by de Jouffroy. The next successful attempt at a paddle-driven steam ship was by the Scottish engineer William Symington, who suggested steam power to Patrick Mi
Norwich is a historic city in Norfolk, England. Situated on the River Wensum in East Anglia, it lies 100 miles north-east of London, it is the county town of Norfolk and is considered the capital of East Anglia, with a population of 141,300. From the Middle Ages until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, one of the most important; the city is the most complete medieval city in the UK, including cobbled streets such as Elm Hill, Timber Hill and Tombland, ancient buildings such as St Andrew's Hall, half-timbered houses such as Dragon Hall, The Guildhall and Strangers' Hall, the Art Nouveau of the 1899 Royal Arcade, many medieval lanes and the winding River Wensum that flows through the city centre towards Norwich Castle. The city has two universities, the University of East Anglia and the Norwich University of the Arts, two cathedrals, Norwich Cathedral and St John the Baptist Cathedral. Norwich is the only city containing part of a National Park, the Norfolk Broads, it holds the largest permanent undercover market in Europe.
The urban area of Norwich had a population of 213,166 according to the 2011 Census. The parliamentary seats cross over into adjacent local-government districts. A total of 132,512 people live in the City of Norwich and the population of the Norwich Travel to Work Area is 282,000. Norwich is the fourth most densely populated local-government district in the East of England, with 3,480 people per square kilometre. In May 2012, Norwich was designated England's first UNESCO City of Literature. One of the UK's most popular tourist destinations, it was voted by The Guardian in 2016 as the "happiest city to work in the UK" and in 2013 as one of the best small cities in the world by The Times Good University Guide. In 2018, Norwich was voted one of the "Best Places To Live" in the UK by The Sunday Times; the capital of the Iceni tribe was a settlement located near to the village of Caistor St. Edmund on the River Tas 8 kilometres to the south of modern-day Norwich. Following an uprising led by Boudica around AD 60 the Caistor area became the Roman capital of East Anglia named Venta Icenorum "the marketplace of the Iceni".
The Roman settlement fell into disuse around 450 and the Anglo-Saxons settled on the site of the modern city between the 5th and 7th centuries, founding the towns of Northwic and the secondary settlement at Thorpe. According to a local rhyme, the demise of Venta Icenorum led to the development of Norwich: "Caistor was a city when Norwich was none, Norwich was built of Caistor stone." There are two suggested models of development for Norwich. It is possible that three separate early Anglo-Saxon settlements, one on the north of the river and two either side on the south, joined together as they grew or that one Anglo-Saxon settlement, on the north of the river, emerged in the mid-7th century after the abandonment of the previous three; the ancient city was a thriving centre for trade and commerce in East Anglia in 1004 when it was raided and burnt by Swein Forkbeard the Viking king of Denmark. Mercian coins and shards of pottery from the Rhineland dating from the 8th century suggest that long-distance trade was happening long before this.
Between 924 and 939, Norwich became established as a town, with its own mint. The word Norvic appears on coins across Europe minted during this period, in the reign of King Athelstan; the Vikings were a strong cultural influence in Norwich for 40 to 50 years at the end of the 9th century, setting up an Anglo-Scandinavian district near the north end of present day King Street. At the time of the Norman Conquest the city was one of the largest in England; the Domesday Book states that it had 25 churches and a population of between 5,000 and 10,000. It records the site of an Anglo-Saxon church in Tombland, the site of the Saxon market place and the Norman cathedral. Norwich continued to be a major centre for trade, the River Wensum being a convenient export route to the River Yare and Great Yarmouth, which served as the port for Norwich. Quern stones and other artefacts from Scandinavia and the Rhineland have been found during excavations in Norwich city centre; these date from the 11th century onwards.
Norwich Castle was founded soon after the Norman Conquest. The Domesday Book records; the Normans established a new focus of settlement around the Castle and the area to the west of it: this became known as the "New" or "French" borough, centred on the Normans' own market place which survives to the present day as Norwich Market. In 1096, Herbert de Losinga, Bishop of Thetford, began construction of Norwich Cathedral; the chief building material for the Cathedral was limestone. To transport the building stone to the site, a canal was cut from the river, all the way up to the east wall. Herbert de Losinga moved his See there to what became the cathedral church for the Diocese of Norwich; the Bishop of Norwich still signs himself Norvic. Norwich received a royal charter from Henry II in 1158, another one from Richard the Lionheart in 1194. Following a riot in the city in 1274, Norwich has the distinction of being the only complete English city to be excommunicated by the Pope; the first recorded presence of Jews in Norwich is 1134.
In 1144, the Jews of Norwich were accused of ritual murder after a boy was found dead with stab wounds. William acquired the status of martyr